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Voice of America, 98-12-04

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] KOSOVO REFUGEES (L-ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [02] KOSOVO-OBSERVERS (L ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)
  • [03] BOSNIA WAR CRIMES/REWARD (L) BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] U-S / BOSNIAN REWARDS (L-ALTERNATE) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [05] YEARENDER: THE QUESTION OF SOVEREIGNTY BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)
  • [06] FRANCE BRITAIN DEFENSE (L/S COMBO) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)
  • [07] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [08] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY GARY EDQUIST (WASHINGTON)
  • [09] SOROS ON CAPITALISM (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] KOSOVO REFUGEES (L-ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=12/4/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-242510
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS REFUGEE AGENCY, U-N-H-C-R, SAYS THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE IN THE SERBIAN PROVINCE OF KOSOVO ARE REFUSING TO GO BACK TO THEIR HOMES BECAUSE OF WHAT THEY CALL THE INTIMIDATING PRESENCE OF SERBIAN POLICE. LISA SCHLEIN IN GENEVA HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: FOR THE MOST PART, INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS HAVE BEEN SUCCESSFUL TO GET KOSOVO'S ETHNIC ALBANIANS TO RETURN HOME. U-N-H-C-R SPOKESMAN KRIS JANOWSKI SAYS PEOPLE KEEP TRICKLING BACK TO DAMAGED HOMES IN VILLAGES IN CENTRAL AND WESTERN KOSOVO. BUT HE SAYS THE TOWN OF MALISEVO IS AN EXCEPTION. MR. JANOWSKI SAYS THE TOWN REMAINS EMPTY. HE SAYS THE THREE-THOUSAND PEOPLE WHO WERE FORCED TO FLEE IN JULY REFUSE TO GO BACK BECAUSE OF THE HEAVY SERBIAN POLICE AND MILITARY PRESENCE THERE.

    ///JANOWSKI ACT///

    WE HAVE BEEN TRYING TOGETHER WITH THE KOSOVO DIPLOMATIC MISSION TO HELP THE SITUATION, PRESSING THE GOVERNMENT TO REDUCE THE POLICE PRESENCE, WHICH IS INTIMIDATING THE PEOPLE AND PREVENTING THEM FROM GOING BACK. THERE ARE A NUMBER OF DESTROYED HOUSES IN MALISEVO. BUT, THERE ARE ALSO A NUMBER OF HOUSES WHICH ARE STANDING AND PEOPLE COULD GO BACK, IF THEY WERE NOT AFRAID OF THE POLICE PRESENCE.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. JANOWSKI SAYS THE PEOPLE SHOULD GO BACK AND START REPAIRING THEIR HOMES, ELECTRICAL FACILITIES AND OTHER SYSTEMS WHICH WERE DAMAGED DURING THE FIGHTING.

    MALISEVO IS A FAIRLY LARGE TOWN STRATEGICALLY LOCATED AT A CROSSROADS, CONNECTING SEVERAL ROADS IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL KOSOVO. MR. JANOWSKI SAYS MANY KOSOVO REBELS ARE IN THE AREA AND THAT MAY ACCOUNT FOR THE LARGE NUMBERS OF SERBIAN SOLDIERS AND POLICE. NEVERTHELESS, HE SAYS THIS DOESN'T JUSTIFY THE HEAVY, INTIMIDATING PRESENCE OF SECURITY FORCES THERE.

    HE SAYS THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY IS IN CONTACT WITH THE AUTHORITIES IN SERBIA AND KOSOVO ABOUT THE SITUATION. BUT, HE SAYS EFFORTS TO GET THE SECURITY FORCES REMOVED FROM MALISEVO, SO FAR, HAVE BEEN TO NO AVAIL. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/PCF
    04-Dec-98 12:01 PM EST (1701 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] KOSOVO-OBSERVERS (L ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=12/4/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-242514
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: VIOLENCE IN YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE IS A WORRY FOR THE UNARMED CIVILIANS WHOSE JOB IT IS TO VERIFY COMPLIANCE WITH THE CEASE-FIRE, OR REPORT ON VIOLATIONS. THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE -- THE O-S-C-E -- IS CHARGED WITH THE VERIFICATION TASK. THE HEAD OF ITS KOSOVO MISSION WAS IN BRUSSELS FRIDAY TO COORDINATE POLICY WITH NATO, AS RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS.

    TEXT: WILLIAM WALKER SAYS HIS MISSION SHOULD BE FULLY OPERATIONAL IN JANUARY, BUT THE RECENT VIOLENCE IN KOSOVO IS A WORRY.

    ///WALKER ACT///

    OBVIOUSLY THIS IS VERY WORRISOME. WE HOPED THAT WE WERE ENTERING A PERIOD OF NOT JUST WITH WINTER COMING ON BUT ALSO WITH PEOPLE REALIZING THAT SORT OF BEHAVIOR. THAT SORT OF VIOLENCE WAS UNACCEPTABLE. WE THOUGHT THAT MAYBE THE LEVEL OF VIOLENCE WAS DROPPING, BUT THREE INCIDENTS IN ONE DAY INVOLVING 12 PEOPLE GETTING KILLED? THAT'S NOT A GOOD SIGN.

    ///END ACT ///

    //OPT//

    YUGOSLAV BORDER TROOPS SAY THEY KILLED EIGHT ALBANIANS TRYING TO CROSS INTO KOSOVO FROM ALBANIA. THREE OTHERS WERE KILLED AT WHAT MR. WALKER CALLS AN AMBUSH IN THE PROVINCIAL CAPITAL OF PRISTINA. A SERB WAS KILLED AT A KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY ROADBLOCK. //END OPT//

    MR. WALKER WAS IN BRUSSELS TO WORK OUT PROCEDURES WITH NATO, IN CASE HIS VERIFIERS RUN INTO TROUBLE. NATO HAS RECEIVED FORMAL APPROVAL FROM THE MACEDONIAN GOVERNMENT FOR A WELL-ARMED "EXTRACTION" FORCE THAT WILL BE READY, IF NECESSARY, TO CROSS THE BORDER INTO KOSOVO TO RESCUE THE VERIFIERS.

    MR. WALKER SAYS HE HAS TRIED TO REASSURE THE 30 COUNTRIES CONTRIBUTING TO THE O-S-C-E MISSION THAT SECURITY IS IMPORTANT TO HIS PEOPLE TRAVELING IN A DANGEROUS PLACE.

    ///SECOND WALKER ACT///

    ALL THE CONTRIBUTING NATIONS ARE VERY WORRIED ABOUT THE SECURITY OF THEIR PEOPLE, AS THEY SHOULD BE. AND I'M TRYING TO TELL THEM THAT NO ONE IS MORE CONCERNED WITH THE SECURITY OF PEOPLE ON THE GROUND THAN THE PEOPLE ON THE GROUND.

    ///END ACT///

    THE O-S-C-E VERIFIERS ARE SUPPOSED TO NUMBER TWO-THOUSAND BY THE TIME THEY ARE ALL IN PLACE IN KOSOVO, BUT MR. WALKER SAYS HE HAS BEEN ADVISED BY RICHARD HOLBROOKE -- WHO NEGOTIATED THE CEASE-FIRE -- THAT TWO THOUSAND IS A FLOOR, NOT A CEILING, AND MORE CIVILIAN VERIFIERS CAN BE BROUGHT TO KOSOVO, IF THE SITUATION REQUIRES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RDP/PCF/GE
    04-Dec-98 12:50 PM EST (1750 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] BOSNIA WAR CRIMES/REWARD (L) BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/4/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-242521
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS STEPPING UP PRESSURE TO BRING INDICTED BOSNIAN WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS TO JUSTICE BY OFFERING A MULTI-MILLION DOLLAR REWARD FOR INFORMATION LEADING TO THE ARRESTS OF SERB WARTIME LEADERS RADOVAN KARADZIC AND RATKO MLADIC. CORRESPONDENT NICK SIMEONE REPORTS BOTH HAVE ELUDED ARREST BY NATO-LED PEACEKEEPING FORCES SINCE THE END OF THE BOSNIAN WAR IN 1995.

    TEXT: THE STATE DEPARTMENT IS MAKING ARRANGEMENTS FOR AS MUCH AS FIVE MILLION DOLLARS TO BE OFFERED FOR THE ARRESTS OF SOME 30 INDICTED SUSPECTS FROM THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA STILL AT LARGE.

    SUCH REWARDS ARE USUALLY OFFERED FOR SUSPECTED DRUG TRAFFICKERS OR TERRORISTS WHO TARGET AMERICANS. BUT A NEW LAW EXTENDS FINANCIAL REWARDS TO HELP IN THE APPREHENSION OF WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS INDICTED BY THE U-N TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN ARIC SCHWANN SAYS THE REWARD PROGRAM EXPECTED TO BE PUT IN PLACE SOON -- WILL INCLUDE DISTRIBUTING INFORMATION ON MATCHBOOK COVERS AS WELL AS POSTERS DESIGNED TO BRING REMAINING INDICTED WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS TO JUSTICE.

    // SCHWANN ACT //

    WE'RE HOPING IT CAN HAPPEN, THE COORDINATION AND THE POLICY STUFF THAT NEEDS TO HAPPEN NOW WILL QUICKLY BE DONE. AND JUST LIKE WHEN WE HAD THE BIG CAMPAIGN FOR TERRORISTS LIKE WE RECENTLY SAW WITH (OSAMA) BIN LADEN, WE'LL SEE THAT HAPPEN.

    // END ACT //

    THE MOVE IS BEING WELCOMED BY THE COALITION FOR INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE, A GROUP WHICH PROVIDES SUPPORT FOR THE TWO U-N WAR CRIMES TRIBUNALS (FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA AND RWANDA). NINA BANG-JENSEN IS THE GROUP'S COUNSEL.

    // BANG-JENSEN ACT //

    ANYTHING THAT WILL LEAD TO THE ARREST OF THESE PEOPLE IS OBVIOUSLY POSITIVE. THE TERRORIST REWARDS PROGRAM HAS BEEN IN PLACE FOR QUITE A WHILE AND HAS PROVEN EFFECTIVE IN INDUCING SOME PEOPLE TO PROVIDE TESTIMONY IN SOME VERY IMPORTANT CASES. SO ONE HOPES THE SAME THING HAPPENS WITH THE TRIBUNAL.

    // END ACT //

    THE MOST WANTED SUSPECT -- BOSNIA'S WARTIME SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC -- IS WIDELY BELIEVED TO STILL HOLD SOME POWER BEHIND THE SCENES. NATO FORCES, WHICH HAVE THE AUTHORITY TO ARREST HIM, APPEAR RELUCTANT TO MOUNT WHAT COULD BE A RISKY OPERATION TO APPREHEND HIM BY FORCE. BOSNIAN SERBS REACTED WITH ANGER TO THE ARREST THIS WEEK OF GENERAL RADISLAV KRSTIC, THE HIGHEST RANKING BOSNIAN SERB OFFICIAL TO BE SEIZED SINCE THE END OF THE WAR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/NJS/JO
    04-Dec-98 3:27 PM EST (2027 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] U-S / BOSNIAN REWARDS (L-ALTERNATE) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=12/4/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-242529
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES SAY IT PLANS TO OFFER REWARDS OF UP TO FIVE-MILLION DOLLARS FOR THE CAPTURE OF BOSNIAN SERB WAR CRIMINALS. FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS.

    TEXT: OFFICIALS SAY NEW LAWS RECENTLY PASSED BY THE U-S CONGRESS HAVE EXPANDED A PROGRAM THAT ALLOWS FOR THE PAYMENT OF REWARDS FOR THE CAPTURE OF TERRORISTS AND DRUG TRAFFICKERS.

    UNDER NEW LEGISLATION, REWARDS OF UP TO FIVE-MILLION DOLLARS CAN BE PAID FOR THE ARREST AND CONVICTION OF THOSE INDICTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. ABOUT 30 BOSNIAN WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS, INCLUDING SERB WAR-TIME LEADERS RADOVAN KARADZIC AND GENERAL RATKO MLADIC, ARE STILL AT LARGE.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN JAMES FOLEY SAYS THE UNITED STATES IS NOW WORKING OUT THE DETAILS OF THE NEW REWARDS PROGRAM IN THE HOPES OF CAPTURING THE SUSPECTS.

    /// FOLEY ACT ///

    WE WILL IMPLEMENT THE LAW. IT'S AN IMPORTANT AUTHORITY THAT IS GIVEN TO THE SECRETARY AND WE FOUND IN OTHER INSTANCES, ESPECIALLY IN THE TERRORISM FIELD, THAT IT HAS REAPED IMPORTANT DIVIDENDS, AND WE HOPE IT WILL DO THE SAME AS FAR AS INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA ARE CONCERNED.

    /// END ACT ///

    OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE STILL WORKING OUT HOW THE PROGRAM WILL BE IMPLEMENTED, AND DO NOT YET KNOW HOW MUCH MONEY WILL BE OFFERED FOR THE CAPTURE OF ANY SPECIFIC SUSPECTS.

    WORD THAT THE PROGRAM IS ABOUT TO BE IMPLEMENTED COMES JUST DAYS AFTER NATO TROOPS CAPTURED A FORMER HIGH-RANKING BOSNIAN SERB ARMY OFFICER.

    THE SUSPECT, GENERAL RADISLAV KRSTIC, WILL BE TRIED FOR GENOCIDE AND CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY FOR HIS ALLEGED ROLE IN THE 1995 KILLING OF MUSLIMS FLEEING THE SO-CALLED U-N SAFE ZONE AT SREBRENICA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/WTW
    04-Dec-98 6:01 PM EST (2301 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] YEARENDER: THE QUESTION OF SOVEREIGNTY BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/4/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-42049
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY HAS BEEN DEEPLY DIVIDED IN THE PAST OVER WHEN AND WHERE TO INTERVENE IN THE INTERNAL AFFAIRS OF SOVEREIGN STATES. BUT IN OCTOBER, THE NATO ALLIANCE UNANIMOUSLY AGREED TO THREATEN AIR STRIKES AGAINST SERBIA UNLESS SERB FORCES STOPPED TERRORIZING ETHNIC ALBANIAN CIVILIANS IN YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE. THE FOLLOWING MONTH, THE UNITED NATIONS CONSIDERED SUPPORTING FURTHER U-S AIR STRIKES AGAINST IRAQ. NEITHER THREAT WAS CARRIED OUT, BUT THE PRECEDENT OF INTERVENING IN A SOVEREIGN STATE WAS ESTABLISHED. V-O-A'S PAMELA TAYLOR LOOKS AT THE ISSUE OF SOVEREIGNTY IN THIS YEAREND REPORT.

    TEXT: ALTHOUGH RUSSIA ULTIMATELY AGREED TO SUPPORT THE NATO STRIKE THREAT AGAINST SERB TARGETS, INITIALLY IT HAD THREATENED TO USE ITS VETO IN THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL TO STOP THE ACTION. RUSSIA'S CONCERN IS UNDERSTANDABLE. BEGINNING IN 1994, RUSSIAN FORCES CRACKED DOWN ON BREAKAWAY CHECHNYA IN A WAR THAT KILLED AT LEAST 80-THOUSAND PEOPLE. AT THE TIME, THE UNITED STATES AND THE WESTERN ALLIES DECIDED THE WAR IN CHECHNYA WAS AN INTERNAL RUSSIAN MATTER.

    BUT KOSOVO IS ON EUROPE'S SOUTHERN FLANK, AND FEARS OF A HUMANITARIAN AND REFUGEE DISASTER PROMPTED NATO TO FINALLY THREATEN MILITARY ACTION AGAINST SERBIA. RICHARD HAAS OF THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION IN WASHINGTON GIVES THIS REASON FOR THE DECISION TO INTERVENE IN KOSOVO:

    /// FIRST HAAS ACT ///

    WHEN GOVERNMENTS VIOLATE WHAT YOU MIGHT CALL THEIR OBLIGATIONS TO THEIR OWN CITIZENS, THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY, IN TURN, HAS EITHER THE RIGHT TO INTERVENE, OR, IF IT GETS BAD ENOUGH -- IN THE CASE, SAY, OF GENOCIDE -- HAS AN OBLIGATION TO INTERVENE. SO, INCREASINGLY, SOVEREIGNTY IS SEEN NOT SIMPLY AS SOMETHING THAT GOVERNMENTS BENEFIT FROM, BUT IT'S ALSO SEEN, IN SOME WAYS, AS SOMETHING OF A CONTRACT IN THAT WHEN A GOVERNMENT VIOLATES THE CONTRACT IN THE WAY IT TREATS ITS CITIZENS, THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY HAS THE OPTION OF INTERVENING.

    /// END ACT ///

    AND THE DECISION ON WHETHER TO EXERCISE THIS OPTION OFTEN FALLS ON THE UNITED STATES, AS THE WORLD'S LAST SUPERPOWER. IT IS A HEAVY BURDEN, SAYS RICHARD HAAS -- ONE WHICH HAS LED WASHINGTON TO HESITATE MORE OFTEN THAN TO ACT. // OPT // THE INITIAL REASON BEHIND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY'S FAILURE TO ACT IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, ACCORDING TO MR. HAAS, WAS THE SERB INSISTENCE IT WAS A CIVIL WAR. THE BOSNIANS WHO WERE UNDER ATTACK, HOWEVER, SAID IT WAS A WAR OF AGGRESSION.

    /// SECOND HAAS ACT ///

    YOU COULD SAY WITH BOSNIA, FOR SEVERAL YEARS THE UNITED STATES WAS RELUCTANT TO INTERVENE. IN THE CASE OF KOSOVO, WE HAVE [ALSO] BEEN RELUCTANT TO INTERVENE. IT IS NOT CLEAR TO ME, EVEN IN RETROSPECT, THAT NATO WAS REALLY PREPARED TO INTERVENE IN KOSOVO. BUT, TO THE EXTENT PEOPLE IN NATO WERE PREPARED TO INTERVENE, I THINK IT HAD MOSTLY TO DO WITH THE REVELATIONS OF THE ATROCITIES AND THE FACT THAT CAMERAS WERE CAPTURING WHAT HAD HAPPENED AND WERE INCREASINGLY EMBARRASSING GOVERNMENTS.

    /// END ACT ////// END OPT ///

    THE DECISION TO INTERVENE MILITARILY IN A SOVEREIGN COUNTRY HAS USUALLY BEEN FOR REASONS OF RETALIATION OR CONCERNS ABOUT TERRORISM. THE U-S STRIKES ON LIBYA IN 1986 FOLLOWED A TERRORIST ATTACK ON AMERICAN SERVICEMEN IN BERLIN. THE U-S AIR STRIKES AGAINST AFGHANISTAN AND SUDAN LAST AUGUST FOLLOWED TERRORIST BOMB ATTACKS ON U-S EMBASSIES IN EAST AFRICA. THE GULF WAR AIRSTRIKES WERE IN RETALIATION FOR IRAQ'S VIOLATION OF KUWAIT'S SOVEREIGNTY. RICHARD HAAS SAYS IN EVERY CASE, THE COSTS MUST BE WEIGHED AGAINST THE BENEFITS, ESPECIALLY IN THE CASE OF CIVIL WARS:

    /// THIRD HAAS ACT ///

    A LOT OF COUNTRIES, INCLUDING THE UNITED STATES, ARE SOMEWHAT RELUCTANT TO INTERVENE, PARTICULARLY WHEN THEY FEEL THE COST[S] WOULD BE HIGH AS THEY OFTEN ARE IN SITUATIONS THAT ARE ESSENTIALLY CIVIL WARS. WE DECIDED TO INTERVENE THROUGH LAUNCHING CRUISE MISSILES IN AFGHANISTAN AND SUDAN BECAUSE WE THOUGHT WE HAD STRATEGIC RATIONALE FOR SO DOING. IN ONE CASE, A TERRORIST CONCLAVE, AND IN ANOTHER CASE A CHEMICAL-WEAPONS PLANT. AND WE THOUGHT WE COULD DO SO AT NO COST TO AMERICAN SOLDIERS AND AT A LIMITED ECONOMIC COST.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT IN THE CASE OF SUDAN AND AFGHANISTAN -- AS IN IRAQ AND LIBYA THE SOVEREIGNTY OF NATIONS WAS CLEARLY VIOLATED. RICHARD HAAS SAYS IN THESE CASES, WHAT DEFINED INTERNATIONAL ACTION WAS THE THREAT OF TERRORISM.

    /// FOURTH HAAS ACT ///

    OF COURSE WE VIOLATED THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THESE COUNTRIES, BUT UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW. IF A GOVERNMENT IS EITHER UNABLE TO STOP TERRORISTS FROM USING ITS TERRITORY, OR DECIDES TO ALLOW THEM, CONSCIOUSLY, TO USE ITS TERRITORY FOR THOSE SORTS OF PURPOSES, THEY, THEREFORE, FORFEIT SOME OF THE NORMAL ADVANTAGES OF SOVEREIGNTY. ESSENTIALLY, BY ALLOWING YOUR COUNTRY TO BE USED AS A TERRORIST BASE, YOU HAVE DECLARED WAR ON OTHERS.

    /// END ACT ///

    // OPT //

    THE QUESTION REMAINS, IN WHICH CASES DO INDIVIDUAL COUNTRIES OR ORGANIZATIONS SUCH AS NATO DECIDE TO GET UNITED NATIONS APPROVAL, AND WHEN DO THEY DECIDE TO ACT UNILATERALLY? RUSSIA AND CHINA ULTIMATELY SUPPORTED A U-N RESOLUTION CALLING FOR AIR STRIKES AGAINST IRAQ, BECAUSE THE SECRECY OF SADDAM HUSSEIN'S CHEMICAL-WEAPONS PROGRAM WAS THREATENING MORE THAN WESTERN NATIONS. BUT RICHARD HAAS SAYS IN HIS OPINION, SUCH DECISIONS SHOULD NEVER BE SUBJECT TO U-N APPROVAL.

    /// FIFTH HAAS ACT ///

    THE IDEA THAT SOMEHOW U-N RESOLUTIONS ARE NECESSARY IS SIMPLY ANOTHER WAY OF SAYING THAT WE GIVE RUSSIA OR CHINA OR FRANCE OR BRITAIN OR THE UNITED STATES A VETO OVER WHAT CAN BE DONE IN THE WORLD. I FOR ONE WOULD ARGUE THAT IS SIMPLY WRONG. I THINK IT'S BETTER TO ACT MULTI-LATERALLY. IT MIGHT BE NATO. IT MIGHT BE A PARTICULAR REGIONAL ORGANIZATION. OR IN SOME CASES, IT MIGHT BE A MUCH LESS FORMAL COALITION, THE SORT OF THING WE SAW DURING OPERATION "DESERT SHIELD" AND "DESERT STORM," WHICH COULD HAVE BEEN DONE WITHOUT ANY FORMAL U-N ACTION.

    /// END ACT ////// END OPT ///

    THE UNITED STATES MAY BE THE LAST SUPERPOWER IN THE WORLD, SAYS RICHARD HAAS, BUT IT DOES NOT WANT TO BE SEEN AS THE POLICEMAN OF ALL THE WORLD'S CONFLICTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PAM/WTW
    04-Dec-98 5:03 PM EST (2203 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] FRANCE BRITAIN DEFENSE (L/S COMBO) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)

    DATE=12/4/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-242511
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITAIN AND FRANCE HAVE AGREED ON THE NEED FOR A NEW EUROPEAN DEFENSE STRUCTURE. THE ANNOUNCEMENT WAS MADE AFTER A REGULAR SUMMIT MEETING BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES FRIDAY. THE AGREEMENT, PROPOSED BY BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR, SAYS THE EUROPEAN UNION SHOULD, AFTER YEARS OF BRITISH HESITATION, TAKE OVER A ROLE IN THE CONTINENT'S DEFENSE. JULIAN NUNDY REPORTS FROM PARIS.

    TEXT: THE HISTORICAL SURPRISE IN THE AGREEMENT SIGNED BY BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR AND FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC IS THAT THE INITIATIVE COMES FROM BRITAIN.

    EVER SINCE THE 1950S, FRANCE HAS HARBORED IDEAS OF CREATING A EUROPEAN DEFENSE THAT WOULD RELY MORE ON EUROPE THAN ON THE UNITED STATES. THE BIGGEST CRISIS BETWEEN FRANCE AND ITS ALLIES CAME IN 1966 WHEN THE THEN PRESIDENT CHARLES DE GAULLE FORCED THE AMERICAN-LED NATO ALLIANCE TO MOVE ITS HEADQUARTERS OUT OF PARIS TO BRUSSELS.

    OVER THE PAST FIVE DECADES, THE DEFENSE OF WESTERN EUROPE HAS ALWAYS BEEN GUARANTEED BY THE UNITED STATES, WHICH DID, AND STILL DOES, PROVIDE THE LEADERSHIP FOR THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION.

    WITH BRITAIN CHANGING ITS VIEW TOWARD THE REST OF EUROPE SINCE THE ELECTION OF THE NEW LABOR GOVERNMENT LAST YEAR, THE AGREEMENT JUST SIGNED IN THE RESORT OF SAINT MALO, BRITTANY, IS THE MOST CONCRETE DEMONSTRATION OF A REAL AND NEW BRITISH COMMITMENT TO THE REST OF THE CONTINENT.

    /// REST OPT FOR SHORT ///

    THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN FRANCE AND BRITAIN STRESSES THE NEED FOR A NEW AND AUTONOMOUS EUROPEAN STRUCTURE TO RESPOND TO INTERNATIONAL CRISES.

    SPEAKING AT THE END OF THE ANNUAL FRANCO-BRITISH BILATERAL SUMMIT, MR BLAIR STRESSED THAT BRITAIN SEES A MORE ACTIVE EUROPEAN ROLE AS AN ADDITION TO NATO, RATHER THAN A MOVE TO SUPPLANT IT.

    ///BLAIR ACT///

    I THINK IT IS VITAL FOR EUROPE TO HAVE A STRONGER AND MORE COHERENT FORCE AND VOICE IN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS. AS WE POINT OUT, THIS IS FULLY IN CONFORMITY WITH OUR EXISTING ALLIANCES -- IN PARTICULAR, THE ATLANTIC ALLIANCE, IN NATO.

    ///END ACT.///

    THE IMPETUS FOR THE NEW THINKING COMES FROM THE ONGOING CRISES IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. THE EUROPEANS EFFECTIVELY SOUGHT NOT JUST AMERICAN APPROVAL THERE, BUT LOGISTICAL SUPPORT FROM THE UNITED STATES BEFORE THEY COULD SEND IN PEACEKEEPING FORCES OR DECIDE ON AGGRESSIVE DETERRENCE, SUCH AS THE AIR BOMBARDMENT OF ARTILLERY POSITIONS AROUND SARAJEVO.

    THE IRONY IS THAT IT HAS TRADITIONALLY BEEN FRANCE -- OPPOSED BY BRITAIN -- THAT HAS CAMPAIGNED FOR WHAT IT CALLS "A EUROPEAN DEFENSE PILLAR." BRITAIN, INSISTING THAT THE EUROPEAN UNION SHOULD REMAIN A TRADING ENTITY ABOVE ALL, WAS FORMERLY ANTAGONISTIC TO ANY FUNDAMENTAL REVIEW OF THE CONTINENT'S DEFENSE ARRANGEMENTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JWN/PCF
    04-Dec-98 12:21 PM EST (1721 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=12/4/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-242526
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// ATTN EDITORS : THE LAST GRAPH WAS CUT ///

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP TODAY (FRIDAY) IN A STRONG REBOUND FROM THE DOWNTREND EARLIER IN THE WEEK. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT NINE THOUSAND 16, UP 136 POINTS, ONE AND ONE HALF PERCENT. BUT FOR THE WEEK, THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE LOST 317 POINTS, OR MORE THAN THREE PERCENT. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX WAS UP 26 POINTS ON FRIDAY, CLOSING AT 11 HUNDRED 76.

    ANALYSTS SAY THAT, WITH THE BIG SELL-OFF EARLIER THIS WEEK, IT WAS TIME FOR SOME BARGAIN HUNTING. IN ADDITION, TRADERS WERE ENCOURAGED BY THE LATEST U-S EMPLOYMENT REPORT WHICH SHOWS 267 THOUSAND NEW JOBS CREATED LAST MONTH, AN INDICATION THE U-S ECONOMY IS STILL FUNDAMENTALLY HEALTHY.

    ///BEGIN OPT///

    SOME ANALYSTS, SUCH AS DAVID JONES OF THE AUBREY LANSTON COMPANY, SAY THE EMPLOYMENT FIGURES MAKE IT UNLIKELY THAT THE FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD, THE U-S CENTRAL BANK, WILL AGAIN LOWER INTEREST RATES AT ITS MEETING LATER (12/22) THIS MONTH.

    /// OPT - JONES ACT ///

    WE ARE ENDING THE YEAR ON A RELATIVELY STRONG NOTE ON EMPLOYMENT AND I THINK IT WILL KEEP FED POLICY ON HOLD (UNCHANGED) AT THE FINAL POLICY MEETING OF THE YEAR.

    /// END ACT - END OPT ///

    THE STRONG EMPLOYMENT FIGURES COME DESPITE SOME HIGH-PROFILE LAYOFFS ANNOUNCED BY MAJOR U-S CORPORATIONS RECENTLY. THE LATEST COMES FROM THE JOHNSON AND JOHNSON HEALTH CARE COMPANY WHICH SAYS IT WILL ELIMINATE MORE THAN FOUR THOUSAND JOBS AND CLOSE 36 PLANTS WORLDWIDE.

    /// REST OPT FOR LONG ///

    THE GOVERNMENT REPORTS THAT U-S FACTORY ORDERS FELL IN OCTOBER FOR THE FIRST TIME IN FIVE MONTHS. ANALYSTS SAY THE FALL IN EXPORTS TO ASIA WAS THE MAIN REASON FOR THE DECLINE.

    THE MANIA FOR INTERNET-RELATED STOCKS CONTINUES. AN INTERNET AUCTION COMPANY COMPANY NAMED UBID (YOU-BID) ISSUED STOCK AT 15 DOLLARS A SHARE AND THE PRICE SOARED TO 67 DOLLARS A SHARE WITHIN THE FIRST TWO HOURS OF TRADING.

    GENERAL MOTORS SAYS IT PLANS TO INTRODUCE A MODULAR ASSEMBLY SYSTEM AT ITS SATURN VEHICLE PLANT WITHIN TWO YEARS. MODULAR ASSEMBLY USES SUPPLIERS AND OTHER OUTSIDE WORKERS TO BUILD COMPLETE COMPONENT SYSTEMS, DRASTICALLY REDUCING THE COST OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY. A SPOKESMAN FOR THE AUTOWORKERS UNION HAD NO IMMEDIATE COMMENT BUT SAID THE UNION IS STUDYING THE PLAN. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/PT
    04-Dec-98 5:13 PM EST (2213 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY GARY EDQUIST (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/04/98
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11037
    TELEPHONE=619-2702
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: EDITORIAL WRITERS IN THE UNITED STATES ARE FOCUSED ON A DROP IN EUROPEAN INTEREST RATES; WORRIES ABOUT THE MONEY BEING SPENT ON THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION; A CALL FOR THE RULE OF LAW IN CHINA; AND FEARS THAT VIOLENCE BETWEEN PALESTINIANS AND ISRAELIS COULD IMPERIL THE MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS. WITH A REVIEW OF SOME OF THE COMMENT IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST, HERE IS _______.

    TEXT: THE CENTRAL BANKS OF THE 11 EUROPEAN COUNTRIES THAT WILL ADOPT A COMMON CURRENCY NEXT MONTH HAVE CUT INTEREST RATES. /// OPT /// THE GERMAN CENTRAL BANK (THE BUNDESBANK) AND THE BANK OF FRANCE LED THE WAY (THURSDAY) BY REDUCING THEIR BENCHMARK RATES (THREE-TENTHS OF ONE PERCENT) TO THREE PERCENT. /// END OPT /// "THE NEW YORK TIMES" WRITES THAT THE RATE CUT IS A SIGN "THE ECONOMIC OUTLOOK IN EUROPE IS WEAKENING." THE NEWSPAPER ADDS:

    VOICE: THE QUESTION FOR THE MAJOR WESTERN ECONOMIES IS HOW THEY CAN CONTINUE TO PROSPER WHILE THE REST OF THE WORLD SUFFERS. IN THE UNITED STATES, CONSUMERS REMAIN CONFIDENT AND THIS CHRISTMAS LOOKS LIKE A STRONG ONE FOR MANY RETAILERS. ... IT IS LIKELY THAT THE NEW EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK ... WILL NEED TO LOWER INTEREST RATES AGAIN NEXT YEAR.

    TEXT: /// OPT/// "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" IS WRITING THAT ECONOMIC REFORM IN BRAZIL "HAS BECOME A CRUCIAL TEST FOR ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT IN THE AGE OF GLOBALISM." THE MONITOR GOES ON TO WRITE:

    VOICE: INTERNATIONAL LENDERS HAVE SUPPLIED NEEDED FINANCIAL AID WITH THE 41-POINT-FIVE BILLION (DOLLAR) RESCUE PLAN ANNOUNCED IN NOVEMBER. CAN BRAZIL SUPPLY THE NECESSARY POLITICAL WILL? ... THEIR READINESS TO CURB SPENDING HABITS IS SERIOUSLY IN DOUBT. THE DOUBTS WERE CONFIRMED BY THE FAILURE OF (BRAZIL'S) CONGRESS ON WEDNESDAY TO PASS A MEASURE DESIGNED TO REIN IN BRAZIL'S OUT-OF-CONTROL SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM. ... WITH STRONG INTERNATIONAL BACKING, BRAZIL CAN PROVE ITSELF AN 'EMERGING MARKET' CAPABLE OF SETTING A SOUND ECONOMIC COURSE. LOTS OF HOPES ARE PINNED ON ITS EXAMPLE. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: FIVE U-S ASTRONAUTS AND A RUSSIAN COSMONAUT LIFTED OFF FROM CAPE CANAVERAL (FLORIDA) FRIDAY MORNING ON BOARD THE SPACE SHUTTLE ENDEAVOUR TO DELIVER THE FIRST AMERICAN MODULE OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION. IN ITS LEAD EDITORIAL, "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" WRITES "THERE ARE BETTER WAYS TO SPEND NASA'S (THE SPACE AGENCY) MONEY THAN CONTINUING TO WASTE IT ON THE SPACE STATION."

    VOICE: THE AGENCY (NASA) EXCLAIMS THE SPACE STATION'S BILLIONS (IN COST) WILL PAY OFF IN SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES, BUT MOST SCIENTISTS BELIEVE THE RETURN WILL BE NIL COMPARED WITH THE DOLLARS SPENT. ... THERE IS A FAR BETTER WAY FOR NASA TO SPEND ITS BILLIONS. THAT WOULD BE BY EXPANDING THE SEARCH INTO A REPLACEMENT FOR THE SPACE SHUTTLE, AN OBSOLETE AND STILL UNSAFE VEHICLE BASED ON 1960S AND 1970S TECHNOLOGY. ... END THE SPACE STATION; BUILD A NEW AND BETTER SHUTTLE. THAT'S WHERE THE FUTURE IS.

    TEXT: TWO PROMINENT CHINESE PRO-DEMOCRACY ACTIVISTS -- XU WENLI AND QIN YONGMIN -- WERE ARRESTED THIS WEEK AND CHARGED BY CHINESE AUTHORITIES WITH VIOLATING UNSPECIFIED LAWS. /// OPT /// MR. XU HAS SPENT MORE THAN A DECADE IN JAIL FOR HIS ROLE IN THE 1978-79 DEMOCRACY WALL MOVEMENT. MR. QIN WAS CHARGED WITH PLOTTING TO OVERTHROW THE STATE, FOR HELPING TO SET UP AND TRYING TO REGISTER THE OPPOSITION CHINESE DEMOCRATIC PARTY. /// END OPT

    /// THE "WALL STREET JOURNAL" HAS THIS COMMENT ABOUT THE ARRESTS.

    VOICE: CHINESE DISSIDENT XU WENLI AND HIS COLLEAGUES ARE RUNNING INTO ALL THE DIFFICULTIES ONE MIGHT EXPECT IN FORMING A NEW PARTY IN AN AUTHORITARIAN ONE PARTY STATE. BEIJING IS REFUSING TO RECOGNIZE THE CHINA DEMOCRATIC PARTY, AND ITS LEADING MEMBERS FACE JAIL SENTENCES FOR 'PLOTTING TO SUBVERT THE GOVERNMENT.' ... IT IS DISMAYING TO SEE HOW QUICKLY AND BLATANTLY CHINA IS RENEGING ON THE PROMISES IT MADE BY SIGNING THE UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS TWO MONTHS AGO. ... THE WIDESPREAD ACKNOWLEDGMENT THAT CHINA NEEDS THE RULE OF LAW IS ENCOURAGING. BUT THE IDEA CLEARLY HASN'T PERCOLATED FAR ENOUGH THROUGH THE STATE SECURITY APPARATUS TO HELP MR. XU.

    TEXT: "NEWSDAY" (LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK) WRITES OF ITS CONCERN THAT "SPIRALING VIOLENCE" IS PUTTING THE MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS AT RISK.

    VOICE: THE ESCALATING VIOLENCE BETWEEN PALESTINIANS AND ISRAELIS COULD JEOPARDIZE THE HARD-WON WYE RIVER PEACE AGREEMENT UNLESS LEADERS ON BOTH SIDES STOP STOKING THE TEMPERS OF EXTREMISTS. IT'S IMPERATIVE THAT PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON AND HIS MIDDLE EAST TEAM PERSUADE ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER BENJAMIN NETANYAHU AND PALESTINIAN LEADER YASSER ARAFAT TO URGE MODERATION AND REASON ON THEIR FOLLOWERS. IF NOT, (MR.) CLINTON'S VISIT TO ISRAEL AND GAZA NEXT WEEK WILL BE A REQUIEM, NOT A CELEBRATION OF THE ACCORD.

    TEXT: THAT COMMENT FROM "NEWSDAY" CONCLUDES THIS EDITION OF THE EDITORIAL DIGEST.
    NEB/GE/JO
    04-Dec-98 10:23 AM EST (1523 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] SOROS ON CAPITALISM (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/3/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-242485
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FINANCIER GEORG SOROS, THE HUNGARIAN-BORN AMERICAN, IS PROMOTING HIS NEW BOOK, "THE CRISIS OF GLOBAL CAPITALISM." V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS THAT MR. SOROS BELIEVES THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM NEARLY COLLAPSED THIS PAST AUGUST WHEN RUSSIA DEFAULTED ON ITS FOREIGN DEBT.

    TEXT: MR. SOROS TOLD A WASHINGTON AUDIENCE THAT THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL SYSTEM IS BROKEN AND REQUIRES URGENT REPAIR. HE SAYS THERE NEEDS TO BE SOME KIND OF CONTROL ON THE HUGE FLOWS OF CAPITAL WHOSE INJECTION AND SUBSEQUENT WITHDRAWAL FROM SMALL MARKETS OFTEN CAUSE HAVOC. MR. SOROS HIMSELF OPERATES A MULTI-BILLION-DOLLAR INVESTMENT FUND THAT SEEKS HIGH RETURNS IN DEVELOPING-COUNTRY MARKETS. DESPITE BEING A SPECULATIVE INVESTOR, MR. SOROS SAYS MORE RULES ARE NEEDED.

    /// FIRST SOROS ACT ///

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF REGULATORY AGENCIES HAS LAGGED BADLY BEHIND THE DEVELOPMENT OF FINANCIAL MARKETS. WE HAVE THE BRETTON WOODS INSTITUTIONS -- THE I-M-F [INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND] AND WORLD BANK, BUT THEY WERE DESIGNED FOR A DIFFERENT EPOCH.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. SOROS SAYS BY IMPOSING HIGH INTEREST RATES ON DISTRESSED COUNTRIES, THE I-M-F IS NOT HELPING RESOLVE THE CURRENT CRISIS. IN FACT, SAYS MR. SOROS, THE I-M-F IS NOW PART OF THE PROBLEM.

    /// SECOND SOROS ACT ///

    THE I-M-F IMPOSES HARSH CONDITIONS ON THE BORROWING COUNTRIES, WHICH ALLOWS THEM TO SERVICE THEIR DEBTS. BUT IT IMPOSES NO CONDITIONS ON THE LENDERS. THIS ASYMMETRY GOES TO REINFORCE THE ASYMMETRY BETWEEN THE CENTER [THE RICH COUNTRIES] AND THE PERIPHERY [POOR COUNTRIES] WHICH WAS BUILT INTO THE SYSTEM IN THE FIRST PLACE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. SOROS BELIEVES UNLESS GLOBAL CAPITALISM IS REFORMED, INEQUITIES WILL GIVE RISE TO A NEW WAVE OF NATIONALISM WHICH WOULD BE DESTRUCTIVE TO GLOBAL INTEGRATION AND COOPERATION. HE ARGUES THAT WHAT HE CALLS MARKET FUNDAMENTALISM [STRICT ADHERENCE TO THE MARKET] IS NOW A GREATER THREAT TO GLOBAL CAPITALISM THAN THE CURRENTLY DISCREDITED IDEOLOGY OF SOCIALISM. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/WTW
    03-Dec-98 7:30 PM EST (0030 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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