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RFE/RL Newsline, Vol. 3, No. 227, 99-11-22

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty: Newsline Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty <http://www.rferl.org>

RFE/RL NEWSLINE

Vol. 3, No. 227, 22 November 1999


CONTENTS

[A] TRANSCAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA

  • [01] ARMENIAN, AZERBAIJANI PRESIDENTS CALL FOR REGIONAL SECURITY
  • [02] ...DISCUSS KARABAKH CONFLICT
  • [03] GEORGIA, RUSSIA AGREE ON CLOSURE OF TWO RUSSIAN BASES
  • [04] RUSSIAN PLANE AGAIN VIOLATES GEORGIAN AIRSPACE
  • [05] DEMONSTRATORS CALL ON SOUTH OSSETIAN PRESIDENT TO RESIGN
  • [06] ABKHAZ GOVERMENT IN EXILE DEMANDS PAYMENT OF BACK WAGES
  • [07] NEW GEORGIAN PARLIAMENT CONVENES
  • [08] KAZAKHSTAN, RUSSIA AGREE ON COMPENSATION FOR ROCKET ACCIDENT
  • [09] FORMER PREMIER CONSIDERS RETURNING TO KAZAKHSTAN
  • [10] KAZAKHSTAN'S SECURITY MINISTRY THWARTS SEPARATISTS
  • [11] KYRGYZSTAN NAMES PARLIAMENTARY ELECTION DATE
  • [12] STILL NO AGREEMENT ON TAJIK ELECTION LAW
  • [13] WOMEN DEMONSTRATE IN UZBEK CAPITAL

  • [B] SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

  • [14] CROATIAN PRESIDENT'S HEALTH DETERIORATES...
  • [15] ...WHILE POLITICAL UNCERTAINTY CONTINUES
  • [16] VIOLENT INCIDENT BETWEEN CLERICS IN MONTENEGRO
  • [17] YUGOSLAV ARMY OFFICER BEATEN IN MONTENEGRO
  • [18] CIVILIAN FLIGHTS SUSPENDED IN KOSOVA
  • [19] SERBIAN POLICE KILLED IN MINE INCIDENT
  • [20] LEADING ALBANIAN WRITER CALLS FOR RESTRAINT
  • [21] INDEPENDENT ECONOMISTS TO LAUNCH 'CONTRACT WITH SERBIA'
  • [22] DAYTON ANNIVERSARY: BOSNIAN UNITY LONG WAY OFF
  • [23] ROMANIAN OPPOSITION LEADER SAYS ECONOMIC DECLINE HURTING EU
  • [24] ROMANIA CONFIRMED FOR OSCE CHAIR IN 2001
  • [25] MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT CONVINCES PREMIER-DESIGNATE TO CARRY ON
  • [26] CLINTON THANKS BULGARIA FOR SUPPORT OVER KOSOVA

  • [C] END NOTE

  • [27] MOVES FOR CHANGE WITHIN ALBANIA'S DEMOCRATIC PARTY

  • [A] TRANSCAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA

    [01] ARMENIAN, AZERBAIJANI PRESIDENTS CALL FOR REGIONAL SECURITY

    SYSTEM...

    In their speeches to the OSCE Istanbul summit, both

    Robert Kocharian and Heidar Aliev advocated the creation of a

    South Caucasus security system that would complement the

    existing European security system, Reuters and Noyan Tapan

    reported. That system would involve the three South Caucasus

    states plus Turkey, Russia, and the U.S. Aliev said that

    under the terms of such a regional security agreement, all

    foreign troops should be withdrawn from the region, according

    to Turan. It is unclear whether Moscow would agree to close

    its military base in Armenia. LF

    [02] ...DISCUSS KARABAKH CONFLICT

    Kocharian and Aliev met on 18

    November in Istanbul with OSCE Chairman in Office Knut

    Vollebaek and the foreign ministers of the three states that

    co-chair the OSCE Minsk Group (the U.S., Russia, and France)

    to discuss the ongoing efforts to resolve the Karabakh

    conflict. No details of those talks were revealed. The two

    presidents also met separately on 19 November with U.S.

    President Bill Clinton, who praised their commitment to

    ongoing peace talks. Armenian Foreign Minister Vartan

    Oskanian told a correspondent for RFE/RL's Armenian Service

    on 19 November that the summit played a "very positive" role

    in removing barriers to further progress in the Karabakh

    peace talks. Oskanian noted that the final document adopted

    by the 54 summit participants hailed the recent direct talks

    between Kocharian and Aliev but called for the resumption of

    Minsk Group-mediated talks as "the most appropriate format

    for finding a solution to the conflict." LF

    [03] GEORGIA, RUSSIA AGREE ON CLOSURE OF TWO RUSSIAN BASES

    Meeting on 18 November on the sidelines of the OSCE Istanbul

    summit, Georgian and Russian representatives reached

    preliminary agreement that in accordance with the revised CFE

    Treaty, Moscow will close the two largest of its four

    military bases in Georgia by 1 July 2001, Caucasus Press

    reported. The two bases are in Vaziani and Gudauta. All

    Russian military personnel there must leave six months before

    that date. An inventory of the equipment at those bases will

    be undertaken soon, Georgian Defense Minister David Tevzadze

    told journalists in Tbilisi on 20 November. He added that the

    fate of the two remaining bases in Akhalkalaki and Batumi

    will be determined at bilateral talks beginning next year.

    The chairman of the Georgian parliamentary Committee on

    Defense and Security, Revaz Adamia, had proposed in May that

    the Vaziani and Gudauta bases be closed (see "RFE/RL

    Newsline," 24 May 1999). LF

    [04] RUSSIAN PLANE AGAIN VIOLATES GEORGIAN AIRSPACE

    The Georgian

    Foreign Ministry protested to Moscow over the incursion into

    Georgian airspace on 18 November of a Russian Su-25 fighter

    aircraft, Interfax reported. The aircraft overflew the north

    Georgian village of Shatili, close to the Georgian-Chechen

    border, where Russian helicopters dropped anti-personnel

    mines the previous day (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 19 November

    1999). A Russian Air Force spokesman told Interfax on 20

    November that two Russian Su-25 aircraft had flown close to

    the Georgian frontier on 18 November, but he denied that

    either had entered Georgian airspace. LF

    [05] DEMONSTRATORS CALL ON SOUTH OSSETIAN PRESIDENT TO RESIGN

    An

    opposition movement named Hope of Ossetia staged a

    demonstration in the South Ossetian capital of Tskhinvali,

    Caucasus Press reported on 18 November, citing "Dilis

    gazeti." The demonstrators protested the catastrophic

    economic and energy situation in the unrecognized republic

    and called for the resignation of its president, Lyudvig

    Chibirov. It was the first public expression of discontent

    with Chibirov. On 16 November, "Dilis gazeti" reported that

    Chibirov has appealed to the entire Ossetian nation to

    contribute funds for the construction of hydro-electric power

    stations after the Georgian Energy Ministry signaled its

    intention to cut off power supplies to the region because of

    the region's inability to pay for them. Russia has already

    stopped supplying South Ossetia with electricity owing to the

    republic's $15 million unpaid debt. LF

    [06] ABKHAZ GOVERMENT IN EXILE DEMANDS PAYMENT OF BACK WAGES

    Some

    200 employees of the Health, Education, and Culture

    Ministries of the Abkhaz government in exile staged a protest

    demonstration outside the state chancellery in Tbilisi on 22

    November to demand payment of their salaries for the past

    nine months, Caucasus Press reported. Deputy Education

    Minister Vakhtang Gasviani said that the monies earmarked for

    salaries had instead been used for business trips and

    stationery. The Georgian Finance Ministry has accused the

    government in exile of misappropriating budget funds (see

    "RFE/RL Newsline," 19 November 1999). LF

    [07] NEW GEORGIAN PARLIAMENT CONVENES

    Georgia's newly elected

    parliament convened for the first time on 20 November and

    elected Zurab Zhvania as its chairman by a vote of 162 to 29,

    Caucasus Press reported. Zhvania had served as chairman in

    the outgoing legislature. LF

    [08] KAZAKHSTAN, RUSSIA AGREE ON COMPENSATION FOR ROCKET ACCIDENT

    During talks in Astana on 18 November, the deputy prime

    ministers of Russia and Kazakhstan agreed that Moscow will

    pay approximately $400,000 in compensation for damage caused

    by the explosion of a Russian Proton rocket shortly after

    blastoff from the Baikonur cosmodrome on 27 October, Interfax

    reported. Moscow had paid $270,000 in compensation after an

    earlier Proton explosion in July. On 20 November, Russian

    Space Agency Director Yuri Koptev told Interfax he is pleased

    with the agreement that Moscow reached with Kazakhstan on 18

    November regarding restrictions on future launches in the

    event of another rocket explosion. Under that agreement,

    Kazakhstan does not have the right to ban further launches,

    but Moscow undertakes to suspend all further launches of

    rockets of the type involved until the causes of the accident

    are clarified. LF

    [09] FORMER PREMIER CONSIDERS RETURNING TO KAZAKHSTAN

    Akezhan

    Kazhegeldin may take up President Nursultan Nazarbaev's 4

    November invitation to return to Kazakhstan, Interfax-

    Kazakhstan reported on 19 November (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 5

    November 1999). Kazhegeldin said that drawing all "healthy

    forces" into politics is the only way to extract the country

    from the current crisis. He said that he is prepared to

    mediate a dialogue between the Kazakh authorities and the

    opposition. He called for the passing of a new constitution

    and election legislation and the holding of new presidential

    and parliamentary elections. Kazhegeldin was barred from

    contesting the presidential elections in January 1999. LF

    [10] KAZAKHSTAN'S SECURITY MINISTRY THWARTS SEPARATISTS

    A senior

    official of Kazakhstan's National Security Ministry said on

    19 November that the ministry's forces detained a group of 22

    armed men the previous night in East Kazakhstan Oblast,

    Reuters and RFE/RL's Almaty correspondent reported. The

    official said the men intended to seize local government

    buildings in the city of Ust-Kamennogorsk and proclaim all or

    part of the oblast Russian territory. LF

    [11] KYRGYZSTAN NAMES PARLIAMENTARY ELECTION DATE

    Under a decree

    signed by President Askar Akaev on 12 November and published

    on 19 November, elections to both chambers of the parliament

    will take place on 20 February, RFE/RL's Bishkek bureau

    reported. The People's Assembly (upper house) will be

    composed of 45 deputies and the Legislative Assembly (lower

    house) 60 deputies, of whom 15 will be elected under the

    proportional system. LF

    [12] STILL NO AGREEMENT ON TAJIK ELECTION LAW

    Tajik government

    and opposition representatives on the Commission for National

    Reconciliation have still not reached agreement on six

    articles of the draft election law, Asia Plus-Blitz reported

    on 22 November, quoting the commission's press secretary,

    Akmadshoh Komilzoda (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 18 November

    1999). The opposition has rejected the government's demand

    that parliamentary candidates be nominated only by "councils"

    of voters. The deadline for finalizing the text of the law

    was 20 November, but the commission will meet again on 23

    November in an attempt to reach agreement. LF

    [13] WOMEN DEMONSTRATE IN UZBEK CAPITAL

    Some 40 women staged a

    public protest outside the city mayor's office in Tashkent on

    18 November to protest the arrest of relatives on what they

    say were fabricated charges of possession of drugs and

    weapons and of illicit Islamic literature, Human Rights Watch

    reported. All the arrested men are practicing Muslims and

    have been sentenced to prison terms of up to 10 years for

    encroaching on the constitutional order of the Republic of

    Uzbekistan. In related news, Uzbek Human Rights Society

    General Secretary Talib Yakubov told an UN Human Rights panel

    in Geneva last week that the Uzbek authorities have built a

    huge prison camp in the desert southwest of the Aral Sea,

    where persons sentenced for their religious beliefs are

    incarcerated, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 19 November

    (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 29 September 1999). Yakubov said that

    38 prisoners have died at that camp so far this year. LF


    [B] SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

    [14] CROATIAN PRESIDENT'S HEALTH DETERIORATES...

    The health of

    President Franjo Tudjman worsened overnight, and his

    treatment "has been adjusted accordingly," doctors said in a

    statement on 22 November. The statement did not provide any

    details. The Croatian leader has been in a Zagreb hospital

    since 1 November and has spent much of the time in intensive

    care. The authorities have provided little information and no

    photographs of the leader during his hospitalization. He is

    widely believed to have suffered from cancer since at least

    1996. PM

    [15] ...WHILE POLITICAL UNCERTAINTY CONTINUES

    Tudjman failed to

    meet a deadline of midnight on 20 November to sign documents

    authorizing parliamentary elections on 22 December. Reuters

    reported that it is unclear whether elections can still be

    held legally in December or whether 27 January may be the

    next possible date. Parliamentary speaker Vlatko Pavletic is

    expected to meet with representatives of the parties

    represented in the legislature on 22 November to discuss ways

    of avoiding political paralysis caused by Tudjman's apparent

    incapacitation (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 19 November 1999). The

    opposition demands a full report on Tudjman's health before

    making any decision. The constitution allows the speaker of

    the parliament to take over presidential duties if the

    president is permanently incapacitated or dies. Presidential

    elections must be then held within 60 days of the speaker's

    assuming those duties. The constitution contains no provision

    for what is to happen if the president is temporarily

    incapacitated. PM

    [16] VIOLENT INCIDENT BETWEEN CLERICS IN MONTENEGRO

    Serbian

    Orthodox Father Dragan Stanisic hit Montenegrin Orthodox

    Metropolitan Mihajlo in the face on a mountain road near

    Cetinje on 21 November, the independent news agency Montena

    faks reported. AP added that Stanisic's entourage thereupon

    "trashed" Mihajlo's car. Stanisic told RFE/RL's South Slavic

    Service that no such incident took place. Police confiscated

    a video tape allegedly of the clash from a local television

    crew and are investigating. In Cetinje, some 250 angry

    demonstrators protested the incident. The authorities sent

    out an unspecified number of riot police and called in

    reinforcements from Podgorica in an apparent attempt to

    prevent matters from getting out of hand. The Montenegrin

    Orthodox Church was founded in 1991, but the Serbian Orthodox

    Church does not recognize it. PM

    [17] YUGOSLAV ARMY OFFICER BEATEN IN MONTENEGRO

    An unspecified

    number of people hit Yugoslav army Lieutenant Colonel Radovan

    Aleksic with batons in front of his home in Podgorica, where

    he headed army intelligence on 19 November, Reuters reported.

    A statement from the Second Army said: "Since the incident

    involves a high-ranking army officer, it could have much

    greater implications, and the army demands an urgent

    investigation by Montenegrin authorities." The statement did

    not indicate what those implications might be. PM

    [18] CIVILIAN FLIGHTS SUSPENDED IN KOSOVA

    KFOR said in a

    statement on 21 November that the approximately 30 civilian

    flights per week into Prishtina airport have been suspended.

    The airport will remain closed to civilian traffic pending

    the completion of an investigation by French and UN experts

    into a recent plane crash, in which all 24 people on board

    died (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 15 November 1999). A French

    spokesman suggested that confusion could arise between ground

    controllers using military terminology and civilian pilots.

    The suspension of flights will mean increased traffic at the

    border crossing with Macedonia at Blace, Reuters reported. PM

    [19] SERBIAN POLICE KILLED IN MINE INCIDENT

    Two Serbian policemen

    died and six were injured on 21 November when their vehicle

    struck a land mine near Kursumlija, 10 kilometers north of

    the border between Serbia and Kosova. Serbian authorities

    blamed "Albanian terrorists" for the incident. AP reported

    from Prishtina that unidentified ethnic Albanian guerrillas

    have recently made repeated incursions into Serbia proper.

    Under the June peace agreements, the Kosova Liberation Army

    is long supposed to have disarmed. Serbian forces are obliged

    to maintain a specified distance from the border with Kosova.

    PM

    [20] LEADING ALBANIAN WRITER CALLS FOR RESTRAINT

    Ismail Kadare,

    who is widely considered to be the greatest living Albanian

    writer, told the Kosova station Radio 21 on 21 November that

    ethnic Albanians should not seek revenge against Serbs.

    Kadare stressed that there can be no excuse for what the

    Serbian forces did in Kosova. He added, however, that the

    Albanians can show that they are "brave and noble" by not

    answering violence with violence. PM

    [21] INDEPENDENT ECONOMISTS TO LAUNCH 'CONTRACT WITH SERBIA'

    Mladjan Dinkic, who is a spokesman for the G-17 group of

    independent economists, said in Belgrade on 21 November that

    his group is preparing a document called a "Contract with

    Serbia" as a joint platform for the opposition. He stressed

    that while the opposition parties have failed to unite in a

    single coalition, he hopes that perhaps they can agree at

    least on a common platform. Dinkic noted that the opposition

    must pool its resources if it is to defeat the three-party

    governing coalition. PM

    [22] DAYTON ANNIVERSARY: BOSNIAN UNITY LONG WAY OFF

    The leading

    representatives of the international community in charge of

    enforcing the Dayton peace agreement said in a statement in

    Sarajevo on 20 November that true peace remains a distant

    goal. The international community's Wolfgang Petritsch, the

    UN's Jacques Klein, SFOR's General Ron Adams, and the OSCE's

    Robert Berry stressed that Bosnia has yet to become a united

    state that includes all ethnic groups. The joint statement

    marked the fourth anniversary of the conclusion of the Dayton

    peace treaty, which ended the war in Bosnia. In Banja Luka,

    representatives of Bosnia's religious communities called for

    the return of all property that was wrongly taken from

    religious organizations during the war. PM

    [23] ROMANIAN OPPOSITION LEADER SAYS ECONOMIC DECLINE HURTING EU

    CHANCES

    Former President Ion Iliescu said in Sofia on 21

    November that the economic decline in the country is hurting

    Bucharest's chances of joining the EU, AP reported. Iliescu,

    who was in Sofia to attend a seminar marking the fall of the

    Berlin Wall, said the government's reform programs are

    "undermining the economy and causing a decline in people's

    living conditions." He said reform should lead to economic

    growth and is the "only honest way we can get closer to

    integrating in the European Union." Iliescu, who was

    president from 1990 to 1996, has seen his popularity surge in

    recent opinion polls as the economy continues to stagnate. PB

    [24] ROMANIA CONFIRMED FOR OSCE CHAIR IN 2001

    Romania on 19

    November was officially named to take over the chairmanship

    of the OSCE in 2001, AFP reported. Norway currently holds the

    chair, which is filled by the country's foreign minister.

    Austria will have the chairmanship in 2000. In other news,

    the European Investment Bank loaned Romania 210 million Euros

    ($216 million) on 19 November for the construction of a major

    highway from Bucharest to the Black Sea port of Constanta,

    Mediafax reported. PB

    [25] MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT CONVINCES PREMIER-DESIGNATE TO CARRY ON

    Moldovan Premier-designate Valeriu Bobutac decided after a 20

    November meeting with President Petru Lucinschi to continue

    to seek support for a new government, BasaPress reported. The

    previous day, Bobutac said he had failed to form a new

    government and had asked Lucinschi to relieve him of his

    mandate. But parliamentary speaker Dumitru Diacov said

    Bobutac has changed his mind and will continue to work for a

    new government. Moldova has been without a government since

    Premier Ion Sturza resigned two weeks ago. PB

    [26] CLINTON THANKS BULGARIA FOR SUPPORT OVER KOSOVA

    U.S.

    President Bill Clinton said in Sofia on 22 November that he

    is "very grateful" to Bulgarian leaders for the support they

    gave to NATO during the air campaign against Yugoslavia, AFP

    reported. Clinton said before a meeting with his Bulgarian

    counterpart, Petar Stoyanov, that "we are committed" to

    supporting Bulgaria "politically, economically, and

    militarily over the long run." It is the first time ever that

    a U.S. president has visited Bulgaria. Clinton is to meet

    with Premier Ivan Kostov and give an address on Sofia's

    Nevsky Square. Kostov said he will warn Clinton that a

    decline in living standards in Yugoslavia may send refugees

    to Bulgaria. PB


    [C] END NOTE

    [27] MOVES FOR CHANGE WITHIN ALBANIA'S DEMOCRATIC PARTY

    by Fabian Schmidt

    Changes are under way in Albania's leading conservative

    party. These could prove a first step toward renewing the

    party and overcoming the polarization between the Democrats

    and Socialists that has characterized political life for most

    of the past decade.

    A number of prominent politicians from the opposition

    Democratic Party (PD) announced on 9 November that they will

    form a group called the Democratic Alternative within the

    party. They seek to challenge the dominant position of PD

    leader and former President Sali Berisha. They also want to

    promote democracy within the party and to improve the PD's

    standing in the eyes of voters.

    The group includes eight out of a total of 27 PD

    parliamentary deputies. The Tirana daily "Koha Jone" quoted

    unnamed members of the group as saying that they will push

    for an extraordinary party congress soon.

    The decision to form the new group comes just over one

    month after Secretary-General Genc Pollo challenged Berisha

    for the party leadership at a national congress. Pollo

    withdrew his candidature shortly before the vote, however,

    saying he had received threats against himself and his

    family. The proposals put forward earlier this month by the

    eight are similar to the ones that Pollo advanced before the

    congress.

    Unnamed party officials supporting the reformers told

    "Koha Jone" that they intend to change the platform,

    statutes, and leadership of the party. They plan to achieve

    their aim by winning grassroots support from among the rank

    and file. It remains unclear if that challenge will succeed,

    but the reformers are already hard at work. They have begun

    to collect signatures at local party meetings throughout the

    country.

    The statutes stipulate that a quarter of all PD members

    or a quarter of the members of its National Council must

    request that a congress be held. "Koha Jone" also noted that

    the reformers have held frequent meetings with former PD

    members who earlier quit the party because of Berisha's

    increasingly authoritarian style. Since 1992, when the

    Democrats won parliamentary and presidential elections and

    put an end to the rule of the former Communists, the PD has

    lost many of its co-founders and prominent leaders. Some of

    them founded a smaller, liberal-oriented center-right party,

    the Democratic Alliance, which is now in the Socialist-

    dominated coalition government. Others, like the young and

    energetic former party leader Eduard Selami have withdrawn

    from politics for the time being.

    Selami has warned that the Democrats will isolate

    themselves if the party fails to reform from within. One of

    the eight reformers--legislator and former Foreign Relations

    Secretary Eduard Demi--takes a similar view. He told the

    "Albanian Daily News" that the PD is losing popular support.

    Demi stressed that it needs to change from within and to

    regain the "respect and credibility" it once enjoyed from the

    electorate. Demi said: "We want to gain back the people's

    belief in the PD in order to win the next elections," which

    are due in 2001. He added that the party is suffering from a

    "veil of ridicule that covers the PD in the eyes of the

    international community." By this, he meant the frequent

    criticism by international officials of repeated

    parliamentary boycotts by the PD legislators and their lack

    of constructive participation in the drafting of new

    legislation.

    The daily noted that the conflict between the reformers

    and Berisha's supporters became public when the former

    refused to boycott a parliamentary session in early November,

    at which the cabinet of newly appointed Prime Minister Ilir

    Meta faced a vote of confidence. This was a bold move, but

    the eight will need to win sufficient support from within the

    party or face the same fate as other Berisha challengers have

    in the past. Jemin Gjana, who is the pro-Berisha leader of

    the Democrats' parliamentary group, said that "those who do

    not see themselves in one party may join another party...or

    they can found a new party."

    Another Berisha spokesman told the "Albanian Daily News"

    that the party leadership will exclude those deputies who

    attended the recent parliamentary session from running as

    Democrats in the next elections. He added that the eight

    "have excluded themselves by disobeying the leadership's

    orders [and by] caring only for their own interests." Demi,

    however, countered that the party may expel only members who

    break with the party's political principles. He argued that

    "by attending the session, we respected our party's political

    line.... We expressed our opinion, and none of us approved

    the program of the Socialist Party government." He added that

    the harsh reaction from the party leadership "is emotional,

    and it comes out of desperation."

    Another supporter of the reformers, Tirana mayor Albert

    Brojka, recently told Vienna's "Die Presse" that Berisha and

    Socialist Party leader Fatos Nano are responsible for the

    polarization of Albanian political life. Brojka said that

    both have a "communist mentality" and that the time has come

    for younger people to come to the fore.

    The author is a research analyst for the former Yugoslavia

    and Albania at the Sued-Ost Institut in Munich, Germany.

    22-11-99


    Reprinted with permission of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
    URL: http://www.rferl.org


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