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Voice of America, 97-11-11

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] BALKAN TRAIN (L ONLY) BY ART CHIMES (PRAGUE)
  • [02] BOSNIA - CROATIA (L ONLY) BY ART CHIMES (PRAGUE)
  • [03] BRITAIN / EURO BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)
  • [04] CYPRUS / HOLBROOKE (L) BY AL PESSIN (NICOSIA)
  • [05] EURO / GERMANY / FRANCE BY KYLE KING (BONN)
  • [06] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)
  • [07] KLAUS ON EURO (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)
  • [08] NY ECON WRAP (S-ONLY) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [09] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] BALKAN TRAIN (L ONLY) BY ART CHIMES (PRAGUE)

    DATE=11/11/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-222486
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A CROATIAN TRAIN TRAVELLED TO YUGOSLAVIA (TUESDAY) FOR THE FIRST TIME IN SIX YEARS, AS THE SLOW WORK OF NORMALIZATION CONTINUES IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES COULD NOT MAKE THE TRIP, SO HE FILED THIS REPORT FROM OUR BUREAU IN PRAGUE.

    TEXT: THE RENEWED RAIL SERVICE HAS SYMBOLIC SIGNIFICANCE IN THE TROUBLED FORMER YUGOSLAVIA AS WELL AS TANGIBLE COMMERCIAL IMPORTANCE FOR SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE.

    SERBIA'S TRANSPORT MINISTER (SVETOLIK KOSTADINOVIC) WAS QUOTED AS SAYING THE RESTORATION OF RAIL TRAFFIC BETWEEN CROATIA AND YUGOSLAVIA IS VITAL FOR ALL BALKAN COUNTRIES AND FOR EUROPE AS A WHOLE.

    THE DAILY PASSENGER AND FREIGHT SERVICE FOR NOW INCLUDES TWO SHORT ROUTES ACROSS THE BORDER. THE LINES ARE PART OF THE KEY LINK BETWEEN BELGRADE AND ZAGREB, WHICH HAS BEEN CLOSED SINCE 1991 WHEN FIGHTING BROKE OUT IN CROATIA AMID THE COLLAPSE OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. SERVICE IS EXPECTED TO BE EXTENDED TO LINK THE TWO CAPITAL CITIES SOMETIME NEXT YEAR.

    AS A TANGIBLE CONNECTION BETWEEN CROATIA AND YUGOSLAVIA, THE NEW TRAIN SERVICE REPRESENTS ANOTHER IMPROVEMENT IN RELATIONS BETWEEN BELGRADE AND ZAGREB. BUT PROGRESS REMAINS SLOW, HAMPERED BY DIFFICULT ISSUES SUCH AS DIVISION OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA'S ASSETS AND PROTECTION OF MINORITIES.

    THE BALKAN WAR DISRUPTED WHAT HAD BEEN ONE OF THE BUSIEST RAILROAD CORRIDORS IN EUROPE, CONNECTING GREECE AND TURKEY WITH WESTERN EUROPE. IF SERVICE CAN BE RESTORED THROUGHOUT THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, IT COULD HELP REBUILD THE ECONOMY THERE WITH REVENUE FROM INTERNATIONAL TRAINS, AND IT WOULD HELP REVITALIZE COMMERCE AFTER YEARS OF DISRUPTION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/JWH/RAE
    11-Nov-97 9:59 AM EST (1459 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] BOSNIA - CROATIA (L ONLY) BY ART CHIMES (PRAGUE)

    DATE=11/11/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-222476
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, THE TOP MUSLIM POLITICAL LEADER HAS REJECTED A CROATIAN PROPOSAL FOR BETTER BILATERAL RELATIONS. CORESPONDENT ART CHIMES IS FOLLOWING THE STORY FROM OUR BUREAU IN PRAGUE.

    TEXT: THE MUSLIM HEAD OF BOSNIA'S THREE-MEMBER PRESIDENCY, ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC, REJECTED THE CROATIAN PLAN, SAYING IT COULD LEAD TO DIVISION OF BOSNIA IN VIOLATION OF THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT.

    CROATIA LAST WEEK SUGGESTED EXPANDED ECONOMIC AND OTHER TIES BETWEEN CROATIA AND THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION -- ONE OF TWO ENTITIES IN BOSNIA. WESTERN OFFICIALS SAY CROATIA CAN HAVE SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS WITH ALL OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, BUT NOT WITH JUST THE MUSLIM-CROAT PART OF THE COUNTRY.

    EVEN BEFORE THE LATEST SUGGESTION FROM CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN, CROATIA HAS HAD A SPECIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH AT LEAST THE CROAT PART OF THE FEDERATION. CROATIAN NATIONAL SYMBOLS ARE EVERYWHERE IN CROAT TOWNS, WHERE THE MONEY OF CHOICE IS CROATIAN CURRENCY, NOT THE BOSNIAN DINAR.

    BOSNIAN CROAT FIGHTERS WERE SUPPORTED BY ZAGREB DURING THE WAR, AND IT IS WIDELY BELIEVED PRESIDENT TUDJMAN WANTS TO INCORPORATE THE CROATIAN AREAS OF BOSNIA INTO HIS OWN COUNTRY.

    THE CROATIAN PROPOSAL AND THE RESPONSE FROM BOSNIAN MUSLIMS ILLUSTRATES THE FRAGILE AND ARTIFICIAL NATURE OF THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION. IT WAS SEEN BY WESTERN PEACE BROKERS AS A COUNTERWEIGHT TO THE BOSNIAN SERBS, WHO WERE MUCH STRONGER THAN EITHER THE CROATS OR MUSLIMS ALONE.

    BUT THE CROATS AND MUSLIMS FOUGHT EACH OTHER DURING THE BALKAN WAR, AND THEIR FEDERATION IS, AT BEST, A RATHER AWKWARD ALLIANCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/PCF/RAE
    11-Nov-97 8:37 AM EST (1337 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] BRITAIN / EURO BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

    DATE=11/11/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-38045
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDS: FIRST USE OF THIS REPORT IN ENGLISH IS FOR THE "DATELINE" PROGRAM ///

    INTRO: BRITISH POLITICIANS AND BUSINESS LEADERS ARE DIVIDED OVER WHETHER IT IS IN THE COUNTRY'S INTEREST TO JOIN THE SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY. IN THIS REPORT FROM LONDON, V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA LOOKS AT THE DEBATE IN BRITAIN AS OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES PREPARE TO JOIN THE EUROPEAN CURRENCY IN 1999.

    TEXT: BRITISH GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS SAY THE DECISION ON WHETHER TO JOIN THE SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY IS THE MOST IMPORTANT QUESTION FACING BRITAIN THIS GENERATION -- AND THAT IS WHY THEY HAVE DECIDED TO TAKE A CAUTIOUS APPROACH.

    THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT BELIEVES IN PRINCIPLE THAT A SUCCESSFUL SINGLE CURRENCY WITHIN A SINGLE EUROPEAN MARKET WOULD BE BENEFICIAL TO EUROPE AND BRITAIN. AT THE SAME TIME, IT SAYS THE COUNTRY'S ECONOMY RIGHT NOW IS NOT YET READY TO ENTER THE SINGLE CURRENCY. SO BRITAIN WILL NOT BE PART OF THE FIRST GROUP OF COUNTRIES ENTERING THE SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY ON JANUARY FIRST, 1999.

    BRITISH FINANCE MINISTER GORDON BROWN RECENTLY TOLD LAWMAKERS IT WOULD NOT BE REALISTIC TO MAKE ANY DECISION ABOUT ENTERING A SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY DURING THIS PARLIAMENT -- EFFECTIVELY PUTTING OFF ANY DECISION UNTIL THE YEAR 2002. HOWEVER, MR. BROWN DID NOT REJECT JOINING AFTER THAT.

    IN AN ADDRESS TO BUSINESS LEADERS, MR. BROWN SAID BRITAIN MUST BEGIN TO PREPARE NOW IN ORDER TO JOIN THE SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY KNOWN AS THE "EURO" AT A LATER DATE.

    /// BROWN ACT ///

    THE EURO WILL THEREFORE RADICALLY TRANSFORM THE SINGLE MARKET. SO FROM NOW ON MY MESSAGE IS -- LET US GET DOWN TOGETHER TO THE SERIOUS BUSINESS OF PREPARATION. FOR FIVE YEARS, SINCE MAASTRICHT, WHILE OTHER GOVERNMENTS WERE MAKING PREPARATIONS, OUR GOVERNMENT REFUSED TO PREPARE. BUT I BELIEVE IT IS NOW TIME, IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEREST, TO SET ASIDE THE DIVISIONS OVER EUROPE THAT HAVE CAUSED OVER A LONG PERIOD OF TIME INDECISION, INSTABILITY, A LOSS OF INFLUENCE ABROAD, AND DENIED US A NATIONAL ECONOMIC CONSENSUS.

    /// END ACT ///

    WHILE THE CURRENT LABOUR GOVERNMENT FAVORS A SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY -- IN PRINCIPLE -- BRITAIN'S MAIN OPPOSITION CONSERVATIVE PARTY IS AGAINST IT. THE PARTY LEADERSHIP HAS RULED OUT ANY PARTICIPATION IN THE "EURO" FOR AT LEAST TEN YEARS.

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY LEADER WILLIAM HAGUE -- ADDRESSING THOSE SAME BUSINESS LEADERS -- SAID JOINING THE "EURO" WOULD BE A GRAVE ERROR.

    /// HAGUE ACT ///

    I BELIEVE THAT A SINGLE CURRENCY CARRIES WITH IT FUNDAMENTAL ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL RISKS. FOR THIS REASON, THE CONSERVATIVE PARTY BELIEVES IT IS A MISTAKE TO COMMIT THIS COUNTRY IN PRINCIPLE TO JOINING A SINGLE CURRENCY.

    /// END ACT ///

    WHILE BRITISH POLITICAL LEADERS ARE DIVIDED OVER THE BENEFITS OF JOINING THE SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY, SO ARE BRITISH BUSINESS EXECUTIVES. SOME DESCRIBE IT AS "THE GREAT LEAP INTO THE UNKNOWN," WHILE OTHERS BELIEVE IF THEY DO NOT JOIN QUICKLY, BRITISH BUSINESSES WOULD BE AT A COMPETITIVE DISADVANTAGE WITH OTHER EUROPEAN FIRMS ALREADY IN.

    THE CHIEF LONDON ECONOMIST FOR THE JAPANESE BANK D-K-B -- GERARD LYONS -- BELIEVES THE DEBATE OVER WHETHER BRITISH BUSINESSES WOULD BENEFIT FROM A SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY HAS BEEN OVERBLOWN.

    /// LYONS ACT ///

    THERE IS THIS FEAR FACTOR HERE IN BRITAIN THAT SOMEHOW WE ARE GOING TO MISS OUT ON SOMETHING. EVERYONE SAYS, "IT IS LIKE THE TRAIN LEAVING THE STATION, WE MUST BE ON IT." PEOPLE DO NOT ACTUALLY SAY, "WELL, IS THE TRAIN GOING IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION OR NOT?" I THINK WE SHOULD TURN THE ARGUMENT AROUND -- SO, IMAGINE WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENS IF WE DO GO INTO A SINGLE CURRENCY? WE WILL THEN NOT BE ABLE TO HAVE THE EXCHANGE RATE FLEXIBILITY, THE INTEREST RATE FLEXIBILITY, THE FISCAL FLEXIBILITY. THERE WILL HAVE TO BE CONVERGENCE -- CONVERGENCE OF WAGE RATES, PUSHING U-K (BRITISH) WAGES UP, U-K (BRITISH) COSTS UP. THERE WILL HAVE TO BE CONVERGENCE OF TAX RATES, U-K (BRITISH) CORPORATE TAXES WILL HAVE TO GO UP TOWARDS THOSE ON THE CONTINENT. SO INITIALLY, BUSINESSES ARE, I WOULD SAY, DRIVEN BY A FEAR FACTOR AND IN REALITY IT IS NOT GOING TO BE AS GOOD IF WE GO IN AS SOME PEOPLE ARE CURRENTLY PROCLAIMING.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. LYONS SAYS THE WHOLE PROCESS OF MONETARY UNION HAS BEEN DRIVEN BY POLITICIANS -- THUS LEAVING MANY ECONOMIC QUESTIONS UNANSWERED OR GLOSSED OVER. HE SAYS WHILE POLITICALLY IT MAY BE ATTRACTIVE, ECONOMICALLY IT MAY PROVE TO BE A DISASTER -- AND THUS BRITISH BUSINESSES SHOULD THINK TWICE BEFORE JOINING THE "EURO" BANDWAGON. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/JWH/MMK
    11-Nov-97 8:56 AM EST (1356 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] CYPRUS / HOLBROOKE (L) BY AL PESSIN (NICOSIA)

    DATE=11/11/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-222478
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE SPECIAL U-S REPRESENTATIVE FOR CYPRUS, RICHARD HOLBROOKE, SAYS HIS FIRST JOINT MEETING WITH THE ISLAND'S TWO LEADERS TUESDAY WAS HELD IN A VERY POSITIVE AND CANDID ATMOSPHERE. BUT HE SAYS THE MEETING MADE CLEAR TO HIM THERE ARE PROFOUND DIFFERENCES THAT WILL REQUIRE A LOT OF WORK TO TRY TO OVERCOME. V-O-A'S AL PESSIN REPORTS FROM NICOSIA, WHERE THE THREE MEN MET IN THE UNITED NATIONS BUFFER ZONE.

    TEXT: MR. HOLBROOKE BILLED THIS MEETING AS INFORMAL, AND SAID HE HAD NOT EXPECTED ANY SUBSTANTIVE RESULTS.

    /// HOLBROOKE ACTUALITY ///

    I LEAVE WITH A VERY MUCH IMPROVED UNDERSTANDING OF THE VIEWS OF THE TWO LEADERS. WE JUST WANT TO KEEP THE PROCESS GOING. WE WANT TO KEEP TALKING AND CREATE OPPORTUNITIES.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAYS THE GREEK CYPRIOT LEADER GLAFKOS CLERIDES AND THE TURKISH CYPRIOT LEADER RAUF DENKTASH ARE "TENACIOUS" IN THEIR PROFOUNDLY DIFFERENT VIEWS. BUT HE SAYS THEY BOTH ALSO INDICATED A WILLINGNESS TO TRY TO OVERCOME THOSE DIFFERENCES.

    /// HOLBROOKE ACTUALITY ///

    I FEEL THAT THIS MORNING'S DISCUSSIONS WERE HELD IN A VERY POSITIVE ATMOSPHERE, WITH A WILLINGNESS TO TRY TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEMS IN A FUTURE-ORIENTED MANNER. BUT THE PAST IS SUCH A HEAVY LEGACY WHEN YOU TRY TO TALK ABOUT THE FUTURE IN CYPRUS.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    THE SPECIAL PRESIDENTIAL ENVOY SAYS THE GREEK-CYPRIOT AND TURKISH-CYPRIOT PUBLIC POSITIONS ARE "INCOMPATIBLE" ON SEVERAL KEY ISSUES. BUT HE DECLINED TO SAY WHETHER THE TWO LEADERS SHOWED ANY FLEXIBILITY IN PRIVATE.

    THE ETHNIC GREEK AND TURKISH COMMUNITIES ON CYPRUS HAVE BEEN AT ODDS FOR DECADES. THE CONFLICT BOILED OVER IN 1974, WHEN GREECE BACKED A COUP IN THE ISLAND'S GOVERNMENT, AND TURKEY RESPONDED BY INVADING FROM THE NORTH.

    THE BLOODY AND BITTER WAR RESULTED IN A DIVIDED ISLAND, WITH THE NORTH DECLARING INDEPENDENCE AND THE SOUTHERN GOVERNMENT CLAIMING CONTINUED SOVEREIGNTY OVER THE ENTIRE ISLAND. THE TWO SIDES ARE OFFICIALLY COMMITTED TO REUNIFICATION, BUT THE TERMS ARE HOTLY DISPUTED, AND SOME, PARTICULARLY IN THE NORTH, ADVOCATE PERMANENT SEPARATION.

    /// OPT ///

    THE DISPUTE HAS DEFIED THE EFFORTS OF DIPLOMATS FROM MANY COUNTRIES, BUT MR. HOLBROOKE SAYS THE UNITED STATES IS COMMITTED TO TRY TO SUCCEED, LARGELY BECAUSE OF THE STRAIN THE CYPRUS ISSUE CAUSES BETWEEN U-S ALLIES GREECE AND TURKEY. THOSE TWO COUNTRIES ARE BEING CONSULTED THROUGHOUT THE U-S MEDIATION EFFORT.

    /// OPT // HOLBROOKE ACTUALITY ///

    THERE ARE MANY ISSUES BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY, BUT IN MY PERSONAL VIEW, THE OTHER ISSUES CAN NOT BE DEALT WITH UNLESS CYPRUS IS DEALT WITH CENTRALLY. IT IS THE CORE ISSUE. AND THAT IS WHY THE UNITED STATES IS ENGAGED.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    /// OPT ///

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAYS IT IS NOT A CRISIS, BUT RATHER "A PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED." BUT DIPLOMATS SAY THERE ARE SEVERAL FACTORS CREATING A NEW URGENCY, INCLUDING THE EFFORTS BY TURKEY AND THE GREEK-CYPRIOT GOVERNMENT TO JOIN THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    /// END OPT ///

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAYS HE PLANS FREQUENT VISITS TO THE REGION, AND ONGOING CONTACTS IN BETWEEN VISITS. HE SAYS THERE IS A LOT OF WORK TO BE DONE, AND NO PARTICULAR TIMETABLE FOR ACHIEVING RESULTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AWP/JWH/MMK
    11-Nov-97 9:18 AM EST (1418 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] EURO / GERMANY / FRANCE BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=11/11/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-38044
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /////

    FIRST ENGLISH AIRING RESERVED TO "DATELINE" PROGRAM TODAY AT 19-HRS-30 UTC /////

    INTRO: WITH JUST ONE-YEAR TO GO BEFORE THE SCHEDULED LAUNCH OF THE SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY, SUPPORTERS OF THE PROJECT SAY IT WILL BRING HUGE BENEFITS TO EUROPE. OPPONENTS REMAIN UNCONVINCED, BUT AS CORRESPONDENT KYLE KING REPORTS, FEW DOUBT THE NEW CURRENCY WILL DEBUT ON TIME IN JANUARY OF 1999.

    TEXT: FOR MOST GERMANS, GIVING UP THEIR BELOVED NATIONAL CURRENCY IS NOT AN APPEALING IDEA. RECENT OPINION POLLS SHOW A MAJORITY OF GERMANS WOULD PREFER TO KEEP THEIR STRONG AND RELIABLE DEUTSCHMARK, WHICH HAS BECOME A POTENT SYMBOL OF THE COUNTRY'S REBIRTH FROM THE ASHES OF WORLD WAR TWO.

    // OPT //

    MANY ELDERLY GERMANS, WHO LIVED THROUGH THE WAR AND THE INFLATIONARY CHAOS THAT HELPED BRING ADOLF HITLER TO POWER, SAY CHANGING CURRENCIES IS AN ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL RISK THEY WOULD RATHER NOT TAKE. // END OPT //

    THE EDITOR OF A GERMAN FOREIGN AFFAIRS JOURNAL, ANALYST ANGELIKA VOLLE, SAYS THE STAKES ARE HIGH FOR COUNTRIES THAT DECIDE TO JOIN THE SINGLE CURRENCY.

    // VOLLE ACT //

    WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF THE "EURO," I THINK A LOT OF SOVEREIGNTY WITHIN EACH EUROPEAN COUNTRY IS AT STAKE. AND WHETHER ALL THESE COUNTRIES THAT WILL JOIN THE EURO IN THE FIRST ROUND -- OR EVEN IN THE SECOND OR THIRD ROUND -- WHETHER ALL THESE COUNTRIES ARE PREPARED TO GIVE UP THAT SOVEREIGNTY, I AM NOT SO SURE.

    // END ACT //

    COUNTRIES THAT DO JOIN THE NEW CURRENCY WILL HAVE TO SURRENDER KEY ECONOMIC DECISION-MAKING POWERS TO A NEW EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK, WHICH WILL HAVE THE POWER TO SET INTEREST RATES AND HOLD DOWN GOVERNMENT SPENDING.

    SKEPTICS SAY IMPOSING A SINGLE ECONOMIC POLICY ON DIVERSE MEMBER STATES IS A PRESCRIPTION FOR DISASTER. THEY WORRY ABOUT A POSSIBLE BACKLASH AGAINST BUREAUCRATS WHO ARE OUTSIDE THE CONTROL OF NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS AND ARE NOT ANSWERABLE TO THE VOTERS.

    SUPPORTERS SAY THE NEW CURRENCY IS THE ONLY WAY TO CREATE WHAT THEY CALL A -- LEVEL PLAYING FIELD -- THAT WILL ESTABLISH THE CONDITIONS FOR EUROPE TO COMPETE IN THE NEW GLOBAL ECONOMY.

    ECONOMISTS LIKE LUTZ RETTIG, A MEMBER OF "AMERICAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE IN GERMANY", ACKNOWLEDGE THERE WILL BE WINNERS AND LOSERS AS COUNTRIES GIVE UP THE ECONOMIC TOOLS THEY USE TO PROTECT INDUSTRIES.

    // RETTIG ACT //

    BECAUSE OF THIS LEVEL PLAYING FIELD AND BECAUSE OF THIS INABILITY TO USE CERTAIN TOOLS WHICH, SO FAR, HAVE SHIELDED SOME REGIONS OR SOME INDUSTRIES FROM THIS LEVEL PLAYING FIELD, ONCE ALL OF THIS IS GONE WE MAY GET REGIONAL IMBALANCES.

    // END ACT //

    DESPITE THE RISKS, SUPPORTERS OF THE PROJECT DREAM OF A UNITED EUROPE, THE WORLD'S LARGEST SINGLE MARKET, WITH 372-MILLION CONSUMERS, UNITED BY A COMMON CURRENCY AND COMMON IDEALS. AT LAST THEY SAY, THE DOLLAR WILL HAVE A REAL RIVAL.

    WITH MORE THAN 60-PERCENT OF E-U TRADE WITHIN THE UNION, THE NEW CURRENCY WILL SIMPLIFY TRADE, ELIMINATE THE RISK OF CURRENCY FLUCTUATIONS, AND MAKE PLANNING AND BILLING EASIER. TRAVELERS WILL NO LONGER HAVE TO CHANGE CURRENCY AT EACH BORDER.

    // OPT //

    PETER HAUSMANN, A SPOKESMAN FOR THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT, SAYS THE SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY WILL HELP BIND EUROPE TOGETHER AND CREATE A MARKET THAT CAN COMPETE WITH THE UNITED STATES AND JAPAN.

    // HAUSMANN ACT //

    IF WE GET TOGETHER TO GET THE EUROPEAN CURRENCY, WHICH WE CALL THE EURO, THIS MEANS THAT WE WILL HAVE NOT ONLY AN INTEGRATED COMMON MARKET WITH A UNIFIED CURRENCY, WE WILL ALSO HAVE A FURTHER STEP FOR THE POLITICAL INTEGRATION OF EUROPE AND THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT GOAL FOR THE GERMAN POLITIC.

    // END ACT // END OPT //

    THE IDEA OF THE SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY EMERGED AS THE COLD WAR SPUTTERED TO AN END AND THE WALL SEPARATING GERMANY WAS TORN DOWN. FRANCE, A KEY ARCHITECT OF THE SINGLE CURRENCY, PERSUADED GERMANY TO EMBRACE THE PROJECT AS A CONDITION FOR SUPPORTING GERMAN REUNIFICATION.

    ANALYSTS SAY CHANCELLOR HELMUT KOHL, WHO IS ALREADY KNOWN AS THE FATHER OF GERMAN UNIFICATION, IS HOPING HE CAN SECURE HIS PLACE IN HISTORY AS THE MAN WHO UNITED EUROPE.

    BORDERING COUNTRIES, WHICH HAVE SUFFERED FROM GERMAN NATIONALISM TWICE THIS CENTURY, ARE HOPING THE GHOSTS OF THE PAST WILL FINALLY BE PUT TO REST BY ANCHORING THE COUNTRY FINANCIALLY TO ITS EUROPEAN NEIGHBORS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/PCF/RAE
    11-Nov-97 7:45 AM EST (1245 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

    DATE=11/11/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-222497
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES WERE DOWN IN TRADING TUESDAY ON EUROPEAN MARKETS. V-O-A'S JACK HUIZENGA HAS THE CLOSING MARKET REPORT FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: EUROPEAN MARKETS CLOSED OFF TUESDAY. BUT THE FINAL FIGURES WERE UP FROM EARLY LOSSES -- BOOSTED BY A FIRM OPENING ON WALL STREET.

    IN FRANKFURT, THE DAX-30 INDEX WAS DOWN MORE THAN 21 POINTS, ALMOST SIX-TENTHS PERCENT OF THE GERMAN MARKET'S TOTAL VALUE. IN LONDON, THE FOOTSIE-100 INDEX FELL JUST OVER 13 POINTS, ALMOST THREE-TENTHS PERCENT.

    THE PARIS MARKET WAS CLOSED FOR THE ARMISTICE DAY HOLIDAY.

    ON THE LONDON CURRENCY EXCHANGE, THE U-S DOLLAR LOST VALUE AGAINST THE BRITISH POUND. BUT IT WAS UP AGAINST BOTH THE GERMAN MARK AND THE JAPANESE YEN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JWH/MMK
    11-Nov-97 1:36 PM EST (1836 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] KLAUS ON EURO (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/11/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-222501
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: CZECH PRIME MINISTER VACLAV KLAUS HAS VOICED SKEPTICISM ABOUT THE EURO CURRENCY PROJECT THE CZECH REPUBLIC HOPES TO JOIN. BARRY WOOD REPORTS THE CZECH PRIME MINISTER, AN ACADEMIC ECONOMIST AND DISCIPLE OF MILTON FRIEDMAN AND FRIEDRICH HAYEK, IS CONTINUING A ROUND OF TALKS IN WASHINGTON ON SECURITY AND ECONOMIC MATTERS.

    TEXT: MR. KLAUS HAS BEEN DEEPLY INVOLVED IN THE DECADE LONG DEBATE OVER EUROPEAN MONETARY UNION.

    A BELIEVER IN EUROPEAN INTEGRATION, MR. KLAUS HAS BEEN DETERMINED TO SET THE CZECH REPUBLIC ON COURSE TO EARLY MEMBERSHIP OF THE EUROPEAN UNION. HE HAS SAID REPEATEDLY THE CZECH REPUBLIC WANTS TO BE PART OF THE UNION. THUS, MR. KLAUS'S SKEPTICISM ABOUT WHETHER MONETARY UNION WILL SUCCEED WILL NOT GO UN-NOTICED IN WEST EUROPEAN CAPITALS. HE SPOKE AT WASHINGTON'S CATO INSTITUTE, WHICH HAS PRINTED A BOOK OF HIS SPEECHES ON ECONOMIC POLICY.

    // FIRST KLAUS ACT //

    I DO NOT BELIEVE IT IS POSSIBLE TO HAVE A MONETARY UNION WITHOUT HAVING A FISCAL UNION AND WITHOUT HAVING A POLITICAL UNION. I KNOW IT IS POSSIBLE TO HAVE A SINGLE CURRENCY IN THE UNITED STATES. BUT I DO NOT THINK A SINGLE CURRENCY WOULD WORK ON CONDITION OF HAVING THE FEDERAL RESERVE ONLY. I CAN NOT IMAGINE HAVING A SINGLE CURRENCY WITHOUT HAVING A PRESIDENT, WITHOUT HAVING A CONGRESS, WITHOUT HAVING A FEDERAL BUDGET, WITHOUT HAVING OTHER FEDERAL AUTHORITIES. THIS IS MY PROBLEM IN EUROPE.

    // END ACT //

    DESPITE HIS DOUBTS MR. KLAUS BELIEVES MONETARY UNION WILL OCCUR MORE OR LESS ON SCHEDULE BEGINNING IN 1999. MR. KLAUS SAID HE WILL BE ELABORATING ON HIS VIEWS IN A SPEECH BEFORE BANKERS IN FRANKFURT NEXT WEEK.

    // SECOND KLAUS ACT //

    I THINK IT WOULD BE APPROPRIATE TO TALK ABOUT A SINGLE CURRENCY NOT IN A NARROW SENSE, TO DISCUSS THE PROCEDURES AND TECHNICALITIES OF THE NEW EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK. THE MAIN PROBLEM FOR ME IS TO DISCUSS THE CONSEQUENCES IN OTHER POLITICAL PROCESSES AND IN OTHER POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS.

    // END ACT //

    THE NEW EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK COMES INTO EXISTENCE NEXT YEAR AND BY JUNE DECISIONS WILL BE MADE ON WHICH COUNTRIES WILL JOIN GERMANY AND FRANCE IN ABANDONING THEIR CURRENCIES IN FAVOR OF THE NEW EURO. MR. KLAUS SUGGESTED WEST EUROPEAN AUTHORITIES MIGHT LEARN FROM THE CZECH AND SLOVAK EXPERIENCE OF TRYING, BUT FAILING TO MAINTAIN A SINGLE CURRENCY AFTER THEIR COUNTRIES SPLIT IN 1993. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/RAE
    11-Nov-97 2:32 PM EST (1932 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] NY ECON WRAP (S-ONLY) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=11/11/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-222513
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP SLIGHTLY TODAY, TUESDAY, IN LACK LUSTER TRADING. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 75-HUNDRED-58, UP SIX POINTS. STANDARD-AND-POORS FIVE HUNDRED INDEX CLOSED AT 923,UP TWO POINTS. ANALYSTS SAY MANY TRADERS TOOK THE DAY OFF TO OBSERVE THE VETERAN'S DAY HOLIDAY IN THE UNITED STATES. IN ADDITION THERE WAS SOME CAUTION IN ADVANCE OF WEDNESDAY'S MEETING OF THE U-S CENTRAL BANK. HOWEVER THE CONSENSUS ON WALL STREET IS THAT THE BANK'S GOVERNORS WILL NOT RAISE INTEREST RATES.

    THE EASTMAN KODAK PHOTOGRAPHIC COMPANY ANNOUNCED A ONE BILLION DOLLAR RESTRUCTRING PROGRAM WHICH WILL RESULT IN THE LOSS OF TEN THOUSAND JOBS OR TEN PERCENT OF ITS WORKFORCE. BUT, WALL STREET WAS NOT IMPRESSED AND KODAK'S STOCK FELL. IN THE MICROSOFT COMPUTER SOFTWARE COMPANY IS STRONGLY DENYING CHARGES IT IS ATTEMPTING TO MONOPOLIZE THE MARKET FOR INTERNET BROWSER SOFTWARE.

    MICROSOFT IS ASKING A COURT TO DISMISS A LAWSUIT FILED BY THE U-S JUSTICE DEPARTMENT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BA/TMD-T/PT
    11-Nov-97 6:15 PM EST (2315 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/11/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10436
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T //

    INTRO: THE DECISION OF A STATE JUDGE IN MASSACHUSETTS TO REDUCE THE SENTENCE OF A YOUNG ENGLISH WOMAN AU PAIR CONVICTED OF KILLING AN INFANT IN HER CARE IS THE DOMINANT EDITORIAL SUBJECT ON THIS VETERANS DAY HOLIDAY IN THE UNITED STATES.

    OTHER TOPICS IN THE HOLIDAY EDITIONS OF THE NATION'S PAPERS INCLUDE THE LOSS BY PRESIDENT CLINTON OF THE "FAST-TRACK" TRADE LEGISLATIVE FIGHT IN CONGRESS; NEW REVELATIONS ABOUT THE JOHN KENNEDY PRESIDENCY, AND THE TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION COMMISSION'S DIFFICULT JOB IN SOUTH AFRICA. NOW, HERE IS ____________ WITH SOME QUOTES AND A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: A MASSACHUSETTS SUPERIOR COURT JUDGE'S UNUSUAL RULING IN THE MURDER CASE OF AN ENGLISH AU PAIR [CHILDREN'S CARETAKER] DOMINATES THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS OF MANY U-S NEWSPAPERS. LOUISE WOODWARD WAS ACCUSED OF SHAKING THE INFANT, MATTHEW EAPPEN, SO STRONGLY SHE CAUSED BRAIN DAMAGE THAT KILLED HIM. HER TRIAL WAS OF GREAT INTEREST BOTH IN THE UNITED STATES AND IN BRITAIN, WHERE SHE WAS WIDELY BELIEVED TO BE INNOCENT. WHEN A JURY CONVICTED HER OF MURDER, THERE WAS A GREAT OUTCRY IN BOTH NATIONS THAT THE VERDICT WAS TOO HARSH. THE CASE WAS WIDELY DEBATED ON TELEVISION AND IN THE PRESS ON BOTH SIDES OF THE ATLANTIC.

    YESTERDAY, THE JUDGE OVERRULED THE JURY, REDUCING THE CONVICTION TO MANSLAUGHTER, WHICH MEANS KILLING WITHOUT MALICE OR PREMEDITATION, AND REDUCING HER TIME IN PRISON TO THE PERIOD SHE HAD ALREADY SPENT IN CUSTODY. AMONG OTHER THINGS, THE RULING CAUSED A FLOOD OF EDITORIALS, LIKE THIS ONE IN TODAY'S "DENVER POST" WHICH IS CRITICAL OF THE JURIST'S DECISION.

    VOICE: "MASSACHUSETTS .... JUDGE HILLER ZOBEL BOWED TO EMOTIONALISM AND PUBLIC OPINION ... WHEN HE REDUCED THE SENTENCE OF BRITISH AU PAIR LOUISE WOODWARD TO THE 279 DAYS SHE HAD ALREADY SERVED AND SET HER FREE. [MS.] WOODWARD WOULD HAVE FACED A MANDATORY SENTENCE OF 15 YEARS IN PRISON BEFORE SHE WOULD BE ELIGIBLE FOR PAROLE IF [JUDGE] ZOBEL HAD UPHELD HER SECOND-DEGREE MURDER CONVICTION ..... FRANKLY, WE THINK THAT WOULD HAVE BEEN TOO HARSH. ....... BUT SETTING HER FREE WAS TANTAMOUNT [EQUAL TO] FINDING HER INNOCENT. [OPT] THERE IS NO REASON TO DOUBT THE JURY'S DECISION THAT SHE WAS INDEED GUILTY OF KILLING BABY MATTHEW. .... IN THIS COUNTRY, WE DO NOT ADMINISTER JUSTICE BY PLEBISCITE. .... IF NOT JUSTICE BY 'PLEBISCITE,' THIS IS AT LEAST JUSTICE BY TALK SHOW. [END OPT] THE PROSECUTION SHOULD APPEAL THIS MISCARRIAGE OF JUSTICE."

    TEXT: "THE MIAMI HERALD," ON THE OTHER HAND, LAUDS THE JUDGE FOR WHAT IT CALLS HIS "COMPASSIONATE" DECISION.

    VOICE: ".... YESTERDAY'S DECISION .... SHOWED ANEW THAT AMERICAN JURISPRUDENCE SOMETIMES IS COMPASSIONATE. IN REDUCING TO INVOLUNTARY MANSLAUGHTER THE .... CONVICTION .... JUDGE ZOBEL'S RULING IS CONSISTENT WITH THE FACTS, AND PREVENTS A MISCARRIAGE OF JUSTICE. .....HIS DECISION REFLECTS THAT THE TRAGIC DEATH OF BABY MATTHEW EAPPEN WAS UNINTENTIONAL, BUT CRIMINAL; HORRIBLY WRONG, BUT NOT MALICIOUS."

    TEXT: IN NEW ENGLAND, "THE BOSTON GLOBE" CALLS THE DECISION "JUSTIFIED BY THE FACTS, AND HIS SENTENCE, WHILE PERHAPS ERRING ON THE SIDE OF LENIENCY, IS IN ACCORD WITH HIS FINDING. ..... THE WOODWARD TRIAL, FOR ALL ITS INTRICACIES AND TURNS, HAS COME TO A JUST CONCLUSION."

    [OPT]
    "USA TODAY" SUGGESTS THE JUDGE'S VERDICT MAKES UP FOR AN EARLIER ERROR ON HIS PART.

    VOICE: "A CRIMINAL TRIAL IS NOT A HIGH-STAKES GAME OF CHANCE. AND A COURT IS NOT A CASINO. SO SAID MASSACHUSETTS JUDGE HILLER ZOBEL MONDAY IN EXPLAINING HIS DECISION TO LESSEN THE PUNISHMENT OF BRITISH AU PAIR LOUISE WOODWARD ...... HE IS RIGHT, BOTH MORALLY AND LEGALLY. [MS.] WOODWARD WAS CONVICTED OF SECOND-DEGREE MURDER PRECISELY BECAUSE OF A HIGH-STAKES GAME OF CHANCE. HER OVERCONFIDENT LAWYERS TOOK AN ALL-OR-NOTHING GAMBLE AND LOST. AT THE LAWYERS' URGING, [JUDGE] ZOBEL BARRED THE JURY FROM CONSIDERING ANY CHARGE BUT MURDER. STUCK BETWEEN SEVERE PUNISHMENT AND NONE AT ALL, THE JURY CONVICTED, WITH SOME JURORS COMPLAINING LATER THAT THEIR CHOICES WERE TOO LIMITED. IN REDUCING THE CONVICTION TO VOLUNTARY MANSLAUGHTER .... [JUDGE] ZOBEL REVERSED HIS EARLIER POOR JUDGMENT.

    .... IN MASSACHUSETTS, AS IN OTHER STATES, JUDGES HAVE THE LEGAL RIGHT TO OVERTURN A JURY'S VERDICT. THE RARELY USED POWER PROVIDES AN IMPORTANT SAFEGUARD AGAINST RUNAWAY JURIES AND UNJUST VERDICTS NOT SUPPORTED BY THE WEIGHT OF LEGAL EVIDENCE."

    TEXT: IN AN EDITORIAL ENTITLED "JUSTICE RESTORED," "THE NEW YORK TIMES" SAYS THE DECISION .... "SHOWED COMMONS SENSE AND MERCY IN A SITUATION WHERE THE PROSECUTION'S CASE WAS TOO WEAK TO SUPPORT A SENTENCE OF LIFE IN PRISON." BUT "THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION" FEELS THE JUDGE WAS "TOO EASY ON [THE] BABY'S KILLER," ADDING:

    VOICE: "EVEN IF [JUDGE] ZOBEL THINKS [MS.] WOODWARD DOES NOT CONSTITUTE A CONTINUING THREAT, THE SENTENCE HE HANDED DOWN SEEMS TO DISREGARD THE GRAVITY OF HER CRIME. THE SENTENCE MAY ALSO HAVE THE UNFORTUNATE EFFECT OF SIGNALING THAT THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM STILL DOES NOT TAKE THE CRIME OF CHILD ABUSE SERIOUSLY - - ESPECIALLY WHEN THE PERPETRATOR EVOKES OUR SYMPATHY, AS [MS.] WOODWARD DID."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE DAY'S OTHER BIG TOPIC INVOLVES THE WITHDRAWAL OF THE "FAST TRACK" TRADE AUTHORIZATION BILL IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES WHEN PRESIDENT CLINTON COULD NOT QUELL A REVOLT IN HIS OWN PARTY, WHICH OPPOSED THE IDEA. IT IS BEING SEEN AS A MAJOR DEFEAT FOR THE PRESIDENT, AND "THE WASHINGTON POST" SAYS, FOR THE NATION AS WELL.

    VOICE: "TO RISE ABOVE THE SPECIAL INTERESTS OF THE LOSERS ( WHILE TAKING INTO CONSIDERATION THEIR LEGITIMATE NEEDS) AND VOTE IN THE OVERALL INTEREST OF SOCIETY IS WHAT WE SHOULD EXPECT OF OUR POLITICIANS - - IT HAS SOMETHING TO DO WITH STATESMANSHIP. AND UNTIL NOW, EVERY CONGRESS SINCE PRESIDENT FORD'S TIME HAS MANAGED TO DO JUST THAT. BUT THIS CONGRESS ..... DID THE OPPOSITE - - IT CAVED IN [GAVE IN] TO THE SPECIAL PLEADERS. WASHINGTON INSIDERS WILL MEASURE THE DEFEAT IN ITS IMPACT ON MR. CLINTON - - WHETHER IT SPELL THE BEGINNING OF HIS LAME-DUCKHOOD, [SLANG EXPRESSION FOR A WEAKENED PRESIDENT, IN HIS SECOND TERM. LITERALLY: A DUCK THAT IS LAME IS MORE AT RISK THAN A HEALTHY DUCK] AND ALL THE REST. BUT THE MORE SERIOUS DAMAGE IS TO U-S ECONOMIC LEADERSHIP - - AMERICA'S ABILITY TO HELP SHAPE THE GLOBAL RULE BOOK - - AND, POTENTIALLY, TO GLOBAL ECONOMIC PROSPERITY."

    TEXT: "THE DENVER POST," ALSO UPSET, CALLING THE DECISION TO WITHDRAW THE BILL "A SETBACK FOR TRADE" SEES A DANGER FOR THE DEMOCRATS WHO OPPOSED THE MOVE.

    VOICE: "POLITICALLY, THE DEFEAT ALSO SHOWS THE PRESIDENT AND HIS MODERATE 'NEW DEMOCRATS' ARE ISOLATED WITHIN THEIR OWN PARTY - - AT LEAST IN THE HOUSE, WHERE DEMOCRATS HAVE DRIFTED WELL TO THE LEFT OF [MR.] CLINTON ON ECONOMIC ISSUES. BUT THAT FACT, IN TURN, COULD CRIPPLE THE EFFORTS OF DEMOCRATS TO REGAIN CONTROL OF CONGRESS NEXT YEAR. [PRESIDENT] CLINTON'S PLATFORM ON FREER TRADE AND MORE JOBS CLEARLY PUTS HIM IN THE MAINSTREAM OF THE AMERICAN ELECTORATE. IF THAT ALSO PUTS THE PRESIDENT OUTSIDE THE MAINSTREAM OF THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY, IT IS CLEARLY THE PARTY, NOT THE PRESIDENT, THAT IS OUT OF STEP WITH THE AMERICAN PEOPLE."

    TEXT: "THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION" ALSO BELIEVES THE HOUSE DEMOCRATS MADE A BIG MISTAKE.

    VOICE: "GIVEN THE IMPORTANCE OF FAST-TRACK LEGISLATION, IT WAS DISAPPOINTING TO SEE SO MANY DEMOCRATS DESERT COMMON SENSE TO PLEASE THE AFL-CIO [TRADE UNION] LEADERSHIP, WHICH MISTAKENLY BELIEVES THAT TRADE ELIMINATES MORE JOBS THAN IT CREATES. ..... [HOUSE SPEAKER NEWT] GINGRICH HAS GIVEN THE PRESIDENT TIME TO REGROUP AND DRUM UP MORE SUPPORT. IF [MR.] CLINTON FAILS TO FIND THE VOTES HE NEEDS, HIS PRESIDENCY COULD SLIP INTO A LAME-DUCK LANGUOR THAT WILL PROVE HARMFUL TO THE ECONOMY. THE DEMOCRATS WHO HANDED THEIR PRESIDENT A HUMILIATING DEFEAT WOULD RUE THE DAY THEY TURNED THEIR POPULAR PRESIDENT INTO A HAPLESS HAS-BEEN."

    TEXT: NEW, UNFLATTERING REVELATIONS ABOUT THE KENNEDY PRESIDENCY, UNEARTHED IN A NEW BOOK CALLED THE DARK SIDE OF CAMELOT, BY JOURNALIST SEYMOUR HERSH, DRAWS THIS COMMENT FROM USA TODAY.

    VOICE: ".....THERE IS A LARGER TRUTH THAT EXTENDS BEYOND [MR.] HERSH'S EXAMINATION OF JFK'S CHARACTER FLAWS. PRIVACY IS A QUAINT MEMORY FOR VIRTUALLY ALL CELEBRITIES TODAY. AND, AS ILLUSTRATED BY THE KENNEDY BOOK, THE SCRUTINY SOMETIMES INTENSIFIES LONG AFTER THE DEATH OF THE INDIVIDUAL INVOLVED. .... IF [PRESIDENT] KENNEDY RISKED BLACKMAIL OR JEOPARDIZED HIS OWN SAFETY BECAUSE OF HIS PERSONAL PREDILECTIONS, AS [AUTHOR] HERSH CLAIMS, SUCH REVELATIONS ARE NOT JUST SLEAZE BUT ALSO ESSENTIAL INGREDIENTS OF HISTORY."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: THE ON-GOING CONFLICT OVER WEAPONS INSPECTIONS BY THE UNITED NATIONS IN IRAQ IS NEVER FAR FROM THE TOP OF THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS, AS SADDAM HUSSEIN CONTINUES TO BLOCK U-S MEMBERS OF THE U-N TEAM, PRECIPITATING A CRISIS. TODAY'S "PROVIDENCE [RHODE ISLAND] JOURNAL-BULLETIN" SAYS OF THE STAND-OFF:

    VOICE: "THE UNITED STATES AND THE UNITED NATIONS HAVE LITTLE CHOICE BUT TO BE UNBENDING WITH IRAQ IN DEMANDING FREEDOM TO INSPECT THE FACILITIES WHERE SADDAM HUSSEIN'S REGIME IS HIDING AND MAKING CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS. THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS BEEN COMMENDABLY FIRM ON THIS. HOWEVER, IT WOULD DO WELL TO EXPLAIN MORE FULLY THE EXTENT OF THE DANGER FROM IRAQ'S ARSENAL. ..... THE FAILURE TO STOP IRAQ'S PROGRAM WOULD GIVE IT THE POWER TO BLACKMAIL THE WHOLE REGION. FURTHERMORE, IT WOULD ENCOURAGE IRAN, WHICH IS HARD AT WORK ON ITS OWN BIOLOGICAL-AND CHEMICAL-WARFARE PROGRAMS, TO PRESS AHEAD EVEN FASTER. SADDAM OBVIOUSLY WANTS TO USE THE CONFRONTATION OVER THE INSPECTIONS TO FORCE THE U-N TO NEGOTIATE TO LIFT THE EMBARGO ON IRAQI OIL SALES - - A LIFTING MUCH DESIRED BY FRENCH, RUSSIAN AND SOME OTHER OIL COMPANIES. SUCH A STUPID DEAL WOULD BE FAR LESS LIKELY IF U-S AND U-N OFFICIALS SPOKE LOUDER AND IN MORE DETAIL ABOUT SADDAM'S ACTIVITIES."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE BOSTON GLOBE TAKES NOTE OF THE ANGUISH THAT STILL EXUDES FROM SOUTH AFRICA'S UNUSUAL TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION COMMISSION AS THE GRISLY DETAILS OF APARTHEID ARE REVEALED FOR ALL TO HEAR.

    VOICE: "IF ANY DOUBT REMAINED ABOUT THE DIFFICULTY OF ..... CHOOSING TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION RATHER THAN RETRIBUTION AND JUSTICE .... IT SHOULD BE DISPELLED BY THE TESTIMONY GIVEN RECENTLY .... BY A FORMER TORTURER FOR THE APARTHEID REGIME. JEFFREY BENZIEN DESCRIBED IN SICKENING DETAIL THE CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY HE HAD COMMITTED IN HIS DAILY WORK. [OPT] AS A MEMBER OF THE APARTHEID REGIME'S SECURITY POLICE, [MR.] BENZIEN INFLICTED CRUEL SUFFERING ON OTHER HUMAN BEINGS IN THE BELIEF THAT HE WAS DEFENDING LAW, ORDER, AND CIVILIZATION AGAINST TERRORISTS. [END OPT] ..... ONE ODIOUS ELEMENT OF THE TORTURER'S TESTIMONY WAS HIS SELF-PITY - - AN EFFORT TO ARGUE THAT, BECAUSE OF HIS CURRENT SELF-LOATHING, HE WAS AS MUCH A VICTIM OF THE APARTHEID ORDER AS THE PEOPLE HE SHOCKED WITH ELECTRIC CURRENTS. THIS CLAIM, CARRYING TO AN EXTREME THE CURRENT FASHION OF COMPETING FOR VICTIMHOOD, IS PART OF THE PRICE SOUTH AFRICA MUST PAY FOR TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, A REMEMBRANCE OF THE NATION'S WAR VETERANS FROM ALL PAST CONFLICTS, ON THIS VETERANS'S DAY, FORMERLY ARMISTICE DAY, CELEBRATING THE END OF WORLD WAR ONE, FROM "THE NEW YORK TIMES."

    VOICE: "THE LAST OF THE WORLD WAR ONE VETERANS ARE ALMOST IMPOSSIBLY OLD BY NOW, AS OLD AS THE CENTURY. THEY FLICKER PAST IN FOOTAGE FROM THAT WAR SHOWN REPEATEDLY ON LATE-NIGHT TELEVISION, YOUNG MEN BURDENED BY THE WEIGHT OF ARMS, WITH EVERYTHING THAT IMPLIES. NOW NEARLY ALL THOSE MEN ARE DEAD, AND THE FEW STILL LIVING SEEM TO SYMBOLIZE THE ENORMOUS CHANGES THAT HAVE SWEPT ACROSS THE WORLD IN THE YEARS SINCE THE ARMISTICE WAS SIGNED ON THIS DAY 79 YEARS AGO. ..... [OPT] NOVEMBER CAN BE BLEAK ENOUGH. THE LEAVES ARE GOING NOW, AND THE TREES SEEM FRAYED. A RIDGE LINE OF BLACKENED, UPTHRUST BOUGHS SEEMS TO MIRROR THE RAIN. .... BUT WHAT NOVEMBER HAS EVER BEEN LIKE NOVEMBER IN THE EMBATTLED SALIENTS OF THE GREAT WAR, WHERE THE EARTH ITSELF WAS DISMEMBERED AND INTERRED, ITS FLESH CONFUSED WITH THE FLESH OF SOLDIERS, HORSES AND MULES? EVEN AT PEACE, NATURE SEEMS DISORDERED, ALMOST SKELETAL IN NOVEMBER. THE CONSOLATION LIES IN THE WOODSMOKE SPIRALING OUT OF CHIMNEYS, THE LIGHT IN WINDOWS AS THE DAY GOES DOWN. IT LIES IN THE UNBROKEN RHYTHM OF LIVING AT PEACE , WHERE THE HOUR OF ARMISTICE ..... IS ALMOST FORGOTTEN." [END OPT]

    TEXT: ON THAT HISTORIC NOTE, IN TRIBUTE TO THOSE WHO DID NOT RETURN, WE END THIS VETERAN'S DAY EDITION OF EDITORIAL DIGEST.
    NEB/ANG/RRM
    11-Nov-97 10:56 AM EST (1556 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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