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Voice of America, 99-02-26

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] GREECE, TURKEY AND THE KURDS BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] TURKEY / KURDISH PARTY BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [03] TURKEY'S KURDISH QUESTION
  • [04] KOSOVO SHELLING (L ONLY) BY PHILIP SMUCKER (PANTINA, KOSOVO)
  • [05] SPECIAL ENGLISH IN THE NEWS #367 - Kosovo Agreement BY Caty Weaver (Washington)
  • [06] U-N / RED CROSS / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [07] EDITORIAL: MILOSEVIC STIRS TROUBLE IN MONTENEGRO
  • [08] CLINTON / FOREIGN POLICY (L) BY KYLE KING (SAN FRANCISCO)
  • [09] CZECH-POLAND NATO (L-ONLY) BY ALENA KENCLOVA (PRAGUE)
  • [10] FRANCE AIDS BLOOD (L-ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)
  • [11] EDITORIAL: GERMAN BUSINESSES FACE PAST
  • [12] N-Y ECON WRAP (S&L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [13] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] GREECE, TURKEY AND THE KURDS BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=2/25/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-42714
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDS: RE-ISSUING TO REVISE WORDING OF LAST PARAGRAPH OF TEXT
    ///

    INTRO: THE CAPTURE OF KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN HAS CHEERED TURKEY BUT WORSENED ITS RELATIONS WITH GREECE. HOW THE P-K-K WILL REACT REMAINS TO BE SEEN. V-O-A'S ED WARNER REPORTS ON THE AFTERMATH OF THE DRAMATIC ARREST.

    TEXT: FOR YEARS, TURKISH AUTHORITIES HAD BEEN SEARCHING FOR ABDULLAH OCALAN, LEADER OF THE KURDISH REBELS KNOWN AS THE P-K-K (THE ACRONYM OF THE KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY). THEY FINALLY RAN HIM DOWN [CAPTURED HIM] IN NAIROBI, KENYA, AFTER A DIZZYING CHASE FROM SYRIA TO RUSSIA TO ITALY TO GREECE. THERE WAS, IN THE END, NO PLACE TO HIDE.

    WHAT HAPPENS TO MR. OCALAN NOW? CHARGED WITH TREASON, HE MAY FACE THE DEATH PENALTY. ALAN MAKOVSKY OF THE WASHINGTON INSTITUTE FOR NEAR EAST POLICY SAYS EXECUTION MIGHT MAKE A MARTYR OF HIM, THOUGH A PRISON SENTENCE COULD LEAD TO HOSTAGE-TAKING EFFORTS TO FREE HIM.

    AND THE P-K-K? SOME TURKS THINK IT MAY DECLINE WITH ITS LEADER GONE. MR. MAKOVSKY SAYS THE ORGANIZATION STILL HAS AMPLE SUPPORT AND FINANCES, AND WILL PROBABLY CONTINUE TO FIGHT, THOUGH THE TURKISH MILITARY HAS SERIOUSLY WEAKENED IT.

    PAUL HENZE, A LONG-TIME ANALYST OF THE REGION, SAYS MR. OCALAN WAS NOT SO MUCH A FIELD COMMANDER AS A SYMBOL OF A BRUTAL MOVEMENT:

    /// FIRST HENZE ACT ///

    IT HAS FOUGHT A VERY, VERY NASTY INSURGENCY IN SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY -- DELIBERATELY SEEKING OUT GOVERNMENT REPRESENTATIVES SUCH AS TEACHERS, LOCAL MAYORS, POLICEMEN AND KILLING THEM. UP UNTIL RECENTLY, HE [OCALAN] CLAIMED THAT THIS WAS THE ONLY WAY, AND THE BEST WAY, OF DOING THINGS.

    /// END ACT ///

    "U-S NEWS AND WORLD REPORT" MAGAZINE SAYS IN THE LAST 10 YEARS, THE PKK HAS BEEN RESPONSIBLE FOR MORE TERRORIST ACTS THAN ANY OTHER GROUP IN THE WORLD. MOST OF THOSE ACTS HAVE BEEN DIRECTED AT KURDS WHO WOULD NOT GO ALONG WITH THE P-K-K.

    TURKISH AUTHORITIES HAVE LONG CLAIMED THAT GREECE WAS AIDING THE P-K-K. THEY SAY THAT IN CAPTIVITY, MR. OCALAN HAS ADMITTED AS MUCH.

    THERE IS STRONG SUPPORT FOR THE P-K-K IN GREECE. SINCE MR. OCALAN'S ARREST, THOUSANDS OF GREEK PROTESTERS HAVE MARCHED IN ATHENS -- SOME BURNING U-S AND TURKISH FLAGS, OTHERS WAVING KURDISH BANNERS.

    MR. HENZE SAYS GREECE MUST EXPLAIN ITSELF:

    /// SECOND HENZE ACT ///

    IF THE ALLEGATIONS THAT OCALAN HIMSELF IS SAID TO HAVE MADE ABOUT GREEK HELP FOR THE P-K-K -- IF THESE ALLEGATIONS ARE TRUE -- THEN I THINK THE UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES WHO ARE ALLIES OF TURKEY AND MEMBERS OF NATO ARE GOING TO HAVE TO CONDEMN GREECE, TOO.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE GREEK GOVERNMENT CERTAINLY BUNGLED THE MATTER, SAYS NICHOLAS STAVROU, PROFESSOR OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AT HOWARD UNIVERSITY IN WASHINGTON. FIRST, MR. OCALAN WAS GIVEN REFUGE AT THE GREEK EMBASSY IN NAIROBI. THEN SOMEHOW HE FELL INTO THE HANDS OF THE TURKS.

    RELATIONS WITH TURKEY WERE BAD ENOUGH BEFORE THIS INCIDENT, SAYS PROFESSOR STAVROU. NOW THEY ARE WORSE, AND WHO KNOWS WHAT WILL HAPPEN? HE STRONGLY DENIES GREECE HAS AIDED THE P-K-K, AND INSISTS INVESTIGATIONS HAVE TURNED UP NO EVIDENCE OF SUCH SUPPORT.

    /// STAVROU ACT ///

    BUT YOU DO HAVE IN GREECE A LARGE NUMBER OF KURDS, AND THEY DO HAVE AN OFFICE IN ATHENS, A POLITICAL OFFICE. THEY HAVE SIMILAR OFFICES IN ... BRUSSELS, LONDON, ROME, OR ANYWHERE ELSE [IN EUROPE]. THESE ARE REFUGEES WHO ORGANIZE THEMSELVES IN GREECE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAW, OPENLY -- SIMPLY TO SEEK WAYS OF TAKING CARE OF BASIC NEEDS OF REFUGEES.

    /// END ACT ///

    PROFESSOR STAVROU SAYS THERE IS A STEADY FLOW OF KURDS FROM TURKEY TO GREECE. STATELESS, HOMELESS KURDS ROAM MUCH OF EUROPE DISCONSOLATE, DESPAIRING AND SOMETIMES TROUBLESOME.

    ALL THE MORE REASON, SAYS PROFESSOR STAVROU, FOR TURKEY TO SOLVE ITS KURDISH PROBLEM. TURKEY'S MOST ARDENT ADMIRERS AGREE; IT IS TIME, THEY SAY, TO ALLOW KURDS MORE FREEDOM TO EXPRESS AND CELEBRATE THEIR CULTURE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EW/WTW
    25-Feb-99 9:35 PM EST (0235 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] TURKEY / KURDISH PARTY BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=2/26/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-42723
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKEY'S CONSTITUTIONAL COURT HAS INITIATED LEGAL PROCEEDINGS TO SHUT DOWN THE COUNTRY'S LARGEST PRO-KURDISH POLITICAL PARTY AND TO BAR IT FROM TAKING PART IN ELECTIONS BECAUSE OF ITS ALLEGED LINKS WITH THE OUTLAWED KURDISH REBEL GROUP, KNOWN AS THE P-K-K. AMBERIN ZAMAN RECENTLY VISITED THE MAINLY KURDISH CITY OF DIYARBAKIR AND REPORTS THAT PARTY OFFICIALS VIGOROUSLY REJECT THE CHARGES, BUT PARTY MEMBERS MAKE NO SECRET OF THEIR SYMPATHY FOR THE P-K-K AND ITS IMPRISONED LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN.

    TEXT: THE MOOD IS GRIM AT THE LOCAL HEADQUARTERS OF THE PRO-KURDISH PEOPLE'S DEMOCRACY PARTY, OR HADEP. NEWS THAT THE PARTY MIGHT BE SHUT DOWN AND BARRED FROM TAKING PART IN THE UPCOMING ELECTIONS IN APRIL HAS PUT A DAMPER ON CAMPAIGN ACTIVITIES. YET, SCORES OF MEMBERS GATHERED HERE TO PLOT THEIR NEW STRATEGY INSIST THAT WHAT THEY DESCRIBE AS STATE PRESSURE AND INTIMIDATION HAS MADE THEM MORE DETERMINED THAN EVER.

    ONE MEMBER, ABDULMECID, IS A FARMER FROM A VILLAGE CLOSE TO THIS LARGELY KURDISH CITY IN THE SOUTHEAST.

    /// ABDULMECID ACT - IN TURKISH - FADE UNDER ///

    ABDULMECID SAYS IF HADEP IS SHUT DOWN, THEN A NEW KURDISH PARTY WILL BE FORMED. AFTER ALL, HE SAYS, HADEP WAS ESTABLISHED AFTER THREE OTHER PRO-KURDISH PARTIES WERE BANNED ON SIMILAR CHARGES.

    ABDULMECID SAYS HE BELIEVES THE ONLY REASON THE TURKISH AUTHORIITES WANT TO OUTLAW HADEP AS WELL IS BECAUSE IN HIS WORDS IT IS "A KURDISH PARTY."

    MANY HADEP MEMBERS SAY THEIR DISAFFECTION WITH THE TURKISH STATE IS BORN OUT OF PERSONAL SUFFERING NOT IDEOLOGY. THEIR STORIES ARE FAMILIAR. MOST SAY WERE DETAINED AND TORTURED AFTER BEING ACCUSED OF HELPING OR BEING ACTUAL MEMBERS OF THE OUTLAWED KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY, OR P-K-K. THEY ALL DENY THE CHARGES.

    FOR THE PAST 14 YEARS, THE REBEL GROUP HAS BEEN WAGING AN ARMED CAMPAIGN FOR KURDISH SELF RULE IN TURKEY'S MAINLY KURDISH SOUTHEASTERN REGION.

    AN UNEMPLOYED WORKER, MEHMET, WHO LIKE MOST OF THE PEOPLE INTERVIEWED HERE DECLINED TO GIVE HIS LAST NAME, SAYS HE WAS DETAINED AND TORTURED BY SECURITY FORCES FOUR YEARS AGO BECAUSE A RELATIVE OF HIS HAD JOINED THE REBELS.

    /// MEHMET ACT - IN TURKISH - FADE UNDER ///

    MEHMET SAYS HE IS HAPPY TO BE A TURKISH CITIZEN BUT ALSO WANTS TO BE ABLE TO CALL HIMSELF A "KURD."

    AS THE MEN TAKE TURNS TO RECOUNT THEIR STORIES, IT BECOMES CLEAR THAT THEY ALL FEEL SYMPATHY FOR THE P-K-K AND MR OCALAN, WHOM THEY REFER TO AS "ONDERIMIZ," THE TURKISH WORD FOR "OUR LEADER." THEY ARE NOT WILLING TO COMMENT ON WHAT WESTERN HUMAN RIGHTS GROUPS AND THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT DESCRIBE AS TERRORIST ACTS CARRIED OUT BY THE REBELS.

    THESE INCLUDE KILLING SCORES OF SCHOOL TEACHERS ACCUSED OF BEING "AGENTS OF THE TURKISH STATE," MASS MURDERS OF THE FAMILIES OF KURDISH MILITIA FIGHTING AGAINST THE P-K-K, BLOWING UP FACTORIES AND OIL PIPELINES, AND COERCING TEENAGERS TO JOIN THEIR RANKS.

    EVIDENCE BEING PRESENTED BY THE PROSECUTION IN ITS CASE TO SHUT DOWN HADEP INCLUDES A MASS HUNGER STRIKE STAGED BY PARTY MEMBERS HERE LAST NOVEMBER TO PROTEST THE REFUSAL BY EUROPEAN GOVERNMENTS TO GRANT P-K-K CHIEF OCALAN POLITICAL ASYLUM. THE TEARING DOWN OF A TURKISH FLAG DURING A RECENT PARTY CONVENTION IS ALSO BELIEVED TO BE INCLUDED IN THE PROSECUTION'S FILE AS WELL AS TAPE RECORDINGS OF TELEPHONE CONVERSATIONS BETWEEN PARTY MEMBERS AND ALLEGED P-K-K MILITANTS.

    HADEP LEADER MURAT BOZLAK IS ALREADY IN AN ANKARA JAIL AWAITING TRIAL ON ALLEGED CHARGES OF PROMOTING SEPARATISM.

    /// OPT ///

    MR. OCALAN HAD BEEN ON THE RUN EVER SINCE SYRIAN AUTHORITIES ORDERED HIM OUT OF THAT COUNTRY LAST OCTOBER FOLLOWING TURKISH MILITARY THREATS. AFTER A BRIEF STAY IN MOSCOW, MR OCALAN FLEW TO ROME WHERE HE SPENT TWO MONTHS BEFORE DISAPPEARING AGAIN. MR OCALAN WAS LAST KNOWN TO BE AT THE GREEK AMBASSADOR'S RESIDENCE IN NAIROBI PRIOR TO HIS CAPTURE THERE ON FEBRUARY 15 BY TURKISH SPECIAL FORCES. /// END OPT ///

    HADEP'S DIYARBAKIR BRANCH CHAIRMAN FERIDUN CELIK DISMISSES THE ACCUSATIONS THAT HIS PARTY HAS "ORGANIC LINKS WITH THE P-K-K" AS BASELESS.

    /// FERIDUN CELIK - IN TURKISH - FADE UNDER ///

    MR. CELIK SAYS THAT HIS PARTY IS A "LEGAL" PARTY THAT IS SEEKING TO PROMOTE KURDISH CULTURAL RIGHTS SUCH AS THE FREEDOM TO BROADCASTING AND EDUCATION IN THE KURDISH LANGUAGE. BUT HE ADDS WHAT PARTY MEMBERS "FEEL IN THEIR HEARTS," AS HE PUTS IT, ABOUT THE P-K-K IS A MATTER ON WHICH HE CANNOT COMMENT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/JWH
    26-Feb-99 11:40 AM EST (1640 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] TURKEY'S KURDISH QUESTION

    DATE=02/26/99
    TYPE=ON THE LINE
    NUMBER=1-00720 SHORT #1
    EDITOR=OFFICE OF POLICY - 619-0037
    CONTENT= INSERTS AVAILABLE IN AUDIO SERVICES.
    THEME: UP, HOLD UNDER AND FADE

    ANNCR: ON THE LINE -- A DISCUSSION OF UNITED STATES POLICIES AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES.

    THIS WEEK, "TURKEY'S KURDISH QUESTION." HERE IS YOUR HOST, --------.

    HOST: HELLO AND WELCOME TO ON THE LINE.

    TURKEY HAS CAPTURED ITS MOST WANTED FUGITIVE, ABDULLAH OCALAN, LEADER OF THE KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY, OR P-K-K. THE P-K-K IS A TERRORIST ORGANIZATION THAT HAS SOUGHT TO CARVE OUT AN INDEPENDENT KURDISH STATE IN SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY SINCE THE 1970S. THE STRUGGLE HAS COST SOME THIRTY THOUSAND LIVES. TURKEY HAS RESTRICTED THE CULTURAL RIGHTS OF ITS SIZABLE KURDISH POPULATION AS PART OF ITS EFFORTS TO SUPPRESS THE SEPARATIST MOVEMENT. BUT THE CAPTURE OF OCALAN MAY OFFER AN OPPORTUNITY FOR TURKEY TO CHANGE ITS POLICIES TOWARD ITS KURDISH MINORITY.

    ZALMAY KHALILZAD IS DIRECTOR OF THE STRATEGY AND DOCTRINE PROGRAM AT THE RAND CORPORATION. HE SAYS THAT TURKEY SHOULD NOW DEAL WITH LEGITIMATE KURDISH ASPIRATIONS. KHALILZAD: I THINK THIS IS THE STRATEGIC CHALLENGE FOR TURKEY IN DEALING WITH THE KURDS: THAT ITS SUCCESSES, BOTH PRIOR TO OCALAN'S CAPTURE AND WITH THE CAPTURE, CAN NOW PUT TURKEY IN A STRONG POSITION TO DEAL WITH THE TERRORIST ELEMENTS THAT WERE REPRESENTED BY THE DOMINANT TENDENCIES WITHIN THE P-K-K, BUT AT THE SAME TIME TO START PUTTING IN PLACE A LONG TERM STRATEGY THAT ADDRESSES THE LEGITIMATE CULTURAL AND OTHER ASPIRATIONS OF THE KURDS, AN ADJUNCT STRATEGY TO THE ANTI-INSURGENCY STRATEGY THAT TAKES POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL STEPS THAT INTEGRATE THE KURDISH POPULATION BETTER, AND ALSO ALLOWS THEM TO EXPRESS THEIR ASPIRATIONS THAT DO NOT THREATEN TURKISH TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY..

    HOST: MICHAEL AMITAY IS DIRECTOR OF THE WASHINGTON KURDISH INSTITUTE. HE SAYS THAT THE KURDISH INSURGENCY IS NOT OVER. AMITAY: NONE OF THE UNDERLYING ISSUES WHICH HAVE LED TO THE REBELLION ARE BEING ADDRESSED. WHAT TURKEY REALLY NEEDS TO DO IS ADDRESS THESE UNDERLYING SOURCES OF DISCONTENT THAT ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE REBELLION. AS LONG AS THE REPRESSIVE POLICIES ARE IN PLACE, YOU WILL HAVE KURDS REACTING TO THEM AND WHAT TURKEY, I DO BELIEVE, NEEDS TO DO IS TO TAKE STEPS TO REMOVE THE STATE OF EMERGENCY. THEY HAVE TO TAKE STEPS TO DISMANTLE THE VILLAGE GUARDS SYSTEM. THEY HAVE TO ALLOW KURDISH LANGUAGE T-V AND RADIO BROADCASTING. AND THEY HAVE TO ALLOW FOR LEGAL POLITICAL PARTICIPATION BY THE KURDS WHO DON'T FEEL COMPELLED TO VOTE FOR MAINSTREAM PARTIES OR TO CAST ASIDE THEIR KURDISH IDENTITY.

    HOST: ALAN MAKOVSKY IS SENIOR FELLOW AT THE WASHINGTON INSTITUTE FOR NEAR EAST POLICY. HE SAYS THAT TURKEY WILL SLOWLY MOVE IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION. MAKOVSKY: WHAT I THINK TURKEY WILL BE WILLING TO DO OVER TIME, AND THERE ARE GLIMMERS THAT SOME OF THIS IS HAPPENING NOW, IS TO REFORM ITS OWN SYSTEM IN A WAY TO SATISFY MOST KURDISH DEMANDS, OBVIOUSLY NOT SEPARATISM. IN THE TURKISH STATE, ALL CITIZENS ARE SUPPOSED TO BE EQUAL. THERE'S NO ACCEPTANCE OF A SEPARATE CORPORATE COMMUNITY IDENTITY. THAT MEANS WHAT ONE COULD LOOK TOWARD OVER TIME IS KURDISH RADIO AND T-V. I THINK THAT'S STARTING TO HAPPEN. PERHAPS SOME USE OF KURDISH IN THE SCHOOLS, CERTAINLY WIDENED PARAMETERS, FREEDOM OF DISCUSSION OF THE KURDISH ISSUE AND OF KURDISHNESS.

    HOST: ZALMAY KHALILZAD FROM THE RAND CORPORATION SAYS THAT THE IMMEDIATE FOCUS WILL BE ON OCALAN'S TRIAL AND THAT IT IS IN TURKEY'S OWN BEST INTEREST TO TREAT HIM FAIRLY. FOR ON THE LINE, THIS IS --------.

    ANNCR: YOU'VE BEEN LISTENING TO "ON THE LINE" -- A DISCUSSION OF UNITED STATES POLICIES AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES. THIS IS --------.
    26-Feb-99 11:58 AM EST (1658 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] KOSOVO SHELLING (L ONLY) BY PHILIP SMUCKER (PANTINA, KOSOVO)

    DATE=2/26/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-246018
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE YUGOSLAV ARMY SHELLED ALBANIAN VILLAGES AND TOOK UP POSITIONS IN SOUTHERN AND NORTHERN KOSOVO ON FRIDAY. MEANWHILE, WESTERN CEASEFIRE MONITORS REPORT THEY WERE HARASSED BY SERBIAN SECURITY FORCES. PHILIP SMUCKER REPORTS FROM PANTINA, KOSOVO.

    TEXT: YUGOSLAV TANKS AND HEAVY ARMOR SURROUNDED ETHNIC ALBANIAN VILLAGES ABOUT 50 KILOMETERS NORTH OF KOSOVO'S CAPITAL, PRISTINA. VILLAGERS REPORTED SPORADIC SHELLING ALL DAY FRIDAY.

    THE SHELLING PROMPTED HUNDREDS OF VILLAGERS TO FLEE. AND REFUGEE OFFICIALS SAID THEY FEAR MORE FIGHTING IS POSSIBLE. ONE MAN, RUZHDI ALIV, DESCRIBED THE SITUATION IN HIS VILLAGE, PANTINA.

    /// ALIV ACT - FADE UNDER ///

    MR. ALIV SAID FAMILIES LEFT BECAUSE THEY DID NOT FEEL SAFE IN THE VILLAGE, BECAUSE THEY ARE IN A PANIC FROM THE SHELLING. HE SAID HIS FAMILY WAS AMONG THOSE WHO LEFT THEIR HOMES.

    THE SHELLING AND MOVEMENT OF HEAVY ARMOR IS A VIOLATION OF A CEASEFIRE ACCORD SIGNED BY YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC LAST OCTOBER. MEANWHILE, WESTERN CEASEFIRE MONITORS REPORTED A YUGOSLAV MILITARY BUILDUP ACROSS KOSOVO. AND THEY SAID SERBIAN SECURITY OFFICIALS HARASSED SOME OF THE VERIFIERS NEAR A TOWN ALONG THE BORDER WITH MACEDONIA.

    THEY SAID THE SERBIAN SECURITY OFFICIALS FORCED WESTERN MONITORS TO PERMIT THEM TO SEARCH VEHICLES. AN AMERICAN OFFICIAL IN THE KOSOVO VERIFICATION MISSION SAID THE SEARCH WAS A CLEAR VIOLATION OF THE MISSION'S DIPLOMATIC IMMUNITY.

    WESTERN OFFICIALS ALSO SAID FIGHTING HAD BROKEN OUT AT ANOTHER POINT ALONG THE BORDER WITH MACEDONIA. A BRITISH SPOKESMAN SAID THAT AT LEAST TWO ETHNIC ALBANIAN CIVILIANS WERE KILLED IN THE CLASHES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PS/JWH
    26-Feb-99 1:10 PM EST (1810 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] SPECIAL ENGLISH IN THE NEWS #367 - Kosovo Agreement BY Caty Weaver (Washington)

    DATE=2-27-99
    TYPE=Special English Feature
    NUMBER=7-20386
    TELEPHONE=619-2585
    EDITOR=shelley gollust
    CONTENT=
    This is _____________ with the V-O-A Special English program IN THE NEWS. Earlier this week, ethnic Albanian and Serbian delegates ended their talks about the Yugoslav province of Kosovo Neither side signed the temporary peace plan proposed by international officials. However, the ethnic Albanian delegation promised to do so in a few weeks. The Serbians only agreed to return for more peace talks in France in three weeks. Kosovo is part of the Republic of Serbia. Serbia is one of the two republics of Yugoslavia. Ninety percent of the population of Kosovo is ethnic Albanian. However, Serbs control all government in Kosovo. Many ethnic Albanians want independence for Kosovo. Others want self-rule. Ethnic Albanian separatists have been fighting Serb forces in Kosovo for eleven months. About two-thousand people have been killed. The great majority of the victims were ethnic Albanians. They were killed in Serb and Yugoslav security actions designed to crush the separatist movement.The latest peace talks were organized by the foreign ministers of France, Britain, Germany, Italy, and Russia. The United States was the major designer of the peace proposal. It calls for self- rule in Kosovo. This includes an elected Parliament. The plan also calls for ethnic Albanian guerrillas to be disarmed. And it calls for the reduction of Serbian and Yugoslav security forces. Under the plan, almost thirty-thousand NATO peacekeepers would be deployed in Kosovo. Four-thousand of the soldiers would be American. Yugoslav and Serbian officials object to this part of the plan the most. They consider it a violation of Yugoslavia's rights as an independent nation. However, officials have suggested they would be more willing to accept an international force led by the United Nations or the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. Serbian delegates will discuss the possibility of an international presence in Kosovo when talks begin again on March fifteenth. The ethnic Albanian delegates say they will sign the international peace plan at that time. They wanted the delay so they could return to Kosovo and discuss the plan with political and military groups there.The peace plan does not honor the desire of the ethnic Albanians for a vote on independence for Kosovo. However, the delegates did win a compromise. The plan calls for an international conference to be held to find out what the people of Kosovo want. It would take place in three years when the peace plan ends. NATO continues to threaten to bomb Serbian targets if officials block the peace proposal. And, American Secretary of State Madeleine Albright has warned that Yugoslavia still could face air strikes if it increases measures against ethnic Albanians in Kosovo. This IN THE NEWS program was written by Caty Weaver. This is_________.
    26-Feb-99 9:55 AM EST (1455 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] U-N / RED CROSS / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=2/26/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-246008
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY, U-N-H-C-R, IS APPEALING TO YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES TO STOP SO-CALLED "WINTER TRAINING EXERCISES" BY SECURITY FORCES IN THE SERBIAN PROVINCE OF KOSOVO. LISA SCHLEIN IN GENEVA REPORTS THE AGENCY SAYS THESE MILITARY MANEUVERS ARE CAUSING ALARM AMONG KOSOVO'S ETHNIC ALBANIAN POPULATION.

    TEXT: U-N-H-C-R SPOKESMAN KRIS JANOWSKI SAYS THE SO-CALLED "WINTER TRAINING EXERCISES" BY YUGOSLAV SECURITY FORCES IS HEIGHTENING TENSIONS, INTIMIDATING THE LOCAL POPULATION, AND DRIVING VILLAGERS OUT OF THEIR HOMES. HE SAYS CIVILIANS ARE UNABLE TO TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AN "EXERCISE" AND A REAL ATTACK.

    MR. JANOWSKI SAYS THE YUGOSLAV FORCES ON THURSDAY DEPLOYED THE FULL RANGE OF HEAVY ARMOR. AND, HE SAYS U-N WORKERS HEARD THE SOUNDS OF SHELLING AND TANK FIRE COMING FROM VILLAGES IN THE VUCITRN REGION, 25 KILOMETERS NORTHWEST OF THE CAPITAL, PRISTINA.

    /// JANOWSKI ACT ///

    WE WERE TOLD THAT THIS WAS A "WINTER TRAINING EXERCISE," EVEN THOUGH OUR STAFF FOUND FOUR PERSONS LATER IN THE DAY WITH SHRAPNEL WOUNDS IN A NEARBY VILLAGE OF LJUBOVEC. TWO WEEKS AGO, SIMILAR "EXERCISES" IN KLINA PROMPTED ONE-THOUSAND TO FLEE AND SPEND THE NIGHT IN THE WOODS.

    /// END ACT ///

    AN OFFICIAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS, PIERRE KRAEHENBUEHL, SAYS THE ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO ARE SEVERELY TRAUMATIZED. MR. KRAEHENBUEHL, WHO HAS JUST RETURNED FROM A VISIT TO KOSOVO, SAYS THE CIVILIAN POPULATION IS TERRIFIED AT THE PROSPECT OF RENEWED FIGHTING BETWEEN SERB FORCES AND KOSOVO REBELS.

    THE RED CROSS OFFICIAL SAYS ONE OF THE AGENCY'S MAIN CONCERNS IS GETTING THE RIGHT TO VISIT PEOPLE DETAINED BY BOTH THE SERBS AND KOSOVO REBELS. HE SAYS THAT IN THE PAST THREE MONTHS, THE SERBIAN AUTHORITIES HAVE MADE SUBSTANTIAL PROGRESS IN INFORMING THE RED CROSS ABOUT THE NUMBERS OF NEW PRISONERS THEY ARE HOLDING.

    /// KRAEHENBUEHL ACT ///

    THIS IS SIGNIFICANT IN THE SENSE THAT THAT WAS NOT REALITY BEFORE OCTOBER OF LAST YEAR. AND, I THINK IT'S IMPORTANT TO UNDERLINE THAT BECAUSE FROM THE MOMENT THAT AN AUTHORITY RECOGNIZES THAT IT HOLDS SOMEBODY, IT IS, OF COURSE, A STEP IN THE DIRECTION OF HAVING ACCESS TO SUCH PERSONS.

    /// END ACT ///

    RED CROSS DELEGATES HAVE VISITED 530 KOSOVO PRISONERS HELD BY THE SERBS. MR. KRAEHENBUEHL SAYS THE RED CROSS IS TRYING TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT ANOTHER 1,000 PEOPLE THEY BELIEVE ARE BEING HELD BY THE SERB AUTHORITIES. HE SAYS THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY, K-L-A, HAS BEEN LESS COOPERATIVE. SO FAR, HE SAYS THE K-L-A HAS NOT GIVEN THE RED CROSS ANY INFORMATION ABOUT 140 PEOPLE, MAINLY SERBS, WHOM IT BELIEVES HAVE BEEN ABDUCTED BY THE REBELS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/GE
    26-Feb-99 11:06 AM EST (1606 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] EDITORIAL: MILOSEVIC STIRS TROUBLE IN MONTENEGRO

    DATE= 02/27/99
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-08207
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    02/27/99.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    WHILE MUCH OF THE WORLD'S ATTENTION IS FOCUSED ON KOSOVO, YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IS BUSY ON ANOTHER FRONT. HE IS STOKING THE FIRES OF A TRADE WAR WITH THE REPUBLIC OF MONTENEGRO, WHICH ALONG WITH SERBIA COMPRISES THE STATE OF YUGOSLAVIA. ANGERED BY REFORMS IN MONTENEGRO, MILOSEVIC HAS BEEN IMPEDING THE FLOW OF GOODS BETWEEN SERBIA AND THE REPUBLIC. THIS HAS RESULTED IN A DECLINE IN THE STANDARD OF LIVING IN BOTH SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO.

    PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC APPEARS DETERMINED TO MAINTAIN HIS STRANGLEHOLD ON BOTH COMMERCE AND POWER. IN CONTRAST TO OTHER FORMER COMMUNIST STATES, SERBIAN CENTRAL PLANNERS RETAIN OVERWHELMING CONTROL OF THE ECONOMY. THERE HAVE BEEN NO SWEEPING ECONOMIC REFORMS, WHICH COULD UNDERMINE THE REGIME'S CRONY SYSTEM. THE RESULTS ARE INEFFICIENCY, LACK OF COMPETITIVENESS, AND CORRUPTION.

    THE REPUBLIC OF MONTENEGRO HAS CHOSEN A DIFFERENT PATH. IN OCTOBER 1997, THE REFORMIST PRIME MINISTER, MILO DJUKANOVIC, DEFEATED INCUMBENT MOMIR BULATOVIC IN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS. MR. DJUKANOVIC HAS STARTED TO USHER IN DEMOCRATIC AND FREE-MARKET REFORMS. SOME STATE-OWNED COMPANIES HAVE ALREADY BEEN PRIVATIZED AND THE LEGISLATURE IS WORKING ON A LAW THAT WOULD ALLOW MANY MORE STATE-OWNED INDUSTRIES TO BE SOLD. THE DJUKANOVIC GOVERNMENT HAS ALSO REFORMED THE JUDICIARY, APPOINTED A MINISTER OF ETHNIC MINORITIES, AND IS EXPECTED TO PASS NEW LAWS TO ENSURE THAT ELECTIONS ARE FREE AND FAIR.

    THESE REFORMS DRAMATIZE THE WEAKNESS OF PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC AND THE GROWING LACK OF SUPPORT FOR HIS BRAND OF AUTHORITARIAN RULE. BEFORE DJUKANOVIC BECAME PRESIDENT, MONTENEGRO WAS FIRMLY UNDER THE THUMB OF BELGRADE. BUT REFORMERS IN MONTENEGRO UNDERSTAND THAT FUTURE PROSPERITY AND PEACE ARE DIRECTLY LINKED TO DEMOCRACY. PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC HAS NO BUSINESS BLOCKING THEIR EFFORTS. AND THE FACT THAT ATTENTION IS NOW ON KOSOVO SHOULD NOT MEAN THAT THE SERBIAN STRONGMAN IS FREE TO FOMENT TROUBLE ELSEWHERE IN THE REGION.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT. IF YOU HAVE A COMMENT, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, V-O-A, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO COMMENT AT WWW-DOT-VOA-DOT-GOV-SLASH-EDITORIALS, OR FAX US AT (202) 619-1043.
    26-Feb-99 9:50 AM EST (1450 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] CLINTON / FOREIGN POLICY (L) BY KYLE KING (SAN FRANCISCO)

    DATE=2/26/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-246035
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS VOWED TO USE HIS REMAINING TIME IN OFFICE TO PURSUE PEACE EFFORTS IN PLACES LIKE THE MIDDLE EAST AND THE BALKANS. FROM SAN FRANCISCO, V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS.

    TEXT: PRESIDENT CLINTON SAYS THE UNITED STATES HAS A RESPONSIBILITY TO TRY TO SHAPE A MORE PEACEFUL, PROSPEROUS AND DEMOCRATIC WORLD FOR THE 21ST CENTURY.

    SPEAKING TO A GROUP OF BUSINESS AND FOREIGN POLICY LEADERS IN CALIFORNIA, MR. CLINTON SAID THERE ARE SERIOUS CONSEQUENCES TO LETTING CONFLICTS FESTER AND GROW IN PLACES LIKE BOSNIA OR KOSOVO.

    MR. CLINTON SAYS NATO AND THE UNITED STATES STAND READY TO HELP IMPLEMENT A PEACE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE SERBS AND KOSOVO'S ETHNIC ALBANIANS. HE URGED BOTH SIDES TO SIGN A PEACE ACCORD WHEN THEY RETURN TO THE NEGOTIATING TABLE IN FRANCE ON MARCH 15TH.

    // CLINTON ACT //

    IN THE MEANTIME, PRESIDENT (SLOBODAN) MILOSEVIC MUST UNDERSTAND THIS IS A TIME FOR RESTRAINT NOT REPRESSION. AND IF HE DOES NOT NATO IS PREPARED TO ACT.

    // END ACT //

    // OPT //

    MR. CLINTON'S COMMENTS CAME AS SERB FORCES APPEARED TO BE MASSING FOR A NEW CRACKDOWN AGAINST ETHNIC ALBANIANS. THE PRESIDENT SAYS SERBIA MUST GIVE THE PEOPLE OF KOSOVO THE AUTONOMY THEY NEED TO CONTROL THEIR LIVES. HE SAID THAT WAS THE ONLY WAY YUGOSLAVIA COULD REMAIN INTACT. // END OPT //

    AS HE OUTLINED HIS FOREIGN POLICY GOALS FOR HIS FINAL TWO YEARS IN OFFICE, MR. CLINTON SAID THE UNITED STATES FACES A SERIES OF DEADLY CHALLENGES.

    // CLINTON ACT TWO //

    THERE IS A DANGER THAT DEADLY WEAPONS WILL FALL INTO THE HANDS OF A TERRORIST GROUP OR AN OUTLAW NATIONS AND THAT THOSE WEAPONS COULD BE CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL.

    // END ACT //

    MR. CLINTON SAYS THE ARMS RACES BETWEEN INDIA AND PAKISTAN IS A REMINDER THAT THE NEXT BIG WAR COULD STILL BE NUCLEAR. HE CALLED FOR GREATER EFFORTS TO HALT THE PROLIFERATION OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION.

    PROMISING HE WOULD WORK TO KEEP THE UNITED STATES ENGAGED IN WORLD AFFAIRS, MR. CLINTON ALSO CALLED FOR GREATER EFFORTS TO HELP RUSSIA AND CHINA BECOME OPEN, PROSPEROUS AND STABLE.

    // CLINTON ACT //

    IF RUSSIA DOES WHAT IT MUST TO MAKE ITS ECONOMY WORK, I AM READY TO DO EVERYTHING I CAN TO MOBILIZE ADEQUATE INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT FOR THEM.

    // END ACT //

    HE ALSO HE VOWED TO CONTINUE EFFORTS TO CUT THE NUCLEAR ARSENALS OF BOTH NATIONS AND HELP HALT THE PROLIFERATION OF NUCLEAR AND MISSILE TECHNOLOGY.

    SPEAKING OF OTHER CHALLENGES, MR. CLINTON SAID COUNTRIES LIKE NIGERIA AND INDONESIA WOULD NEED HELP AS THEY FACED NEW ELECTIONS AND ECONOMIC CRISIS. MR. CLINTON CALLED ON JAPAN AND EUROPE TO DO MORE TO SPUR ECONOMIC GROWTH.

    THE PRESIDENT ALSO CALLED FOR AN OVERHAUL OF THE WORLD'S FINANCIAL RULES, SAYING MORE MUST BE DONE TO HALT THE LARGE SHIFTS IN CAPITAL THAT HAVE DEVASTATED MANY NATIONS.

    THE PRESIDENT SAID MANY COMING DECISIONS WOULD BE DIFFICULT. BUT HE SAYS,THE WORLD HAS BECOME SO INTERDEPENDENT, THAT THE UNITED STATES NEEDS TO HELP OTHERS IF IT WANTS TO MAKE FURTHER GAINS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/PT
    26-Feb-99 6:35 PM EST (2335 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] CZECH-POLAND NATO (L-ONLY) BY ALENA KENCLOVA (PRAGUE)

    DATE=2/26/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-246023
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CZECH REPUBLIC, POLAND AND HUNGARY ALL FINALIZED EFFORTS ON FRIDAY TO PREPARE FOR MEMBERSHIP IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC DEFENSE ALLIANCE -- NATO. ALENA KENCLOVA REPORTS FROM PRAGUE.

    TEXT: PRESIDENTS VACLAV HAVEL AND ALEXANDER KWASNIEWSKI SIGNED THE ACCESSION DOCUMENTS IN CEREMONIES HELD THE SAME TIME IN PRAGUE AND WARSAW. THE EVENT WAS TELEVISED LIVE BETWEEN THE TWO CITIES BY SATELLITE. HUNGARIAN PRESIDENT ARPAD GOENZ, WHO RATIFIED THE COUNTRY'S ACT OF ACCESSION TO NATO EARLIER THIS MONTH, CONGRATULATED HIS TWO COLLEAGUES WHILE ON A TRIP ABROAD.

    ALL THREE PRESIDENTS SEE NATO MEMBERSHIP NOT ONLY AS A GUARANTEE OF SECURITY, BUT ALSO AS AN EVENT MARKING THEIR COUNTRIES' RETURN TO A CIVILIZATION WHICH THEY HELPED TO CREATE OVER THE CENTURIES. THAT VIEW WAS REFLECTED IN A STATEMENT BY POLAND'S PRESIDENT KWASNIEWSKI.

    //KWASNIEWSKI ACT -- IN POLISH//

    TO NIEZWYKLY MOMENT V NASEJ HISTORII... VRACAME TAM, KDE JEST NASE MIESTO ..

    //END ACT//

    "WE ARE RETURNING WHERE WE BELONG," PRESIDENT KWASNIEWSKI SAID, "BECAUSE THE ALLIANCE IS A COMMON FORCE IN THE NAME OF COMMON VALUES."

    //OPT//

    THE POLES, THE HUNGARIANS AND THE CZECHS ALL DEMONSTRATED THEIR LOYALTY TO THESE VALUES EVEN AS SOVIET SATELLITES. THERE WERE PROTESTS IN WARSAW AND BUDAPEST IN 1956, THE PRAGUE SPRING IN 1968, AND THE STRUGGLE OF THE POLISH SOLIDARITY MOVEMENT, PRESIDENT KWASNIEWSKI SAID. //END OPT//

    CZECH PRESIDENT HAVEL SAYS THE SECURITY OF HIS COUNTRY IS SAFEGUARDED THROUGH NATO MEMBERSHIP, BECAUSE IT BECOMES PART AND PARCEL OF THE SECURITY OF, AS HE PUT IT, THE ENTIRE EURO-AMERICAN WORLD. "BUT," HE SAYS, "NATO MEMBERSHIP ALSO EXPRESSES OUR DETERMINATION TO BE CO-RESPONSIBLE FOR THE FREEDOM OF NATIONS, HUMAN RIGHTS, DEMOCRATIC VALUES AND PEACE ON THE CONTINENT."

    //HAVEL ACT IN CZECH -- IN FULL, THEN UNDER //

    KDYZ JSEM BYL PRED DESETI LETY VE VEZENI, VSKUTKU JSEM NETUSIL....

    //ACT FADE//

    IN A CURT, PERSONAL REMARK, THE FORMER DISSIDENT WHO BECAME THE ELECTED LEADER OF HIS COUNTRY SAID HE COULD NOT IMAGINE 10 YEARS AGO, WHEN HE WAS IN A COMMUNIST PRISON, THAT IN TWO YEARS HE WOULD BE DISSOLVING THE WARSAW PACT IN PRAGUE, AND IN ANOTHER EIGHT YEARS SIGNING THE CZECH REPUBLIC'S DOCUMENTS ACCEPTING NATO MEMBERSHIP.

    FRIDAY'S SIGNING IS THE LAST STEP BEFORE ACTUAL NATO MEMBERSHIP FOR THE THREE EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES. EACH BECOMES A FULL MEMBER ON MARCH 12TH, WHEN THEIR FOREIGN MINISTERS PRESENT THE RATIFICATION DOCUMENTS TO U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT IN THE MIDWEST AMERICAN TOWN OF INDEPENDENCE, MISSOURI, WHERE NATO WAS FOUNDED 50 YEARS AGO.

    //REST OPT//

    ALL THREE COUNTRIES SAY THEY REALIZE THEIR NATO ACCESSION MUST SUCCEED, IF THE ALLIANCE IS TO EXPAND FURTHER. WHILE RUSSIA CONTINUES TO OPPOSE NATO EXPANSION, WARSAW, BUDAPEST AND PRAGUE SUPPORT THE ALLIANCE'S DECISION TO LEAVE OPEN ITS DOORS TO NEW MEMBERS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AK/PCF
    26-Feb-99 2:26 PM EST (1926 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [10] FRANCE AIDS BLOOD (L-ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)

    DATE=2/26/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-246022
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    ///EDS: WILL HOLD THROUGH WEEKEND USE///

    INTRO: IN PARIS, THE HIGH PROFILE TRIAL OF A FORMER FRENCH PRIME MINISTER AND TWO LOWER-RANKING MINISTERS HAS ENDED AND AWAITS A VERDICT. ALL THREE ARE ALMOST CERTAIN TO BE ACQUITTED ON CHARGES THEY ALLOWED AIDS-TAINTED BLOOD TO BE DISTRIBUTION IN THE 1980S WITH DEADLY CONSEQUENCES. THEY WERE THE FIRST EVER DEFENDANTS BEFORE A SPECIAL FRENCH COURT SET UP TO TRY POLITICIANS. IN THE FRENCH CAPITAL, JULIAN NUNDY REPORTS BOTH THE COURT AND THE TRIAL PROCEDURE HAS BEEN FRAUGHT WITH CONTROVERSY.

    TEXT: AS THE TRIAL OF FORMER PRIME MINISTER LAURENT FABIUS AND TWO OF HIS MINISTERS ENDED FRIDAY, ONE OF MR. FABIUS' LAWYERS SAID HIS CLIENT NOW DESERVES A POLITICAL REHABILITATION.

    MR. FABIUS, FORMER SOCIAL AFFAIRS MINISTER GEORGINA DUFOIX, AND FORMER HEALTH MINISTER EDMOND HERVE ALL FACE A MAXIMUM THREE-YEAR JAIL SENTENCE ON CHARGES THAT INCLUDE MANSLAUGHTER IN FRANCE'S SO-CALLED "TAINTED BLOOD SCANDAL."

    AT ISSUE IS WHETHER THE GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS ALLOWED DISTRIBUTION OF BLOOD CONTAMINATED WITH THE AIDS VIRUS OVER A PERIOD IN 1985 EVEN WHEN BOTH AIDS TESTING AND SAFE PRODUCTS BECAME AVAILABLE.

    BUT THIS PAST WEDNESDAY, THE PROSECUTION, TOO, ASKED FOR ALL THREE TO BE ACQUITTED ARGUING THAT THE POLITICIANS THEMSELVES WERE UNAWARE AT THE TIME OF THE TESTS AND THEREFORE COULD NOT BE GUILTY OF ANY WRONGDOING.

    IN A TRIAL WHERE PROCEDURAL ERRORS HAVE BEEN COMMON -- EVEN THIS PROSECUTION DEMAND PROMPTED CONTROVERSY.

    PROSECUTOR JEAN-FRANCOIS BURGELIN'S CALL FOR A REPRIMAND STUNNED FRENCH LEGAL EXPERTS. THERE IS NO SUCH PROVISION IN THE CRIMINAL CODE AND NO LEGAL PRECEDENT FOR SUCH A MEASURE.

    FOR MANY LAWYERS AND POLITICIANS, THE WHOLE IDEA OF BRINGING THE MINISTERS TO TRIAL WAS ILL FOUNDED FROM THE START. THEY WERE TRIED BEFORE THE NEW COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE REPUBLIC -- A TRIBUNAL SET UP TO TRY POLITICIANS FOR OFFENSES COMMITTED IN OFFICE.

    AND DURING THE TRIAL, 11 OF THE 12 PARLIAMENTARIANS SITTING IN THE 15-JUDGE COURT CRITICIZED THE MAIN JUDGE AND QUESTIONED THE WISDOM OF TRYING TO ASSIMILATE POLITICAL AND CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY.

    THE FRENCH MEDIA HAVE BEEN UNANIMOUS IN THEIR CRITICISM OF THE NEW COURT, ARGUING THAT IT HAS TO BE REFORMED BEFORE IT CAN BE USED AGAIN, OR THAT POLITICIANS SHOULD BE TRIED BEFORE ORDINARY COURTS.

    MR. FABIUS IS NOW THE SPEAKER OF THE MAIN HOUSE OF THE FRENCH PARLIAMENT. HIS CAREER HAS BEEN ON VIRTUAL HOLD SINCE CHARGES WERE FIRST LEVELED AGAINST HIM IN THE EARLY 1990S.

    MANY POLITICIANS, EVEN HIS RIVALS, SAY THEY REGRET THE ORDEAL MR. FABIUS HAS BEEN THROUGH. AND THOUGH THEY FEEL HIS ACQUITTAL WOULD BE FAIR, THEY ARGUE THAT THE COURT THAT TRIED HIM HAS ATTRACTED SUCH RIDICULE THAT ITS JUDGMENT, DUE NEXT TUESDAY, WILL CARRY LITTLE -- IF ANY -- MORAL WEIGHT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JWN/PCF/JO
    26-Feb-99 2:25 PM EST (1925 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] EDITORIAL: GERMAN BUSINESSES FACE PAST

    DATE= 03/01/99
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-08209
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE FIRST OF THREE EDITORIALS BEING RELEASED FOR
    BROADCAST 03/01/99. (THIS IS A REPEAT FROM 02/21/99.)

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    FEW COUNTRIES ARE EAGER TO MAKE A FULL ACCOUNTING FOR REPRESSIVE PERIODS IN THEIR HISTORY. BUT OVER THE YEARS, GERMANY HAS TAKEN A NUMBER OF STEPS TO TRY TO MAKE AMENDS FOR THE GHASTLY CRIMES COMMITTED BY THE NAZI REGIME OF THE 1930S AND 1940S. THESE CRIMES INCLUDED THE SYSTEMATIC KILLING OF ABOUT SIX MILLION JEWS, A HALF MILLION GYPSIES, OR ROMA, AND MANY OTHER PEOPLE.

    SINCE THE END OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR, THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT HAS PAID OUT BETWEEN SIXTY AND EIGHTY BILLION DOLLARS, MOST OF IT TO JEWS WHO SURVIVED THE DEATH CAMPS OR MANAGED TO FLEE THE NAZIS. THIS MONTH, THE GOVERNMENT ANNOUNCED THAT TWELVE OF GERMANY'S LARGEST BANKS AND BUSINESSES WILL CONTRIBUTE MONEY TO A NEW FUND FOR VICTIMS OF FORCED AND SLAVE LABOR.

    ACCORDING TO HISTORIANS, PERHAPS MILLIONS OF POLES, CZECHS, RUSSIANS AND UKRAINIANS WERE REQUIRED BY THE NAZIS TO PERFORM FORCED LABOR. LUMP SUM PAYMENTS WERE MADE TO POLAND AND OTHER EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES DURING THE 1970S AND 1980S, BUT MOST OF THE MONEY ENDED UP IN THE HANDS OF COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS -- NOT THE VICTIMS.

    GERMAN CHANCELLOR GERHARD SCHROEDER SAID THE NEWLY ESTABLISHED REMEMBRANCE, RESPONSIBILITY AND THE FUTURE FUND IS BEING SET UP TO ANSWER THE "MORAL RESPONSIBILITY OF GERMAN FIRMS WITH REGARD TO SUCH ISSUES AS FORCED LABORERS, ARYANIZATION AND OTHER INJUSTICE DURING THE NAZI REGIME." ARYANIZATION REFERS TO THE TAKEOVER OF JEWISH PROPERTY IN GERMANY, OFTEN WITH TOKEN PAYMENTS OR NONE AT ALL. MR. SCHROEDER STRESSED THAT PAYMENTS NEED TO BE MADE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE BECAUSE OF THE ADVANCED AGE OF THE VICTIMS.

    BY OFFERING ADDITIONAL COMPENSATION FOR SLAVE AND FORCED LABOR, GERMAN INDUSTRIES ARE DEMONSTRATING A WILLINGNESS TO CONFRONT THE PAST. OTHER COUNTRIES WITH A RECENT HISTORY OF REPRESSION WOULD DO WELL TO FOLLOW THIS EXAMPLE.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT. IF YOU HAVE A COMMENT, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, V-O-A, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO COMMENT AT WWW-DOT-VOA-DOT-GOV-SLASH-EDITORIALS, OR FAX US AT (202) 619-1043.
    26-Feb-99 3:27 PM EST (2027 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] N-Y ECON WRAP (S&L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=2/26/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-246031
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE DOWN TODAY (FRIDAY), REFLECTING CONCERNS ABOUT U-S INFLATION AND CONTINUED WEAKNESS IN TECHNOLOGY STOCKS. V-O-A BUSINESS CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 93-HUNDRED-SIX, DOWN 59 POINTS. FOR THE WEEK, THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE LOST 33 POINTS. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED FRIDAY AT 12-HUNDRED-38, DOWN SIX POINTS. THE TECHNOLOGY-HEAVY NASDAQ INDEX LOST ONE AND ONE-HALF PERCENT.

    SOME TRADERS WERE CONCERNED ABOUT THE REVISED FIGURES FOR U-S ECONOMIC GROWTH, WHICH SHOW A SIX-POINT-ONE PERCENT ANNUAL RATE IN THE FOURTH QUARTER OF 1998, UP FROM THE FIVE-POINT-SIX PERCENT ESTIMATED A MONTH AGO. ALTHOUGH THE U-S INFLATION RATE IS AT ITS LOWEST LEVEL IN 40 YEARS, SOME ANALYSTS SAY STRONG GROWTH WILL INEVITABLY LEAD TO INFLATIONARY PRESSURES.

    /// REST OPT ///

    TED WEISSBERG, PRESIDENT OF SEAPORT SECURITIES, IS NOT SURPRISED BY THE RECENT STOCK MARKET SELL-OFF, AND DOES NOT BELIEVE THERE IS A SERIOUS DOWNTREND AHEAD.

    /// WEISSBERG ACT ///

    WITH A MARKET THAT HAS BEEN SOMEWHAT OVERBOUGHT, IT IS NOT SURP RISIN

    THAT WE HAVE BEEN

    LITTL E BIT ON THE NEGAT IVE SIDE FOR THE PAST COUPL E OF DAYS.

    /// END ACT ///

    MANY TECHNOLOGY STOCKS WERE WEAK, AFTER WALL STREET ANALYSTS DOWNGRADED INDUSTRY LEADERS SUCH AS MICRON TECHNOLOGY AND THE COMPAQ COMPUTER COMPANY. THERE ARE CONCERNS ABOUT SLOWING SALES AND INCREASED PRICE COMPETITION.

    THE ASAHI INSURANCE COMPANY OF JAPAN HAS FORMED A JOINT VENTURE WITH THE METROPOLITAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF THE UNITED STATES. THE ALLIANCE WILL MANAGE PENSION AND INVESTMENT TRUSTS IN JAPAN.

    THE GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY IS OPTIMISTIC ABOUT ITS BUSINESS IN JAPAN. G-E SAYS IT EXPECTS TO DOUBLE ITS 300-MILLION-DOLLAR ANNUAL PROFIT FROM JAPANESE OPERATIONS WITHIN THREE YEARS.

    ROYAL PHILIPS ELECTRONICS, A DUTCH CORPORATION, IS OFFERING 777-MILLION DOLLARS TO BUY V-L-S-I, A U-S-BASED SEMICONDUCTOR COMPANY. THE OFFER IS ABOUT 60 PERCENT HIGHER THAN V-L-S-I'S RECENT MARKET VALUE.

    J-C PENNEY, THE FOURTH-LARGEST RETAIL CHAIN IN THE UNITED STATES, REPORTED QUARTERLY EARNINGS WHICH WERE SHORT OF WALL STREET ESTIMATES. ANALYSTS SAY HIGHER-THAN-EXPECTED DISCOUNTS DURING THE CHRISTMAS SHOPPING SEASON HURT PENNEY'S EARNINGS.

    ATTORNEYS WHO ARE KNOWLEDGEABLE IN U-S COMMUNICATIONS LAW SAY THERE IS NO CHANCE THAT THE C-B-S TELEVISION NETWORK WILL TAKE OVER THE N-B-C NETWORK. THE IDEA WAS FLOATED THURSDAY IN A SPEECH BY C-B-S PRESIDENT MEL KARMAZIN. BUT THE LAWYERS SAY THERE IS NO CHANCE FEDERAL REGULATORS WOULD CHANGE A RULE THAT PROHIBITS MAJOR U-S TELEVISION NETWORKS FROM ACQUIRING EACH OTHER. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/WTW
    26-Feb-99 5:13 PM EST (2213 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=02/27/99
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11166
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// EDS: MATERIAL DATED AFTER 10 P-M EST ////

    INTRO: THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS OF FRIDAY'S PAPERS ARE COMMENTING ON A WIDE RANGE OF TOPICS. THEY INCLUDE, MORE ALLEGATIONS OF SEXUAL WRONGDOING BY BILL CLINTON PRIOR TO BECOMING PRESIDENT; THE RELATIONSHIP OF GREECE WITH A TOP KURDISH LEADER; DEALING WITH RUSSIA IN THE POST COLD WAR ERA; AND THE LATEST CRACKDOWN IN CUBA. NOW, HERE IS ___________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK AND SEVERAL EXCERPTS IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: FOR WEEKS, THE STORY OF AN ARKANSAS WOMAN WHO CLAIMS SHE WAS RAPED BY BILL CLINTON WHILE HE WAS THE STATE'S ATTORNEY GENERAL TWENTY YEARS AGO, HAS BEEN CIRCULATING IN WASHINGTON. NOW N-B-C NEWS HAS BROADCAST AN INTERVIEW WITH THE WOMAN, JUANITA BROADDRICK, AND THAT IS CAUSING REACTION IN THE DAILY PRESS. HERE'S PART OF A "PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" EDITORIAL.

    VOICE: A CLAIM OF RAPE, ISSUED 21 YEARS LATER, WOULD ORDINARILY MERIT GREAT SKEPTICISM ... WITH NO PHYSICAL EVIDENCE, NO EYEWITNESS, IT'S A SHE-SAID / HE-SAID WITH TWO DECADES OF DUST ON IT. BUT THIS BUFFER OF SKEPTICISM IS MUCH THINNER FOR PRESIDENT CLINTON AS HE DENIES AN ARKANSAS WOMAN'S ACCUSATIONS ... AMERICANS NOW ARE UNCOMFORTABLY FAMILIAR WITH HIS SEXUAL COMPULSIVENESS AND WITH HIS SKILL AT LYING ... AS OF NOW, AMERICANS ARE FORCED TO CONTEMPLATE THE POSSIBILITY THAT BILL CLINTON IS NOT JUST A PHILANDERER, BUT ALSO A RAPIST.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK POST," OFTEN SHARPLY CRITICAL OF MR. CLINTON, ADDS:

    VOICE: THE TRUTH OF THE CASE MAY NEVER BE ASCERTAINED. ... WE WOULD NOT BE THE LEAST BIT SURPRISED IF THE STORY WERE TRUE, THOUGH, AND THEREIN LIES THE REAL TRAGEDY. .... [MR.] CLINTON'S TAWDRY PUBLIC BEHAVIOR HAS NOW SO DEFINED THE PRESIDENCY DOWN THAT THERE IS LITTLE HE COULD DO TO PROVOKE PUBLIC RAGE ... AMERICA HAS BECOME DESENSITIZED TO FURTHER CLINTON CRIMES OR SINS.

    TEXT: ON NEW YORK'S LONG ISLAND, "NEWSDAY" CALLS IT "...A SORRY MESS FOR AMERICA" IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL HEADLINE. /// END OPT

    /// "THE WALL STREET JOURNAL," WHICH PRINTED ITS OWN INTERVIEW WITH MS. BROADDRICK LAST WEEK, SAYS IT LOOKS LIKE A FAMILIAR CINEMA THEME.

    VOICE: ... THE WASHINGTON POLITICAL COMMUNITY APPEARS TO BE AVERTING ITS EYES. MORE THAN ANYTHING, THE CITY LOOKS LIKE ONE OF THOSE SMALL TOWNS IN A WESTERN MOVIE WHERE SOMETHING QUITE AWFUL IS HAPPENING OUT IN THE STREET, AND ONE HOUSE AFTER DRAWS THE CURTAINS TO SHUT OUT THE SIGHT.

    TEXT: OVERSEAS, THERE IS TURMOIL IN GREECE, NOTES "THE WASHINGTON POST," FOR ITS PART IN ITS DEALINGS WITH TURKEY'S RENEGADE KURDISH LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN.

    VOICE: TURKEY HAS ITS HANDS FULL DEALING WITH THE CAPTURED KURDISH LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN. THEN THERE IS GREECE. IT HAS ITS OWN GRAVE OBLIGATION TO EXPLAIN ITS ROLE NOT ONLY IN HAVING HIM IN ITS CHARGE AND CARE IN HIS FINAL WEEKS OF FREEDOM BUT ALSO IN ALLEGEDLY SUPPORTING HIS TERRORIST ACTIVITIES IN EARLIER YEARS IN NEIGHBOR AND FELLOW NATO ALLY TURKEY. AT STAKE, BEYOND THE INTERESTS OF TURKS, GREEKS AND KURDS, IS THE WHOLE NOTION OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGAINST TERRORISM.

    /// OPT ///

    MR. OCALAN IS REPORTED ... TO HAVE TOLD HIS CAPTORS THAT HIS PARTY RECEIVED TRAINING AND ARMS FROM GREECE. ... THE ISSUE OF THE RECRUITMENT, TRAINING, PROVISION AND SANCTUARY OF THE KURDISH GUERRILLAS, WHO ENGAGED FORMIDABLE TURKISH MILITARY AND POLICE FORCES FOR 14 YEARS, IS PART OF THE TRUTH THAT MUST NOW BE TOLD, EMBARRASSING AS IT MAY BE. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: TODAY'S "NEW YORK TIMES" CONTINUES TO WORRY ABOUT THE DISINTEGRATION OF RUSSIA ON MANY LEVELS, INCLUDING ECONOMIC, AND ESPECIALLY THE THREAT OF UNEMPLOYED NUCLEAR SCIENTISTS SELLING THEMSELVES TO THE HIGHEST ROGUE NATION BIDDER.

    VOICE: HISTORY WILL JUDGE THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S FOREIGN POLICY RECORD PARTLY BY ITS SUCCESS IN HELPING RUSSIA REDUCE THE NUCLEAR REMNANTS OF THE COLD WAR. NOTHING WOULD DO MORE TO PROTECT AMERICAN SECURITY IN THE DECADES AHEAD THAN INSURING THAT RUSSIA'S IMMENSE STOCKPILE OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND MATERIALS IS DIMINISHED AND ADEQUATELY CONTROLLED. /// OPT /// THE MODEST AMOUNT OF MONEY NEEDED TO ACHIEVE THESE GOALS NOW COULD SAVE WASHINGTON MANY BILLIONS OF DOLLARS IN THE FUTURE TO DEAL WITH THE RUSSIAN NUCLEAR THREAT IF IT IS NOT REDUCED. ... WASHINGTON SHOULD ALSO PRESS AHEAD WITH ITS EFFORTS TO RE-EMPLOY RUSSIAN WEAPONS SCIENTISTS IN CIVILIAN WORK. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: TURNING TO THIS HEMISPHERE, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" IS NOTING, WITH DISMAY, THE LATEST CRACK DOWNS ON FREEDOM IN CUBA .

    VOICE: WATCHING FIDEL CASTRO, IT'S NO LEAP TO CONCLUDE THAT HE IS HIS OWN WORST ENEMY. TOO BAD SO MANY CUBANS ARE HARMED BY HIS DESPERATION TO MAINTAIN CONTROL. HE GETS NERVOUS WHEN HE SENSES DANGER AND REACTS BY CRACKING DOWN ON THE INNOCENT, AS HE DID EARLIER THIS MONTH WITH A NEW LAW TO PUNISH CUBAN CITIZENS WHO SPEAK TO FOREIGN REPORTERS. THE PENALTY? UP TO 20 YEARS IN JAIL. ... CUBA'S NEW PRESS LAW WILL GIVE FODDER TO THOSE WHO ARE PUSHING THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION FOR A HARDER LINE AGAINST [PRESIDENT] CASTRO AND EVEN FEWER TIES TO ITS PEOPLE. THAT WOULD BE A MISTAKE; MORE FRESH AIR, NOT LESS, IS NEEDED.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: TODAY'S "MIAMI HERALD" IS UPSET AT THE U-S GOVERNMENT FOR THE LENGTHY, FORCED DETENTION AT THE GUANTANAMO NAVAL BASE IN CUBA OF SOME CUBAN RAFTERS, FLEEING POLITICAL PERSECUTION, WHO ARE IN THE PROCESS OF BEING GRANTED ASYLUM BY THE UNITED STATES. THEY ARE INTERNED BEHIND BARBED WIRE AT THE BASE, IN SOME CASES AS LONG AS TWO YEARS, WHILE THE U-S FINDS A NATION TO TAKE THEM. "THE HERALD" SAYS:

    VOICE: IT'S UNCONSCIONABLE ... THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS GRANTING ENTRY TO THE PERSECUTED FEW WHO ACTUALLY GET PROTECTED STATUS MIGHT ENCOURAGE HORDES OF CUBANS TO TAKE TO RAFTS. BUT THAT FEAR DIDN'T STOP THIS ADMINISTRATION FROM OFFERING ENTRY TO BASEBALL STAR [PITCHER] ORLANDO ' EL DUQUE' HERNANDEZ WHEN HE WASHED UP IN THE BAHAMAS. ... THE PERSECUTED RAFTERS HAVE WAITED ENOUGH FOR FREEDOM. NOW BRING THEM TO THE UNITED STATES.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE RECESSED PEACE TALKS CONCERNING SERBIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE, AND THE THREAT OF RENEWED FIGHTING THERE BETWEEN YUGOSLAV TROOPS AND PARA-MILITARY POLICE VERSUS THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY, "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE LAMENTS:

    VOICE: AFTER 17 DAYS AND A PARTIAL AGREEMENT IN THE KOSOVO NEGOTIATIONS, NOTHING IS ASSURED. ... IT IS TOO EARLY TO KNOW IF THE PEACE CONFERENCE AT RAMBOUILLET FAILED.

    /// OPT ///

    ... THANKS TO THE ALBANIAN DELAYS, THE SERB-YUGOSLAV DELEGATION WENT HOME CLAIMING VICTORY. AND THE NATO FORCE POISED TO BOMB SERBIA FOR RESUMING HOSTILITIES IS INHIBITED FROM DOING SO. MEANWHILE, YUGOSLAV TROOPS ARE MASSING NEAR THE BORDERS. /// END OPT /// ... IF WAR HAS NOT BEEN RENEWED BY THE TIME THE ALBANIANS, YUGOSLAVS AND SIX-NATION CONTACT GROUP ARE SUPPOSED TO MEET AGAIN IN FRANCE, PEACE WOULD STILL HAVE A CHANCE, HOWEVER SLIM, IN KOSOVO.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: LASTLY, AN IRONIC SIDE EFFECT TO THE INCREASINGLY ACCURATE SCIENTIFIC METHODS OF IDENTIFYING HUMAN REMAINS. THE PENTAGON SAYS WITH D-N-A TESTING AND OTHER SCIENCE, NO MORE U-S MILITARY WILL BE ABLE TO BE BURIED IN THE TOMB OF THE UNKNOWN SOLDIERS AT ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETERY. "USA TODAY" SAYS:

    VOICE: THIS IS WONDERFUL NEWS. HONORING SOLDIERS WHOSE IDENTITIES HAVE BEEN ERASED BY WAR IS AN AUGUST TRADITION. BUT HOW MUCH BETTER WILL THE NATION REST, KNOWING THAT THE HUMBLING DEBT OF THAT DEEP SACRIFICE - - NOT JUST OF LIFE AND LIMB BUT OF NAME AND EXISTENCE - - MAY NEVER BE INCURRED AGAIN? INFINITELY. EVERY CASUALTY DESERVES A KNOWN FATE, IF POSSIBLE ...

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENT FROM FRIDAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/GE
    26-Feb-99 11:59 AM EST (1659 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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