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Voice of America, 97-12-12

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] CONFLICT RESOLUTION: NATIONALISM AND APATHY IN SERBIA BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] E-U SUMMIT (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)
  • [03] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)
  • [04] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [05] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [06] TURKEY ISLAMISTS (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

  • [01] CONFLICT RESOLUTION: NATIONALISM AND APATHY IN SERBIA BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/12/97
    TYPE=WORLDWIDE ENGLISH FEATURE
    NUMBER=7-17745
    TELEPHONE=619-3464
    EDITOR=GARY EDQUIST
    CONTENT= (TAPE CUTS IN AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: IN LAST SUNDAY'S [12/7/97] PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS IN SERBIA, THE TWO NATIONALIST PARTIES -- THE RULING SOCIALIST PARTY AND THE RADICAL PARTY -- TOGETHER CAPTURED 76 PERCENT OF THE VOTE. THE LEADER OF THE SERBIAN RENEWAL MOVEMENT -- THE ONLY PARTY THAT RAN FROM THE FORMER DEMOCRATIC COALITION "ZAJEDNO" [ZY-ED-NOH] -- TRAILED WITH 15 PERCENT. ALTHOUGH THE "OFFICIAL" VOTER TURNOUT WAS 52 PERCENT, THERE WAS NO CLEAR WINNER, AND A

    RUN-OFF ELECTION IS SCHEDULED FOR DECEMBER 21. VOA'S

    JUDITH LATHAM HAS TALKED WITH HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVISTS, MEMBERS OF THE INDEPENDENT MEDIA IN SERBIA, AND BALKAN ANALYSTS ABOUT THE MEANING OF THIS MOST RECENT ELECTION. HERE'S ____ WITH A REPORT.

    TEXT: SONJA BISERKO [BI-ZAIR-KOH], PRESIDENT OF THE HELSINKI COMMITTEE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS IN SERBIA, SAYS THE RESULTS OF THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION REFLECT THE DEEP FRUSTRATION OF THE SERBIAN PEOPLE. SOCIALIST PARTY CANDIDATE MILAN MILUTINOVIC [MEE-LAHN MEE-LOO-TEE-NOH-VICH], AN ALLY OF YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, WON 42 PERCENT OF THE VOTE, FOLLOWED BY SERBIAN RADICAL PARTY CANDIDATE VOJISLAV SESELJ [VOY-I-SLAHV SHESH-EL], WHO WON 34 PERCENT. MS. BISERKO SAYS THE STRONG SHOWING OF THE CANDIDATES FROM THE TWO NATIONALIST PARTIES REPRESENTS A "RADICALIZATION OF THE COUNTRY."

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- BISERKO (1:11) "IF WE TALK ABOUT THE POPULATION, WE CAN SAY THEY ARE HEADING FOR RADICALIZATION. [MR.] SESELJ ONLY SYMBOLIZES THIS TREND, AND I THINK WHAT WE ARE FACING NOW IN SERBIA IS REALLY THE RECOMPOSITION OF NATIONALISM, ESPECIALLY IN MAJOR NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS, SUCH AS THE UNIVERSITY, THE [SERBIAN] ACADEMY [OF SCIENCES], THE WRITERS' ASSOCIATION, THE [OTHODOX] CHURCH, AND SOME OTHER INSTITUTIONS WHICH HAVE RECENTLY COME UP WITH DECLARATIONS OF AMNESTY FOR [BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN] KARADZIC. [OPT] SO, THIS ALSO INDICATES THE STATE OF MIND OF THE MOST IMPORTANT AND RELEVANT CIRCLES FOR POSSIBLE 'DENAZIFICATION,' WHICH IS NOT HAPPENING UNFORTUNATELY. SO, THEY ARE STILL REPRESENTING INFORMAL CENTERS OF DISSEMINATION OF THE 'NATIONAL' IDEA, AS IT WAS PRESENTED OVER THE PAST DECADE. SO, THIS IS ALSO SOMETHING THAT HAS TO BE DEALT WITH BY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY. UNFORTUNATELY, THERE ARE NOT ENOUGH DEMOCRATIC FORCES IN THE COUNTRY THAT CAN TACKLE THE ISSUE OF DENAZIFICATION, AND I THINK SERBIA WON'T BE READY FOR ANY DEMOCRATIZATION UNLESS WE FACE WHAT HAS HAPPENED IN A VERY RESPONSIBLE WAY. AND I DARE SAY THAT WE ARE NOT ABLE TO DO THAT WITHOUT HELP FROM OUTSIDE."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: SONIA BISERKO OF THE SERBIAN HELSINKI COMMITTEE SAYS THIS TREND TOWARD RADICALIZATION HAS A NEGATIVE IMPACT ON SERBIA'S NATIONAL MINORITIES, WHICH REPRESENT 36 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION.

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- BISERKO (0:34) "I MUST SAY THAT MINORITIES HAVE BEEN THE FOCUS OF VIOLATIONS AND DISCRIMINATION THROUGHOUT THE PAST 10 YEARS. BUT, UNFORTUNATELY, NOBODY HAS PAID SERIOUS ATTENTION TO THAT BECAUSE BOSNIA HAS ATTRACTED MUCH MORE ATTENTION FROM THE OUTSIDE. WHAT WE HAVE NOW AS A PROCESS IS REALLY 'SOFT ETHNIC CLEANSING,' ESPECIALLY OF CROATS AND MUSLIMS ON ONE SIDE AND ALBANIANS, BUT MANY OF THEM HAVE LEFT THE COUNTRY THROUGHOUT THE WAR YEARS, AND ALSO HUNGARIANS, [OPT] WHO ARE A LITTLE BIT BETTER OFF, ALTHOUGH ABOUT 40,000 HUNGARIANS HAVE ALSO LEFT THE COUNTRY." [END OPT]

    TEXT: LJILJANA SMAJLOVIC [LIL-I-YAH-NAH SMY-LOH-VICH] IS FOREIGN AFFAIRS EDITOR OF "VREME" [VRAY-MAY], AN INDEPENDENT MAGAZINE IN BELGRADE. SHE SAYS THE DEMOCRATIC OPPOSITION WAS THE BIGGEST LOSER IN LAST SUNDAY'S PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS, AND ESPECIALLY VUK DRASKOVIC [VOOK DRAHS-KOH-VICH], LEADER OF THE SERBIAN RENEWAL PARTY.

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- SMAJLOVIC (1:11) "I THINK THE MOST IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTIC OF THIS ELECTION IS THAT MR. DRASKOVIC HAS BEEN HURT. AND PART OF THIS IS PROBABLY THAT MANY OF HIS FORMER SUPPORTERS HAVE DECIDED THAT HE IS UNELECTABLE AND THAT THEREFORE THEY SHOULD NOT BE WASTING THEIR VOTE BY CASTING A BALLOT IN HIS NAME. AND A LOT OF THE OPPOSTION PEOPLE HERE IN SERBIA, CERTAINLY AROUND BELGRADE AND OTHER BIG CITIES, FEEL THAT HE HAS SOMEHOW BETRAYED THE OPPOSITION'S CAUSE, THAT HE HAS MADE A DEAL WITH MR. MILOSEVIC. MR. SESELJ NOW CONTROLS MORE VOTES THAN ANY RIGHTIST CANDIDATE ANYWHERE IN EUROPE. THIS IS SOMEWHAT SPECTACULAR, AND IT REALLY IS VERY DISHEARTENING, TO SEE THE THE SO-CALLED 'DEMOCRATIC OPPOSITION' SO MUCH IN RETREAT. BUT, OF COURSE, THE DEMOCRATIC OPPOSITION HAS TO A CERTAIN EXTENT ITSELF TO BLAME. IT HAS PURSUED A BOYCOTT, IT HAS STAYED AT HOME. IT HAS WITHDRAWN FROM THE PLAYING FIELD, AND THE PEOPLE WHO DO NOT WANT TO SEE A SOCIALIST PARTY CANDIDATE ELECTED, THEY SEEM TO HAVE FLOCKED TO MR. SESELJ'S RANKS."

    TEXT: MS. SMAJLOVIC SAYS THE GENERAL EXPECTATION IS THAT IN FUTURE ELECTIONS YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSOVIC WILL DO -- AS SHE PUTS IT -- "WHATEVER IS NECESSARY" TO ENSURE THE VICTORY OF THE RULING SOCIALIST PARTY AND THAT RADICAL PARTY CANDIDATE VOJISLAV SESELJ WILL NOT BE ELECTED.

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- SMAJLOVIC (0:29) "MR. MILOSEVIC HAS MADE MOVES TO SECURE AND TO STRENGTHEN THE FEDERAL AUTHORITIES AND THE POSITION OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. AND ONE OF THE CURIOSITIES OF THIS SITUATION IS THAT FOREIGNERS KEEP ASKING, 'ISN'T THIS GOING TO DESTABILIZE SERBIA? WHAT IS THE CONSEQUENCE OF SERBIA'S NOT HAVING A PRESIDENT?' AND ONE HAS TO SAY THAT NOT MUCH WILL CHANGE. IT IS MR. MILOSEVIC WHO IS STRONGLY IN POWER. IT REALLY ALMOST MAKES NO DIFFERENCE IF THERE IS A PRESIDENT OR NOT IN SERBIA."

    TEXT: OBRAD KESIC [OH-BRAD KES-SICH], HEAD OF THE DEMOCRATIC TRANSITIONS PROGRAM AT IREX [EYE-REX], THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND EXCHANGES BOARD HEADQUARTERED IN WASHINGTON, D-C, WAS IN BELGRADE FOR THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS ON DECEMBER 7. HE SAYS [BEGIN OPT] THE INCONCLUSIVE ELECTIONS HAVE LED TO A LOT OF SPECUALATION.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE -- KESIC (0:46) [OPT] "THERE ARE A COUPLE OF THINGS THAT PEOPLE ARE SPECULATING ABOUT HERE IN BELGRADE. THERE IS THE POSSIBILITY OF A DEAL BETWEEN THE RADICALS AND THE SOCIALISTS, SO THAT IN THE SECOND ROUND OF THE ELECTIONS THE SOCIALISTS MAY ALLOW [MR.] SESELJ TO SQUEAK THROUGH. I PERSONALLY AM VERY SKEPTICAL ABOUT THIS SCENARIO BECAUSE I DON'T THINK THAT [PRESIDENT] MILOSEVIC IS PREPARED TO ALLOW [MR.] SESELJ EVEN THE LIMITED AUTHORITY HE WOULD HAVE AS PRESIDENT OF SERBIA BECAUSE THERE'S JUST TOO MUCH MISCHIEF THAT HE CAN DO. THE SECOND SPECULATION CENTERS AROUND THE FACT THAT, FOR [MR.] MILOSEVIC'S PURPOSES, HE REALLY DOES NOT WANT TO HAVE REPUBLIC PRESIDENTS. HE DOES NOT NEED PRESIDENTS IN SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO. SO, IF THERE ISN'T A PRESIDENT IN SERBIA AND THERE'S THIS PRESIDENTIAL CRISIS IN MONTENEGRO, THAT LEAVES [PRESIDENT] MILOSEVIC AS THE SUPREME LEADER IN THE ENTIRE COUNTRY."

    TEXT: OBRAD KESIC SAYS [END OPT] THE RESULTS OF THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS DEMONSTRATE TWO THINGS -- APATHY AND DISILLUSIONMENT AMONG SERBIAN VOTERS, ESPECIALLY THE YOUNGER ONES, AND THE CONTINUING IMPORTANCE OF NATIONALISM AS A POLITICAL ISSUE.

    TAPE: CUT SIX -- KESIC (0:25) "HERE IN SERBIA THE 'NATIONAL QUESTION' REMAINS VERY IMPORTANT IN POLITICS. BUT THERE'S SOMETHING MORE IMPORTANT. AND THAT IS, THAT APATHY IS REALLY GROWING. PEOPLE ARE VERY DISSATISFIED WITH ELECTIONS, WITH THE PROGRESS THE OPPOSITION HAS MADE -- OR THE LACK OF PROGRESS -- SINCE THE DEMONSTRATIONS LAST WINTER. AND PEOPLE ARE BEGINNING TO SAY, TO USE A MILDER WORD, 'TO HECK WITH IT, WE'RE FED UP. WE REALLY DON'T HAVE A CHOICE. WE MIGHT AS WELL HUNKER DOWN AND WAIT THIS OUT."

    TEXT: THE IMPLICATIONS FOR NATIONAL MINORITIES ARE BLEAK, MR. KESIC SAYS, AND THE PRESIDENTIAL STALEMATE IN DOMESTIC POLITICS FURTHER COMPLICATES ANY PROGRESS ON THE ISSUE OF KOSOVO IN THE IMMEDIATE FUTURE.

    TAPE: CUT SEVEN -- KESIC (0:45) "BECAUSE THE WAY THAT POLITICS ARE GOING, [YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT] MILOSEVIC IS UNLIKELY TO MAKE ANY CONCESSIONS, ESPECIALLY CONCERNING KOSOVO AT THIS TIME, WHEN YOU HAVE AN ELECTION THAT'S COMING UP. AS FAR AS THE OTHER MINORITIES GO, HERE IN SERBIA, I THINK THE SAME HOLDS TRUE -- THAT IS, THAT [MR.] MILOSEVIC IS NOT GOING TO MAKE ANY MAJOR MOVES IN THE UPCOMING FUTURE BECAUSE OF THE POLITICAL UNCERTAINTY HERE AND BECAUSE OF THE IMPORTANCE OF THE 'NATIONAL QUESTION' TO MANY VOTERS. [MR.] SESELJ'S RISE AND THE POPULARITY OF THE RADICAL PARTY IN THE LAST TWO ELECTIONS ALSO IS A RESTRAINING FACTOR ON HIM. NOW, IT'S A USEFUL RESTRAINING FACTOR, BECAUSE [PRESIDENT] MILOSEVIC THEN CAN COME TO THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY AND SAY, 'SEE, IF YOU DON'T SUPPORT ME, THIS IS WHAT YOU'RE GOING TO GET. SO, YOU'D BETTER CHOOSE THE BEST OF TWO BAD ALTERNATIVES.'"

    TEXT: OBRAD KESIC SAYS IT IS "HIGHLY UNLIKELY" THAT THERE WILL BE MORE THAN A 50-PERCENT VOTER TURNOUT FOR THE SECOND ROUND OF PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS ON DECEMBER 21. AND, IF NOT, THE ELECTION WILL ONCE AGAIN BE DECLARED INVALID. MR. KESIC SAYS "MOST PEOPLE" IN SERBIA NOW BELIEVE YET ANOTHER ROUND OF ELECTIONS WILL HAVE TO BE SCHEDULED, WHICH WILL MOST LIKELY TAKE PLACE IN THE SPRING. AND, AT THAT TIME, HE ADDS, OTHER CANDIDATES MAY WELL BE ON THE BALLOT.
    12-Dec-97 2:44 PM EST (1944 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] E-U SUMMIT (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=12/12/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-224067
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: EUROPEAN UNION LEADERS ARE STRUGGLING AT SUMMIT TALKS IN LUXEMBOURG TO FIND A WAY OF LEAVING THE DOOR OPEN FOR EVENTUAL TURKISH MEMBERSHIP IN THE BLOC. JOHN FRASER REPORTS THE EUROPEAN LEADERS ALSO ARE DECIDING THE PROCEDURES FOR THE LAUNCH OF NEGOTIATIONS NEXT YEAR WITH THE SIX COUNTRIES WHICH ARE LIKELY TO JOIN THE E-U

    TEXT: THE CHALLENGE FACING EUROPEAN UNION LEADERS IS TO FIND A FORMULA FOR PROCEEDING WITH NEGOTIATIONS WITH CYPRUS, POLAND, HUNGARY, THE CZECH REPUBLIC, AND SLOVENIA -- WITHOUT CAUSING TOO MUCH OFFENSE TO THOSE APPLICANTS WHO WILL NOT BE IN THE FIRST GROUP OF NEW MEMBERS.

    THERE WILL BE FORMAL TALKS, AND AN ANNUAL REVIEW OF ELIGIBILITY, WITH FIVE EASTERN EUROPEAN STATES -- LITHUANIA, LATVIA, SLOVAKIA, ROMANIA, AND BULGARIA.

    BUT ALL THAT TURKEY HAS BEEN OFFERED SO FAR IS A SEAT ON AN ANNUAL CONFERENCE BRINGING TOGETHER E-U HEADS OF GOVERNMENT WITH ALL THE VARIOUS APPLICANT NATIONS.

    THE E-U LEADERS ARE MOST WORRIED ABOUT TURKEY'S HUMAN RIGHTS RECORD, AND THE SUMMIT HOST, LUXEMBOURG PRIME MINISTER JEAN-CLAUDE JUNCKER, SAYS IT COULD TAKE DECADES BEFORE THE TURKS CAN REMEDY THIS AND QUALIFY FOR E-U MEMBERSHIP.

    HE SAYS THERE IS NO PLACE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION FOR A COUNTRY WHERE TORTURE IS STILL PRACTICED, AND HE SAID THE E-U IS PARTICULARLY WORRIED ABOUT THE PROBLEM OF THE KURDS.

    TURKISH FOREIGN MINISTER ISMAIL CELL RESPONDED TO THIS, SAYING THAT IF TURKEY IS GIVEN NO POSITIVE SIGNAL FROM THE SUMMIT, IT WILL CALL OFF ITS CURRENT POLITICAL DIALOGUE WITH THE E-U.

    TURKEY'S RELATIONS WITH THE 15-NATION UNION HAVE TRADITIONALLY BEEN STRAINED, PARTLY BECAUSE OF THE ATTITUDE OF THE GREEKS.

    GREECE IS AN E-U MEMBER AND HAS USED THIS POSITION IN THE PAST TO DELAY THE EVOLUTION OF RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNION AND TURKEY.

    FRENCH AND GERMAN LEADERS HAVE STRESSED THE NEED TO KEEP THE DOOR OPEN FOR TURKEY'S EVENTUAL MEMBERSHIP, AND THERE IS A GROWING BELIEF THAT THIS IS NECESSARY TO ANCHOR TURKEY IN WESTERN EUROPE.

    THE SUMMIT ALSO IS SEEING A FORMULA FOR ENSURING THAT THE FOUR NATIONS WHICH ARE NOT EXPECTED TO BE IN AT THE LAUNCH OF THE NEW E-U CURRENCY, THE EURO, DO NOT FEEL LEFT OUT.

    THE FOUR ARE SEEKING AN INVITATION TO ALL DISCUSSIONS ABOUT THE NEW CURRENCY, BUT FRANCE AND GERMANY, IN PARTICULAR, SAY THIS CANNOT BE ALLOWED. THE DEAL WILL INVOLVE A FORMULA FOR CONSULTING THE FOUR -- BRITAIN, GREECE, SWEDEN, AND DENMARK -- BUT WILL NOT INVOLVE THEIR INCLUSION IN EVERY DISCUSSION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JF/JWH
    12-Dec-97 1:31 PM EST (1831 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

    DATE=12/12/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-224070
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES ROSE IN TRADING FRIDAY ON EUROPEAN MARKETS. V-O-A'S JACK HUIZENGA HAS THE CLOSING MARKET REPORT FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: STOCK PRICES IN LONDON, FRANKFURT, AND PARIS ALL ENDED IN THE PLUS SIDE AFTER A VOLATILE WEEK -- AND AFTER LOSSES OF TWO PERCENT OR MORE ON THURSDAY.

    THE BIGGEST GAIN WAS IN FRANKFURT. THE DAX-30 INDEX CLOSED THE FLOOR TRADING DAY UP MORE THAN 52 POINTS, ONE-AND-THREE-TENTHS PERCENT OF THE FRANKFURT MARKET'S TOTAL VALUE -- AND THEN ROSE ANOTHER ONE PERCENT IN LATER COMPUTERIZED TRADING. IN LONDON, THE FOOTSIE-100 INDEX ROSE MORE THAN NINE POINTS, ABOUT TWO-TENTHS PERCENT.

    PRICES ALSO WERE UP IN PARIS -- BUT BARELY. THE CAC-40 INDEX WAS UP ABOUT TWO POINTS.

    ON THE LONDON CURRENCY EXCHANGE, THE VALUE OF THE U-S DOLLAR ROSE AGAINST THE GERMAN MARK, THE JAPANESE YEN, AND THE BRITISH POUND. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JWH
    12-Dec-97 1:42 PM EST (1842 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/12/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10486
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=
    /// EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T TODAY!! ///

    INTRO: THE U-S PRESS IS REACTING TO THE GLOBAL WARMING TREATY REACHED THIS WEEK IN JAPAN IN ITS EDITORIAL COLUMNS THIS FRIDAY. OTHER TOPICS ATTRACTING ATTENTION INCLUDE: THE CONTINUING FINANCIAL CRISIS IN SOUTH KOREA; THE FEDERAL HEARING ON TWA FLIGHT 800'S CRASH -- AND MORE COMMENT ON JANET RENO'S CONGRESSIONAL HEARING THIS WEEK. NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK AND WILL INCLUDE SOME QUOTES IS _________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: REACTION IS DECIDEDLY MIXED IN THE U-S PRESS TO THE GLOBAL WARMING TREATY SIGNED IN KYOTO THIS WEEK, A TREATY THE U-S SENATE HAS ESSENTIALLY SAID IT WILL NOT RATIFY FOR SEVERAL REASONS. "THE NEW YORK POST" CALLS IT A "CYNICAL CHARADE," CONTINUING:

    VOICE: SO LEADERS FROM ACROSS THE PLANET HAVE DECIDED THAT THE FUTURE OF THE WORLD REQUIRES A HUGE CUT IN GREENHOUSE GASSES -- FIVE-POINT-TWO-PERCENT? .....IT'S ONE OF THOSE INVENTED NUMBERS THAT IS SUPPOSED TO HAVE X EFFECT ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND Y EFFECT ON THE ECONOMY 15 YEARS FROM NOW..... THE LEADERS OF THE WORLD KNOW THIS. THEY ALSO KNOW THERE WILL BE NO SUCH CUT IN GREENHOUSE EMISSIONS, WHATEVER DOCUMENT THEY SIGN. IT CANNOT HAPPEN WITHOUT HALTING GROWTH IN THE DEVELOPING NATIONS AND CAUSING A DEPRESSION IN THE UNITED STATES. WHICH MEANS IT WILL NOT HAPPEN -- UNLESS THE UNFORESEEABLE HAPPENS, LIKE A MAJOR TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCE.

    TEXT: TAKING THE OPPOSITE VIEW IS MAINE'S "PORTLAND PRESS HERALD" WHICH HAILS THE TREATY AS "A GOOD START ON WARMING."

    VOICE: IF THE UNITED STATES RATIFIES THE KYOTO PROTOCOL ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND FOLLOWS THROUGH ON ITS COMMITMENT TO THE TREATY, IT WILL PROFOUNDLY CHANGE THE WAY AMERICANS USE ENERGY.... THE IMPACT OF THE TREATY ON VOTERS ... WON'T BE SUBTLE, AND AS SUCH, PRESIDENT CLINTON FACES A DIFFICULT RATIFICATION BATTLE IN THE SENATE. IT IS A BATTLE WORTH FIGHTING, HOWEVER, BECAUSE THE IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING WON'T BE SUBTLE, EITHER.... THE KYOTO PROTOCOL IS A GOOD STARTING POINT.... IT DESERVES SUPPORT FROM ... THE FULL SENATE.

    TEXT: "THE PITTSBURGH TRIBUNE-REVIEW" CALLS ON THE SENATE TO "VOTE NO ON KYOTO," CALLING THE PACT "A TRIUMPH OF SCIENCE FANTASY OVER FACT THAT INVITES ECONOMIC DEVASTATION," AND ADDING:

    VOICE: ..... PRESIDENT CLINTON MUST NOW SELL IT. THE SENATE NEED ONLY REJECT IT.... THE ADMINISTRATION IS STUCK WITH A THEORY [GLOBAL WARMING] WITHOUT SCIENTIFIC CREDIBILITY AND A TREATY WITHOUT GLOBAL APPLICABILITY. FOR WHILE KYOTO WOULD COMMIT THE UNITED STATES AND 37 OTHER DEVELOPED NATIONS TO DRASTIC REDUCTIONS IN GHG [GREEN HOUSE GAS] EMISSIONS (FAR MORE DRASTIC THAN MR. CLINTON'S HARSH ORIGINAL PROPOSAL), CHINA, INDIA AND OTHER EMERGING INDUSTRIAL POWERS GET A PASS.... THE SENATE KNOWS ITS DUTY. JUST VOTE NO.

    [OPT]

    TEXT: ON LONG ISLAND, "NEWSDAY" SAYS THE "TREATY WOULD HARM U-S ECONOMY AND MUST BE FIXED OR REJECTED."

    VOICE: IF PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON AND VICE PRESIDENT AL GORE SUBMITTED THE TREATY TO CURB GREENHOUSE GASES AGREED TO IN KYOTO THIS WEEK, THE U-S SENATE WOULD SUMMARILY REJECT IT. AND RIGHTLY SO. AS NEGOTIATED, IT IS NOT IN THIS NATION'S INTERESTS.... THE QUESTION NOW IS WHETHER [MESSERS] CLINTON AND GORE WILL HAVE THE SKILL TO NEGOTIATE THE CHANGES THEY SAY THEY WANT.... THE WORK AT KYOTO ... IS NOT FINISHED. CRITICS BELIEVE THE WHITE HOUSE MADE A MAJOR BLUNDER. SUPPORTERS SAY IT TOOK A STEP IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION. THE REAL ANSWER WON'T BE KNOWN FOR AT LEAST ANOTHER YEAR....

    TEXT: WHILE THE NATIONAL DAILY, USA TODAY CALLS THE TREATY A "LANDMARK FIRST STEP."

    VOICE: THE KYOTO DEAL ... IS STILL A WORK IN PROGRESS. BUT COMPARED TO OTHER GLOBAL TREATIES ... IT'S A LIGHTNING BOLT OF COOPERATION. IN THIS RESPECT, THE AGREEMENT IS BOTH A LANDMARK ENVIRONMENTAL TREATY AND A LANDMARK EXERCISE IN THE GLOBALIZATION OF NATIONAL SELF-INTEREST. THE TREATY NEEDS HARD WORK. IT CANNOT BE RATIFIED NOW. BUT IT'S NOT WORTHLESS, EITHER. THOSE WHO DECLARE IT SO ARE SHOOTING [DECIDING] TOO FAST.

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE DAY'S OTHER BIG EDITORIAL TOPIC IS THE CONTINUING FINANCIAL MELT DOWN IN SOUTH KOREA, DESPITE A 57-BILLION DOLLAR INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND EMERGENCY LOAN. "THE NEW YORK TIMES" TITLES ITS COMMENTARY "KOREAN QUICKSAND."

    VOICE: THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND'S 57-BILLION BAILOUT PACKAGE FOR SOUTH KOREA LOOKED WORKABLE LAST WEEK, BUT IT HAS ALREADY BEEN OVERTAKEN BY ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS.... PREDICTING THE CONSEQUENCES OF DEFAULT IS DIFFICULT BECAUSE THE WORLD HAS NO RECENT EXPERIENCE WITH THE BANKRUPTCY OF ITS ELEVENTH-LARGEST ECONOMY. [OPT] BUT DEFAULT WOULD SURELY BUFFET OTHER COUNTRIES, STARTING WITH JAPAN, WHERE BANKS ARE ALREADY SADDLED WITH BAD DOMESTIC LOANS AND ARE HEAVY LENDERS TO SOUTH KOREA. [END OPT] .... TO SPARE ITSELF, AND EVERYONE ELSE, SOUTH KOREA NEEDS TO MOVE FASTER TO SATISFY THE FUND, AND ITS PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES MUST PUBLICLY ENDORSE THE LOAN AGREEMENT.

    TEXT: TODAY'S "CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" IS UPSET THAT THE I-M-F, WHICH IS DOING ITS BEST TO HELP OUT, IS BEARING THE BRUNT OF SO MUCH CRITICISM.

    VOICE: THE HERO IN THE ASIAN FINANCIAL CRISIS, THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, IS GETTING SHOT AT [CRITICIZED] FROM BOTH RIGHT AND LEFT AS IT RIDES WITH HUGE BAILOUT LOANS TO THE RESCUE OF THE REGION'S NATIONS IN DISTRESS. [OPT] ..... WHEN IT JUMPS INTO A CRISIS, WE SEE THE I-M-F ON A MERCY MISSION. THAT, OF COURSE, IS NOT THE WAY IT IS USUALLY REGARDED BY CITIZENS OF COUNTRIES BEING RESCUED. I-M-F 'CONDITIONALITY' FOR ITS LOANS HAS SOMETIMES PROMPTED RIOTS. [END OPT] WHAT I-M-F LOANS DO IS GIVE A NATION SOME EXTRA TIME TO WIND DOWN AN INTERNATIONAL PAYMENTS DEFICIT WITH INTERNAL POLICY CHANGES AND REFORMS.... THE SOMETIMES ROUGH JUSTICE OF I-M-F REFORMS DOES PREVENT EVEN WORSE SITUATIONS FROM DEVELOPING.

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE EXTENSIVE PROBE OF THE TWA FLIGHT 800 CRASH OFF LONG ISLAND, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" SAYS OF THIS WEEK'S EXHAUSTIVE HEARINGS INTO THE DISASTER:

    VOICE: .... [THEY] CONTINUE TO POINT OUT REASONABLE STEPS THAT COULD BE TAKEN TO MINIMIZE THE RISK OF A SIMILAR TRAGEDY.... INVESTIGATORS HAVE DISMISSED A BOMB OR A MISSILE AS THE SOURCE OF THE EXPLOSION IN THE AIRCRAFT'S CENTER FUEL TANK.... THE EXACT CAUSE MAY NEVER BE FOUND, BUT SEVERAL THEORIES UNDER STUDY COULD LEAD TO CHANGES TO GREATLY REDUCE THE RISK OF SUCH EXPLOSIONS. AND THAT'S WHAT THIS WEEK'S NTSB [NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD] HEARINGS CAN PRODUCE.

    TEXT: TODAY'S "MINNEAPOLIS STAR TRIBUNE" TAKES ISSUE WITH THE CONGRESSIONAL HEARING THIS WEEK AT WHICH ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO AND F-B-I CHIEF LOUIS FREEH WERE INTENSELY QUESTIONED ABOUT THE DECISION NOT TO CALL FOR A SPECIAL PROSECUTOR TO INVESTIGATE ALLEGED CAMPAIGN FINANCE WRONG-DOING.

    VOICE: WHAT A SILLY, SAD SPECTACLE REPRESENTATIVE DAN BURTON, REPUBLICAN OF INDIANA, PROVIDED THIS WEEK WITH HIS TAWDRY 'HEARINGS,' CALLED SOLELY FOR THE PURPOSE OF POURING MUD OVER [DISCREDITING] ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO. [CONGRESSMAN] BURTON AND HIS REPUBLICAN COLLEAGUES GOT SPLATTERED HEAD TO TOE, BUT [MS.] RENO EMERGED UNSMUDGED. [OPT] [MR.] BURTON SHOULD CALL AN END TO HIS UNSEEMLY, TAX-FINANCED MUD-WRESTLING TOURNAMENT. [END OPT] ..... JANET RENO DOESN'T DESERVE THE TREATMENT SHE HAS RECEIVED FROM ... HIS COMMITTEE. NOR DOES THE COUNTRY DESERVE [MR.] BURTON'S RASH AND THOUGHTLESS BEHAVIOR.

    TEXT: "THE WALL STREET JOURNAL," WHICH HAS CONSISTENTLY EDITORIALIZED FOR THE APPOINTMENT OF AN INDEPENDENT COUNSEL TO INVESTIGATE THE CHARGES, HAS A DIFFERENT VIEW OF THE HEARING.

    VOICE: MS. RENO'S ... REFUSAL TO APPOINT AN INDEPENDENT COUNSEL IS PREPOSTEROUS GIVEN THE WORDS OF THE STATUTE, AND CANNOT SUSTAIN SCRUTINY. SO SHE SIMPLY REFUSES TO EXPLAIN HERSELF -- AS ONE COMMENTATOR PUT IT, PULLING DOWN HER CARAPACE [THE SCIENTIFIC NAME OF A TURTLE'S TOP SHELL].... IT BECOMES CLEARER EVERY DAY THAT MS. RENO'S CARAPACE WITTINGLY OR UNWITTINGLY CONCEALS A JUSTICE DEPARTMENT IN MELTDOWN, AND IN ALL LIKELIHOOD A COVERUP OF TEAPOT DOME AND WATERGATE (MAJOR) DIMENSIONS.

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/MMK
    12-Dec-97 10:31 AM EST (1531 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=12/12/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-224078
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE DOWN TODAY (FRIDAY) IN ERRATIC TRADING. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 78 HUNDRED 38, DOWN 10 POINTS. FOR THE WEEK, THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE LOST 311 POINTS OR FOUR PERCENT. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED FRIDAY AT 953, DOWN ONE AND ONE-HALF POINTS.

    ANALYSTS SAY STOCK TRADERS APPARENTLY COULD NOT FIND ANY CONSISTENT SENSE OF DIRECTION FRIDAY. PRICES WERE UP AND DOWN ALL DAY WITH THE DIRECTION FREQUENTLY REVERSING.

    THERE WAS SOME GOOD ECONOMIC NEWS. THE GOVERNMENT REPORTED WHOLESALE PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE DOWN TWO-TENTHS OF A PERCENT LAST MONTH. BUT THERE WAS CONTINUED CONCERN ON WALL STREET ABOUT FINANCIAL TROUBLES IN ASIA AND HOW THE ASIAN SITUATION MIGHT AFFECT THE EARNINGS OF U-S CORPORATIONS.

    THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND WILL MEET MONDAY TO CONSIDER NEW WAYS TO HELP NATIONS FACING FINANCIAL PROBLEMS. THE MEETING COMES AFTER ITS ORGANIZED RECORD OF ALMOST 60 BILLION DOLLAR LOAN TO SOUTH KOREA HAS NOT YET REBUILT ECONOMIC CONFIDENCE THERE.

    ///REST OPT///

    SEVERAL MAJOR COMPUTER MANUFACTURERS SAY THEY WILL CONTINUE TO INCLUDE THE MICROSOFT COMPANY'S INTERNET BROWSER SYSTEM DESPITE A COURT RULING THAT THEY DO NOT HAVE TO INCLUDE IT. ON THURSDAY, A FEDERAL COURT JUDGE SAID MICROSOFT CAN NO LONGER REQUIRE COMPUTER MAKERS TO INCLUDE THE BROWSER AS A CONDITION FOR USING MICROSOFT'S WINDOWS 95 OPERATING SYSTEM IN COMPUTERS. BUT ON FRIDAY, I-B-M, DELL AND MICRON, THREE LARGE COMPUTER MAKERS, SAID THEY WILL CONTINUE TO INCLUDE THE MICROSOFT BROWSER.

    GENERAL MOTORS SAYS IT WILL EXPAND ITS INVESTMENTS IN LATIN AMERICA AND HAS ANNOUNCED IT WILL BUILD A NEW AUTO PARTS PLANT IN BRAZIL. G-M CHAIRMAN JACK SMITH SAYS THAT, WITH THE ELIMINATION OF MOST EXPORT TARIFFS, LATIN AMERICA IS A VERY ATTRACTIVE REGION FOR INVESTMENT.

    CONSOLIDATED EDISON, THE HUGE NEW YORK ELECTRIC AND GAS UTILITY, SAYS IT WILL REPURCHASE UP TO ONE BILLION DOLLARS WORTH OF ITS STOCK. CON ED'S STOCK PRICE ROSE MORE THAN FIVE PERCENT ON THE NEWS.(SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/PT
    12-Dec-97 5:27 PM EST (2227 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] TURKEY ISLAMISTS (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=12/12/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-224056
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    ///EDS REQUESTED BY ENGLISH "DATELINE," WHICH GETS FIRST USE///

    INTRO: THE TURKISH MILITARY IS PREPARING TO EXPEL OVER 60 OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS ACCUSED OF BEING ISLAMIST ACTIVISTS. AS AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM THE ANKARA, THE PURGE IS THE LATEST IN A SERIES OF ACTIONS AIMED AT CURBING THE RISING INFLUENCE OF POLITICAL ISLAM IN OFFICIALLY-SECULAR TURKEY.

    TEXT: THE TURKISH MILITARY, TURKEY'S MOST REVERED INSTITUTION, REMAINS ONE OF THE FEW SOLID BASTIONS OF THE PRO-SECULAR AND PRO-WESTERN ORIENTATION GIVEN TO MODERN TURKEY BY ITS FOUNDER, KEMAL ATATURK.

    THE TURKISH MILITARY VIEWS ITSELF AS THE GUARDIAN OF ATATURK'S REPUBLIC--SO NOT SURPRISINGLY, IT IS THE ONE INSTITUTION THE ISLAMISTS WOULD MOST LIKE TO PENETRATE-- PERHAPS, ACCORDING TO SOME ANALYSTS, BECAUSE THE ISLAMISTS BELIEVE THAT IF THEY CAN WIN OVER THE MILITARY, THEN SHOULD THEY COME TO POWER TURKEY'S TOP BRASS WOULD NO LONGER POSE A THREAT.

    EARLIER THIS YEAR, PRESSURE FROM TURKEY'S TOP BRASS FORCED TURKEY'S FIRST ISLAMIST PRIME MINISTER, NECMETTIN ERBAKAN TO RESIGN. MR ERAKAN'S REFUSAL TO COMPLY WITH A SET OF DIRECTIVES AIMED AT CURBING THE INFLUENCE OF HIS VERY OWN CONSTITUENTS SEALED HIS FATE. HIS WELFARE PARTY NOW FACES CLOSURE BY THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT OVER ALLEGATIONS THAT WHILE IN POWER PARTY OFFICIALS SOUGHT TO OVERTURN THE SECULAR STATE. ACCORDING TO MANY POLITICAL OBSERVERS HERE, WELFARE'S CLOSURE IS A FOREGONE CONCLUSION. MEANWHILE, TURKEY'S NEW PRO-SECULAR COALITION LED BY CONSERVATIVE PRIME MINISTER MESUT YILMAZ IS IMPLEMENTING A SERIES OF MEASURES AIMED AT CHECKING THE EXPANSION OF ISLAMIC MILITANCY. THESE INCLUDE BANNING PRO-ISLAMIC PUBLICATIONS AND BROADCASTS, AS WELL AS PHASING-OUT THE JUNIOR HIGH SECTIONS OF ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS TRAINING SCHOOLS, WHERE CRITICS SAY TURKISH TEENAGERS ARE ALLEGEDLY BRAINWASHED.

    TURKEY'S GENERALS HAVE LONG VOICED CONCERN OVER THE STEADY RISE OF THE ISLAMISTS AND CONTINUE TO VIEW RADICAL ISLAM AS THE FOREMOST INTERNAL THREAT TO THE COUNTRY. ANALYSTS SAY THAT TURKEY'S PRO-SECULAR, MILITARY-LED ELITE BELIEVES THAT BANNING THE WELFARE PARTY WOULD SHARPEN INTERNAL DIVISIONS WITHIN THE ISLAMIC MOVEMENT AND EVENTUALLY TRIGGER ITS DISSOLUTION INTO SMALLER GROUPS.

    BUT MANY OBSERVERS ARGUE THAT BANNING THE WELFARE PARTY COULD HAVE THE REVERSE EFFECT. SHOULD THE CURRENT GOVERNMENT FAIL TO CURB TRIPPLE-DIGIT INFLATION, CRACK DOWN ON WIDESPREAD STATE CORRUPTION AND NARROW THE EVER WIDENING GAP BETWEEN THE RICH AND POOR, WELFARE WOULD RETURN TO POWER -- ALBEIT UNDER A DIFFERENT NAME. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/PCF
    12-Dec-97 7:49 AM EST (1249 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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