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Voice of America, 26 October 1995

From: yanni@ix.netcom.com (Ioannis Bousnakis)

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY TED LANDPHAIR (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] !!! VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- OCTOBER 26, 1995 !!!

  • [03] ALBANIA PRESSES AHEAD WITH ECONOMIC REFORM

  • [04] BOSNIA VITUAL FIELD TRIP BY JOHN PITMAN (WASHINGTON)

  • [05] CLINTON / BOSNIA (S ONLY) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)

  • [06] CROATIA / KRAJINA (L ONLY) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (ZAGREB)

  • [07] E-U SCANDAL (L) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

  • [08] E-U TRADE (L-RERUN) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

  • [09] FORGING PEACE IN BOSNIA BY TED LANDPHAIR (WASHINGTON)

  • [10] HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE BALKANS

  • [11] U-S/RUSSIA BOSNIA (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)


  • [01] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY TED LANDPHAIR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/26/95
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09236
    TELEPHONE=619-3515
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON THURSDAY, OCTOBER 26TH //

    INTRO: THE BATTLE OVER THE U-S FEDERAL BUDGET HAS PUT CONGRESSIONAL REPUBLICANS AND PRESIDENT CLINTON ON A COLLISION COURSE, AND IS ONE OF SEVERAL TOPICS THAT INSPIRE EDITORIAL COMMENT IN PAPERS ACROSS THE UNITED STATES.

    HERE IS _________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: REPUBLICANS APPEAR POISED TO PASS A ONE-(T)TRILLION-DOLLAR BUDGET, AND THE PRESIDENT HAS SAID HE WILL VETO IT BECAUSE OF CUTS IN SOCIAL PROGRAMS AND THE PROVISION FOR A TAX CUT FOR MIDDLE-INCOME AND WEALTHY AMERICANS. IT'S TIME TO DISPENSE WITH THE HUFFING AND PUFFING ON BOTH ENDS OF PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE, ACCORDING TO "THE WASHINGTON POST." IT WRITES THAT BOTH SIDES SHOULD GET A BUDGET PASSED, GET IT VETOED, AND THEN GET TO WORK.

    VOICE: "A PRETTY GOOD DEAL IS WELL WITHIN . . . REACH. . . BUT THE RIGHT DEAL -- ONE THAT WOULD GET THE DEFICIT DOWN WITHOUT DESTROYING IMPORTANT FEDERAL PROGRAMS -- MAY TAKE MORE POLITICAL COURAGE THAN EITHER PARTY HAS. THE REPUBLICANS HAVE PERFORMED AN ENORMOUSLY VALUABLE SERVICE IN PRESSING FOR A BALANCED BUDGET . . . AND THEY DESERVE THE CREDIT FOR IT. TO ACHIEVE THE GOAL, EVEN THE THOUGHT OF A TAX CUT OUGHT TO BE DEFERRED. . . TO ACHIEVE SUCH A BUDGET, BOTH PARTIES WOULD HAVE TO GIVE SOME GROUND, IMPOSE SOME . . . BURDENS ON CONSTITUENCIES THEY HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT. AND OF COURSE THEY'D HAVE TO DO IT TOGETHER; NO CHEAP SHOTS AFTER THE FACT. WE ACTUALLY THINK . . . THAT THE PUBLIC WOULD REACT ALMOST WITH JOY AT FINALLY HAVING LEADERS WHO TRULY LED. JUST THINK OF IT."

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" SAYS HOUSE DEMOCRATS SHOULD SUPPORT A TAX PLAN PUT FORTH BY CONSERVATIVE DEMOCRATS, EVEN THOUGH IT HAS NO CHANCE OF BEING PASSED.

    VOICE: "THE DEMOCRATS' PLAN MEETS THE STRINGENT REPUBLICAN TEST OF BALANCING THE BUDGET WITHIN SEVEN YEARS. BUT THE DEMOCRATS WOULD MORE FAIRLY SPREAD THE BURDEN. GONE IS THE [REPUBLICANS'] 245-(B)BILLION-DOLLAR TAX CUT THAT LARGELY BENEFITS UPPER-INCOME FAMILIES. . . LIBERALS WILL NOT BE PLEASED [WITH THE DEMOCRAT-SPONSORED BUDGET PLAN]. BUT IF THE DEMOCRATS CANNOT BACK SOMETHING LIKE THE BUDGET THEIR CONSERVATIVE COLLEAGUES HAVE PUT FORWARD, THEY WILL SEVERELY LIMIT THE PRESIDENT'S BARGAINING LEVERAGE."

    TEXT: "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" CALLS THE REPUBLICANS' 17-HUNDRED-PAGE BUDGET BILL "A SORRY PIECE OF WORK."

    VOICE: "THIS PLAN IS TOO LAVISH TOWARD THE PENTAGON, TOO GENTLE ON ENTITLEMENTS FOR THE MIDDLE CLASS -- AND FOOLISHLY TIGHT-FISTED ON EDUCATION AND OTHER INVESTMENTS."

    TEXT: "THE INQUIRER" ALSO SUPPORTS THE ALTERNATIVE PROPOSED BY CONSERVATIVE DEMOCRATS WHO CALL THEMSELVES "THE COALITION."

    VOICE: "IT DISCIPLINES PROJECTED SPENDING ON WELFARE, MEDICAID AND OTHER SAFETY-NET PROGRAMS WITHOUT SLASHING THEM. . . THE COALITION PLAN ALSO AVOIDS SCRIMPING ON COLLEGE LOANS. TO THEIR CREDIT, AT LEAST TWO DEMOCRATS FROM THIS [PHILADELPHIA] AREA SAY THEY WILL VOTE FOR THE COALITION'S DEFICIT-CUTTING PLAN. INSTEAD OF SIMPLY BRAYING ABOUT WHAT THEY'RE AGAINST, THEY ARE WILLING TO MAKE TOUGH CHOICES TO END RECKLESS GOVERNMENT BORROWING."

    TEXT: A KEY BUDGET INGREDIENT CALLED "WELFARE REFORM" CATCHES THE EYE OF "THE MIAMI HERALD". IT NOTES THAT UNDER THE REPUBLICAN PLAN, STATES WOULD GET A FIXED AMOUNT OF MONEY EACH YEAR -- CALLED A "BLOCK GRANT" -- TO PAY FOR INCOME SUPPORT, DAY CARE, REMEDIAL EDUCATION, AND JOB TRAINING.

    VOICE: "IF THE NUMBER OF POOR PEOPLE GOES UP, OR THE COST OF TRAINING OR DAY CARE RUNS HIGH, THAT WILL BE THE STATE'S PROBLEM. THE FEDERAL MONEY WON'T CHANGE. . . FLORIDA HAS BEEN EXPERIMENTING WITH A TWO-YEARS-AND-OUT WELFARE SYSTEM, TO SEE WHETHER IT'S POSSIBLE TO TRAIN AND PLACE ALL RECIPIENTS IN JOBS BEFORE THE TIME LIMIT IS UP . . . YET WHAT'S THE ALTERNATIVE? TO TELL A MOTHER WITH SMALL CHILDREN THAT, EFFECTIVE IMMEDIATELY, SHE'S PENNILESS? WHEN THE DAY OF RECKONING COMES, WHAT WILL STATES DO? SO FAR, NO ONE KNOWS. [ONE STUDY] QUOTES AN UNNAMED STATE OFFICIAL ANSWERING THE QUESTION THIS WAY: 'IT WILL BE A POLITICAL QUESTION WHETHER IT IS ACCEPTABLE TO THROW THOSE PEOPLE OFF THE CLIFF AND FACE THE CONSEQUENCES.' THIS IS JUST ONE OF MANY CONCRETE QUESTIONS THAT CONGRESS HAS NOT EVEN ASKED, MUCH LESS ANSWERED. . . STATES, WHICH WILL HAVE TO DO THE ACTUAL CLIFF-THROWING, HAD BETTER START DEMANDING SOME ANSWERS."

    TEXT: "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" WONDERS WHETHER ENVIRONMENTAL GAINS OF THE PAST THREE DECADES WILL BE REVERSED IF THE REPUBLICAN BUDGET IS ENACTED. "THE MONITOR" DOES NOT THINK SO.

    VOICE: "IN THE CRUCIAL AREAS OF CLEAN WATER AND CLEAN AIR, THE NATIONAL COMMITMENT IS UNSHAKEN, FOR ONE BEDROCK REASON: THOUGH SOME MEMBERS OF CONGRESS MAY BE WILLING TO SIGNIFICANTLY LOOSEN CLEAN-WATER RULES, FOR INSTANCE, THE PUBLIC IS NOT WITH THEM. AMERICANS AS A WHOLE CHERISH ENVIRONMENTAL GAINS MADE OVER RECENT DECADES. SWIMMABLE RIVERS AND CLEARER SKIES MAKE PEOPLE FEEL BETTER ABOUT THEIR LIVES AND COMMUNITIES. . . MANY LAWMAKERS -- INCLUDING A CORPS OF CONSERVATION-MINDED REPUBLICANS -- UNDERSTAND THE PUBLIC'S ALLEGIANCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. THEY MAY BE ABLE TO STRIKE A REASONABLE BALANCE IN THE CURRENT LEGISLATION. IF THAT DOES NOT HAPPEN, THE PRESIDENT'S VETO AND FUTURE CONGRESSES WILL HAVE TO WEIGH IN ON NATURE'S SIDE."

    TEXT: "THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION" HAS ITS EYE ON TEXAS (B)BILLIONAIRE ROSS PEROT'S DRIVE TO GET A THIRD, INDEPENDENT POLITICAL PARTY OFF THE GROUND. THE SO-CALLED "REFORM PARTY" SCORED ONE BIG SUCESS THIS WEEK BY SECURING MORE THAN 90-THOUSAND SIGNATURES ON PETITIONS TO PUT THE PARTY ON CALIFORNIA'S NOVEMBER 1996 BALLOT.

    VOICE: "[YET] THE REFORM PARTY DOES NOT YET HAVE A RECOGNIZABLE STANDARD-BEARER TO FIRE UP THE TROOPS AND CAPTURE THE PUBLIC'S IMAGINATION. TO MAKE MATTERS MURKIER, THE PARTY'S AGENDA IS NEARLY AS HARD TO DETECT AS AN INCOMING . . . STEALTH FIGHTER-BOMBER. . . . THE TROUBLE IS, WHICHEVER REFORM [PARTY] LEADERS EMERGE, THEY FACE SEEMINGLY INSURMOUNTABLE OBSTACLES TO EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE. THEY SURELY MUST PASS MUSTER WITH THE ERRATIC LITTLE TYCOON WHO PAYS THE BILLS. THEY MUST CAMPAIGN KNOWING ALL THE RULES ARE RIGGED IN FAVOR OF THE TWO ESTABLISHED PARTIES. . . AMERICA DOES NOT NEED A THIRD COMPETITIVE BUT SOULLESS PARTY NEARLY AS MUCH AS IT NEEDS TWO HEALTHY, PRAGMATIC, PRINCIPLED PARTIES THAT OBSERVE RULES OF CONDUCT THAT GIVE ORDINARY CITIZENS PRECEDENCE OVER SPEICAL INTERESTS. AND THE PLACE TO START RESHAPING THEM IS INSIDE [THE POLITICAL SYSTEM], NOT OUT.

    TEXT: AND WITH THAT POLITICAL ADVICE FROM THE GEORGIA'S LEADING DAILY, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF LOOK AT SOME OF THE EDITORIALS IN THE AMERICAN PRESS THIS THURSDAY.

    NEB/TL/PCH
    26-Oct-95 11:32 AM EDT (1532 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] !!! VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- OCTOBER 26, 1995 !!!

    DATE=10/26/95
    TYPE=ADVISORY
    CONTENT=

    VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- 10/26/95 THE FOLLOWING IS A SYNOPSIS OF SIGNIFICANT REPORTING ON BOSNIA BY THE VOICE OF AMERICA THAT HAD BEEN BROADCAST OR FIRMLY SCHEDULED AT THE TIME OF PUBLICATION. THIS SELECTION IS NOT INTENDED TO BE EXHAUSTIVE, AND DOES NOT INCLUDE LATE-BREAKING NEWS OR THE MANY REPORTS IN ALL VOA LANGUAGES THAT ARE BASED ON COMMERCIAL WIRE SERVICES OR OTHER SECONDARY SOURCES. WE REGRET THAT WE CANNOT RESPOND TO REQUESTS FOR TRANSCRIPTS OF SPECIFIC BROADCASTS OR PROGRAM SEGMENTS. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT VOA, OFFICE OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS. TELEPHONE: +1-202-619-2538. ELECTRONIC MAIL: LETTERS@VOA.GOV (FOR CORRESPONDENCE FROM OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES); LETTERS-USA@VOA.GOV (FOR CORRESPONDENCE WITHIN THE UNITED STATES).

    REPORTS BY VOA NEWS SERVICES:

    US /YELTSIN / PEACE TALKS -- THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION IS NOT EXPECTING RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN'S HOSPITALIZATION TO DELAY NEXT WEEK'S BOSNIA PEACE TALKS IN THE UNITED STATES. WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DAVID BORGIDA REPORTS US OFFICIALS ARE TAKING A WAIT AND SEE APPROACH TO THE NEWS, AND HOPING THE RUSSIAN LEADER RECOVERS QUICKLY. OFFICIALS HAVE BEEN IN CONTACT WITH US EMBASSY OFFICIALS IN MOSCOW AND KNOW LITTLE MORE THAN WHAT HAS BEEN REPORTED BY YELTSIN AIDES, THAT PRESIDENT YELTSIN IS HOSPITALIZED FOR A RECURRENT HEART PROBLEM NOT SEEN AS LIFE-THREATENING. WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN MIKE MCCURRY SAID THE WHITE HOUSE IS HOPING THE RUSSIAN LEADER'S CONDITION IMPROVES IN THE DAYS AHEAD, AND THAT HE CAN MEET WITH THE PARTIES TO THE UPCOMING TALKS ON MONDAY. (10/26)

    PERRY / GRACHEV -- US DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY AND RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER PAVEL GRACHEV HAVE BEGUN TALKS IN WASHINGTON ON TERMS FOR RUSSIAN INVOLVEMENT IN BOSNIAN PEACEKEEPING. RUSSIA REFUSES TO PLACE ANY FORCES IT MAY CONTRIBUTE UNDER NATO COMMAND. MR GRACHEV TOLD REPORTERS AS HE BEGAN TALKS THAT WHILE THE ISSUES ARE DIFFICULT, HE IS SURE SOME KIND OF AN UNDERSTANDING WILL BE FOUND. RUSSIA HAS OFFERED TO PROVIDE AS MANY AS TWENTY THOUSAND SOLDIERS TO HELP ENFORCE A SETTLEMENT OF THE CONFLICT. BUT THE UNITED STATES WANTS THE RUSSIAN CONTINGENT TO BE MUCH SMALLER, AND TO COME UNDER A UNIFIED NATO COMMAND, A DEMAND RUSSIAN PRESIDENT YELTSIN ADAMANTLY OPPOSES. CORRESPONDENT DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON. (10/26)

    BALKAN TALKS / DELAY -- THERE IS A ONE DAY DELAY IN THE BOSNIA PEACE TALKS SCHEDULED TO START NEXT WEEK NEAR DAYTON, OHIO. CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS THE DELAY IS TO ACCOMMODATE A SUMMIT MEETING IN MOSCOW. (10/25)

    CHRISTOPHER / BOSNIA -- SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER IS CONVENING A MEETING OF ALL HIS BOSNIA NEGOTIATORS OUTSIDE WASHINGTON. CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS IT WILL BE THE FINAL PREPARATIONS FOR NEXT WEEK'S BOSNIA PEACE TALKS. (10/25)

    US / BALKANS / HUMAN RIGHTS -- US ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE JOHN SHATTUCK IS MAKING ANOTHER TOUR OF BALKAN CAPITALS TO PRESS WASHINGTON'S HUMAN RIGHTS CONCERNS IN ADVANCE OF NEXT WEEK'S BOSNIAN PEACE TALKS IN THE US STATE OF OHIO. THE AMERICAN ENVOY HELD A NEWS CONFERENCE IN ZAGREB, AND CORRESPONDENT DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS FROM THE CROATIAN CAPITAL. (10/25)

    CROATIA / SERBS -- CROATIAN OFFICIALS AND REBEL SERB LEADERS HELD MORE TALKS WITH UN AND US MEDIATORS WEDNESDAY ON THE DISPUTED REGION OF EASTERN SLAVONIA, THE LAST STRIP OF CROATIAN TERRITORY STILL HELD BY SERB FORCES. THERE WAS NO WORD OF PROGRESS AT WEDNESDAY'S SESSION, BUT OFFICIALS ARE VOICING HOPE FOR A SETTLEMENT BEFORE NEXT WEEK'S BOSNIAN PEACE TALKS IN THE UNITED STATES. CORRESPONDENT DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS. (10/25)

    STATE DEPARTMENT / BOSNIA / HUMAN RIGHTS -- THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS SERBIAN PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC HAS PROMISED ACCESS TO AREAS OF BOSNIA WHERE BOSNIAN SERBS ARE REPORTED TO HAVE COMMITTED MASS MURDERS AND OTHER CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY. STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAID THE LOCATIONS TO BE ASSESSED ARE AREAS AROUND SREBRENICA, SANSKI MOST, AND BANJA LUKA. THE US AGAIN WARNED CROATIA NOT TO USE MILITARY MEANS IN ORDER TO RE-INTEGRATE EASTERN SLAVONIA. STAFFER IVANA KUHAR REPORTS. (CROATIAN 10/25)

    SHATTUCK / HUMAN RIGHTS / BOSNIA -- US ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HUMAN RIGHTS JOHN SHATTUCK HELD A NEWS CONFERENCE IN ZAGREB UPON HIS ARRIVAL FROM YUGOSLAVIA. STRINGER LINDA MILISA QUOTES MR SHATTUCK AS SAYING THAT THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE OPENED A NEW PRISON CAMP FOR MUSLIMS IN NORTHERN BOSNIA. HE ALSO SAID THAT HE VISITED SERBIAN REFUGEES FROM CROATIA AND THAT THEY HANDED HIM A LIST WITH OVER 1000 NAMES OF INDIVIDUALS WHO WISH TO RETURN TO CROATIA. (CROATIAN 10/25)

    BOSNIA / REFUGEES -- THE LATEST WAVE OF SERBIAN ETHNIC CLEANSING BROUGHT HUNDREDS OF CROAT AND MUSLIM REFUGEES TO SANSKI MOST, A TOWN UNDER BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT CONTROL. STRINGER LINDA MILISA QUOTES NEWLY EXPELLED REFUGEES AS SAYING THAT THE TERRORIZING OF THE NON-SERBIAN POPULATION IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA STARTED IMMEDIATELY AFTER CROATIA RETOOK THE KRAJINA REGION. (CROATIAN 10/25)

    BOSNIA / REFUGEES REPATRIATION -- UNITED NATIONS SOURCES SAY THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT HAS STARTED TO REPATRIATE MUSLIM REFUGEES TO THE NEWLY RETAKEN AREAS OF KLJUC, JAJCE, AND SANSKI MOST. STRINGER VLADIMIR BILIC REPORTS THAT EXCEPT FOR SMALL INCIDENTS, THE BOSNIAN CEASE-FIRE IS HOLDING. (CROATIAN 10/25)

    UN / BOSNIA -- UNPROFOR REPRESENTATIVES IN SARAJEVO EXPRESSED CONCERN BECAUSE OF THREATS TO BRITISH PEACEKEEPERS BY ELEMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE BOSNIAN MUSLIM-LED ARMY. THE BOSNIAN AND SERBIAN MEDIA REPORT THAT THE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT IS BEING UPHELD BY ALL SIDES. STRINGER BORO KONTIC REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO. (SERBIAN 10/25)

    CROATIA / EASTERN SLAVONIA -- CROATIAN AND SERB NEGOTIATORS FROM EASTERN SLAVONIA ENDED THEIR TALKS IN ERDUT ON THE FUTURE STATUS OF THE DISPUTED AREA. INTERNATIONAL MEDIATORS SAID THAT THE FINAL DRAFT OF THE AGREEMENT ON EASTERN SLAVONIA COULD BE ADOPTED AT THE NEXT MEETING TO BE HELD IN OSIJEK. STRINGER STEVICA SUSA REPORTS FROM ZAGREB. (SERBIAN 10/25)

    MONTENEGRO / PREVLAKA -- THE PREDICTION BY CROATIAN FOREIGN MINISTER M. GRANIC THAT THE PREVLAKA PENINSULA WILL BE INTEGRATED WITH CROATIA BY CHRISTMAS DREW STRONG PUBLIC REACTION IN MONTENEGRO. SOME OPPOSITION PARTIES WANT THE YUGOSLAV DELEGATION TO THE PEACE TALKS IN DAYTON, OHIO DEMAND THAT PREVLAKA BE GIVEN TO BOSNIAN SERBS IN EXCHANGE FOR TERRITORY SURROUNDING DUBROVNIK. STRINGER BOSKO DJUKIC REPORTS FROM PODGORICA. (SERBIAN 10/25)

    US NGO / PRE-ELECTIONS ENVIRONMENT IN CROATIA -- THE NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS IN WASHINGTON DC, HAS SENT A FIVE MEMBER ASSESSMENT TEAM TO CROATIA. THEY VISITED FOUR CITIES AND FOUND THAT THERE ARE STILL SEVERAL UNRESOLVED ISSUES AHEAD OF THE PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS IN CROATIA. THEY CITE ACCESS TO THE CROATIAN MEDIA, NUMBER OF THE SERBIAN REPRESENTATIVES, AND HASTE IN CHANGING THE ELECTION LAW. STAFFER MIRJANA DEDAIC SPOKE WITH THE LEADER OF THE MISSION, NED MCMAHON. (CROATIAN 10/25) 26-Oct-95 5:34 PM EDT (2134 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] ALBANIA PRESSES AHEAD WITH ECONOMIC REFORM

    DATE= OCTOBER 27, 1995
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-06556
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE FIRST OF TWO EDITORIALS BEING RELEASED FOR
    BROADCAST OCTOBER 27, 1995. ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    REFORMS HAVE BEEN UNDERWAY IN ALBANIA FOR THREE YEARS NOW. THE RESULTS HAVE BEEN QUITE DRAMATIC, EVEN THOUGH ALBANIA CONTINUES TO BE THE POOREST COUNTRY IN EUROPE. DURING FIVE DECADES OF COMMUNIST OPPRESSION, ALBANIA WAS SEALED OFF FROM THE OUTSIDE WORLD. ACCORDING TO PRESIDENTIAL ECONOMIC ADVISOR MIMOZA VOKSHI, IT IS TIME FOR ALBANIA CATCH UP. SHE SAID, "WE HAVE LOST TOO MUCH TIME, FIFTY YEARS OR SO. SO, WE HAVE NO TIME TO LOSE MORE. FOR THIS REASON, PEACE IS VERY IMPORTANT FOR US."

    THE ECONOMIC FIGURES SUGGEST THAT ALBANIA IS ON THE ROAD TO SUCCESS. ACCORDING TO THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, ALBANIA'S GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT IS PROJECTED TO EXPAND BY SEVEN OR EIGHT PERCENT THIS YEAR. SO FAR, ALBANIA'S GROWTH HAS BEEN LARGELY STIMULATED BY FOREIGN ASSISTANCE, WHICH SINCE 1992 HAS TOTALED ABOUT TWO-BILLION DOLLARS. BUT THE SMALL BUSINESS SECTOR IS GROWING RAPIDLY.

    TO ATTRACT MORE FOREIGN INVESTMENT AND BOOST ECONOMIC GROWTH, ALBANIA HAS LAUNCHED A MASS PRIVATIZATION EFFORT. AS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC, VOUCHERS WERE DISTRIBUTED TO ALBANIANS BEGINNING LAST JUNE. CITIZENS HAVE A LIST OF THE FIRST TWENTY COMPANIES IN WHICH THEY CAN INVEST, USING THEIR VOUCHERS. ALBANIA'S PRIVATIZATION PROGRAM IS SCHEDULED TO BE SPEEDED UP IN THE NEXT FEW MONTHS AND SHOULD BE COMPLETE BY JUNE OF NEXT YEAR.

    ALBANIA HAS COME A LONG WAY ON THE PATH TO DEMOCRACY AND A FREE MARKET. THE U.S. STRONGLY SUPPORTS ALBANIA'S EFFORT TO UNDERTAKE DIFFICULT BUT NECESSARY REFORMS. BY STAYING THE COURSE, ALBANIA WILL EVENTUALLY BE ABLE TO OVERCOME ITS DECADES OF ISOLATION AND TAKE ITS PLACE AMONG THE DEMOCRACIES OF EUROPE. ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR. 26-Oct-95 2:57 PM EDT (1857 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] BOSNIA VITUAL FIELD TRIP BY JOHN PITMAN (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/25/95
    TYPE=NEWS FEATURE
    NUMBER=5-
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BOSNIA. THE NAME ITSELF EVOKES AN IMMENSE AND COMPLEX COLLAGE OF NAMES, PLACES, EVENTS AND HORRORS. THE WAR IN BOSNIA HAS PRODUCED AN ENORMOUS AMOUNT OF INFORMATION, AND EVEN EXPERTS ADMIT THEY SOMETIMES HAVE DIFFICULTY KEEPING TRACK OF IT ALL. FOR NON-SPECIALISTS, STAYING INFORMED IS EVEN HARDER. BUT NOW A GROUP OF AMERICAN PROFESSORS ARE USING THE INTERNET TO BRING A HISTORY OF THE CONFLICT TO COMPUTER SCREENS EVERYWHERE. VOA'S JOHN PITMAN SPENT THE AFTERNOON WITH THE CREATORS OF "THE BOSNIAN VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP," AND HAS THE STORY.

    TEXT: JEFFREY CRAMPTON TEACHES GEOGRAPHY AT GEORGE MASON UNIVERSITY IN FAIRFAX, VIRGINIA. SITTING IN HIS SMALL OFFICE WITH HIS MACINTOSH COMPUTER, HE NAVIGATES THROUGH THE WORLD-WIDE-WEB, POINTING-AND-CLICKING WITH HIS MOUSE AS HE GOES.

    /// CRAMPTON ACT ///

    SO I JUST CLICK ON THAT, AND WE JUST END UP GOING TO FIRST PAGE OF THAT. AND WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE IS, ACROSS THE TOP, IT'S GOT 'THE BOSNIAN VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP,' AND A PHOTOGRAPH OF A COUPLE OF TOWERS IN DOWNTOWN SARAJEVO. ... ANYWAY, AS WE SCROLL DOWN THE PAGE, WE GET SOME INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE FIELD TRIP. PERHAPS I SHOULD JUST READ WHAT THIS SAYS HERE, 'THE BOSNIAN VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP IS A PROJECT TO 'TAKE' YOU TO BOSNIA. THE PURPOSE IS TO SEE BOSNIA WITHOUT GOING THERE. WE CANNOT GO THERE BECAUSE OF THE EXPENSE, TIME AND SAFETY. AND YET, THIS IS A TERRIBLE WAR IN EUROPE THAT WE REALLY DON'T KNOW ENOUGH ABOUT.'

    /// END ACT ///

    THE BOSNIAN VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP WAS CONCEIVED AS A TEACHING TOOL FOR GEORGE MASON STUDENTS IN POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY COURSES. PROFESSOR BETH RUNDGREN WROTE SOME OF THE QUESTIONS STUDENTS ENCOUNTER AS THEY WORK THROUGH THE PROGRAM.

    /// RUNDSTROM ACT ///

    WHAT WE'RE PRESENTING IS A VIEW OF THE ETHNICITY, THE TOPOGRAPHY, THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND IN THIS REGION AND TRYING TO BRING IT ALL TOGETHER. SO THERE'S A LOT TO LOOK AT. WHEN STUDENTS START TO ASK QUESTIONS WHY THERE IS A CONFLICT THERE, WE WANT THEM TO KNOW FIRST OF ALL THERE IS A CONFLICT, AND THEN GIVE THEM SOME BACKGROUND ON WHY IT'S THERE.

    /// END ACT ///

    STUDENTS AREN'T ALLOWED TO GET OUT OF THE PROGRAM WITHOUT A TEST. THE END OF THE FIELD TRIP INCLUDES AN ESSAY QUESTION WHICH STUDENTS MUST ANSWER FROM THE POINT-OF-VIEW OF A BOSNIAN REFUGEE, A UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPER, OR A BOSNIAN SERB SOLDIER.

    /// BEGIN OPT PITMAN-CRAMPTON ACT ///

    PITMAN: CAN WE READ SOME OF THE ANSWERS YOU'VE GOTTEN? THE FIRST QUESTION IS: 'YOU'RE A REFUGEE FROM ZEPA. WHAT IS YOUR LIKELY ETHNICITY? WHY ARE YOU LEAVING ZEPA? WHAT IS YOUR LIKELY DESTINATION? WHAT IS YOUR LIKELY TRAVEL EXPERIENCE?' WHAT DO PEOPLE SAY TO THAT?

    CRAMPTON: WE JUST DID THIS IN CLASS. JUST LAST WEEK. AND IT WAS AMAZING TO ME BECAUSE A LOT OF STUDENTS WROTE VERY, VERY EVOCATIVE PIECES. THEY BEGAN BY SAYING, FOR EXAMPLE, 'MY NAME IS SLAVIC. I AM A YOUNG WOMAN IN ZEPA AND MY HUSBAND HAS BEEN TAKEN AWAY AND I DON'T KNOW WHERE. IT'S THE MIDDLE OF THE NIGHT. I'M WRITING THIS FROM SOME REFUGEE CAMP IN TUZLA. ' AND THIS WAS THE BEST PART FOR ME AS I GRADED THESE QUESTIONS, THEY WERE VERY GOOD, VERY IMAGINATIVE. THE STUDENTS WHO DID THIS REALLY GOT THEMSELVES INTO THE ROLES.

    /// END ACT // END OPT ///

    BUT THE BOSNIAN FIELD TRIP IS NOT JUST FOR STUDENTS. THE CREATORS SAY MORE THAN 20-THOUSAND PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD HAVE PLUGGED INTO PROGRAM, WHICH INCLUDES SECTIONS ON BALKAN HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY, AS WELL AS A GLOSSARY OF OFTEN USED TERMS, LIKE "ETHNIC CLEANSING."

    ALL OF THE MATERIAL WAS COLLECTED FROM MEDIA REPORTS AND ACADEMIC RESEARCH BY THE CREATORS.

    PROFESSOR CRAMPTON SAYS THE BOSNIA FIELDTRIP WAS DESIGNED PRIMARILY TO EDUCATE, BUT ALSO TO STIMULATE DEBATE. THE PROGRAM INCLUDES A BULLETIN BOARD WHERE USERS CAN POST THEIR OPINIONS.

    /// OPT ///

    PROFESSOR CRAMPTON SAYS HE REGRETS THAT BOSNIANS DO NOT HAVE ACCESS TO THE INTERNET, AND CAN NOT, FOR THE MOMENT, JOIN THE DISCUSSION. /// END OPT ///

    /// CRAMPTON ACT ///

    ONE OF THE GOALS WE HAD WAS TO BEGIN DEBATE IN THE COMMUNITY ABOUT THIS AND FOR PEOPLE TO FEEL THAT THEY COULD RESPOND. I DON'T EDIT WHAT PEOPLE SAY. IF WE GO BACK TO THE PREVIOUS LIST THERE'S ON THAT'S, IN FACT, VERY ANGRY WITH US. HE'S TITLED HIS PIECE, 'LIES, LIES, LIES.' AND HE TOOK GREAT EXCEPTION TO WHAT WE WROTE AND THAT'S GREAT BECAUSE I WANT THAT KIND OF DEBATE TO BE OUT THERE. I DON'T WANT TO CENSOR PEOPLE OR ANYTHING. I WANT THEM TO FEEL THEY CAN SUBMIT SUGGESTIONS OR THEIR PERSPECTIVES.

    /// END ACT ///

    EACH SECTION CONTAINS HIGHLIGHTED WORDS, OR LINKS, THROUGH WHICH USERS CAN JUMP TO OTHER PARTS OF THE PROGRAM OR OTHER, RELATED, SECTIONS OF THE INTERNET. WITH A POWERFUL COMPUTER, USERS CAN VIEW FULL COLOR PRESS PHOTOS OF THE FIGHTING, AND LISTEN TO SOUNDBITES /// BEGIN OPT /// --- LIKE THIS ONE FROM THE BOSNIAN PRIME MINISTER, HARIS SILADZIC.

    /// BEGIN OPT SILADZIC SFX IN FULL, FADE BEFORE TEXT ///

    TO FIND THE BOSNIA VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP ON THE WORLD WIDE WEB, USE A WEB BROWSER, AND TYPE IN LOWERCASE LETTERS: H-T-T-P - COLON - SLASH - SLASH - G-E-O-G - DOT - G-M-U - DOT - E-D-U - SLASH - G-E-S-S - SLASH - J-W-C - SLASH - B-O-S-N-I-A - DOT - H-T-M-L.

    /// OPT ///

    AGAIN, THAT'S: H-T-T-P - COLON - SLASH - SLASH - G-E-O-G - DOT - G-M-U - DOT - E-D-U - SLASH - G-E-S-S - SLASH - J-W-C - SLASH - B-O-S-N-I-A - DOT - H-T-M-L./// END OPT /// (SIGNED) (EDS AND PRODUCERS: ABOVE READS: "HTTP://GEOG.GMU.EDU/GESS/JWC/BOSNIA.HTML.") 26-Oct-95 4:25 PM EDT (2025 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .

    [05] CLINTON / BOSNIA (S ONLY) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=10/26/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187483
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // RE-RUNNING W/CQ CR #. NO CHANGES //

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON IS WARNING OF GRAVE CONSEQUENCES FOR THE UNITED STATES, IF IT DOES NOT TAKE PART IN A NATO PEACEKEEPING MISSION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. MR. CLINTON MADE HIS COMMENTS IN A WASHINGTON SPEECH, AS MEMBERS OF THE REPUBLICAN-LED CONGRESS ARE EXPRESSING RESERVATIONS ABOUT A U-S ROLE IN SUCH A MISSION. WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DEBORAH TATE REPORTS.

    TEXT: PRESIDENT CLINTON -- FACED WITH A CONGRESS RELUCTANT TO SUPPORT A U-S ROLE IN A NATO PEACEKEEPING FORCE TO MONITOR AN EVENTUAL PEACE AGREEMENT IN BOSNIA -- WARNED OF GRAVE CONSEQUENCES IF THE UNITED STATES DOES NOT PARTICIPATE IN SUCH A MISSION.

    // CLINTON ACTUALITY //

    IF WE FAIL TO SECURE THIS PEACE, HOW CAN WE ACHIEVE AN INTEGRATED PEACEFUL AND UNITED EUROPE? IF WE FAIL TO SECURE THIS PEACE, OUR SUCCESS AROUND THE WORLD, AND MUCH OF OUR SUCCESS AT HOME, WHICH HAS COME FROM AMERICAN LEADERSHIP, WOULD BE WEAKENED. IF WE FAIL TO SECURE THIS PEACE, THE CONFLICT IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA COULD SPREAD TO OTHER NATIONS, AND INVOLVE OUR SONS, AND DAUGHTERS IN A CONFLICT IN EUROPE.

    // END ACTUALITY //

    MR. CLINTON HAS COMMITTED UP TO 25 THOUSAND AMERICAN TROOPS TO TAKE PART IN A NATO PEACEKEEPING MISSION.

    THE PRESIDENT MADE HIS COMMENTS AT A FUNDRAISING DINNER IN WASHINGTON TO BENEFIT THE HARRY S TRUMAN LIBRARY. (SIGNED)

    NEB / DAT / LTJ / WOD
    26-Oct-95 12:17 AM EDT (0417 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] CROATIA / KRAJINA (L ONLY) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (ZAGREB)

    DATE=10/26/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187520
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-N OFFICIALS AND HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVISTS IN ZAGREB SAY CROATIAN AUTHORITIES APPEAR TO HAVE PUT A HALT TO A WAVE OF KILLINGS, LOOTING, AND ARSON IN THE FORMER REBEL SERB STRONGHOLD OF KRAJINA. DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS FROM ZAGREB.

    TEXT: THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT HAS BEEN WIDELY CONDEMNED FOR THE FRENZY OF LOOTING, BURNING, AND KILLING THAT SWEPT KRAJINA IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE CROATIAN OFFENSIVE.

    U-N OFFICIALS SAY NEARLY 130 SERB CIVILIANS, MOST OF THEM OLD PEOPLE, WERE MURDERED AFTER CROATIAN FORCES REGAINED CONTROL OF THE AREA. THEY REPORTED A SYSTEMATIC CAMPAIGN OF LOOTING AND BURNING OF SERB-OWNED PROPERTY. MORE THAN 20-THOUSAND SERB HOMES ARE SAID TO HAVE BEEN DESTROYED.

    THE ZAGREB GOVERNMENT HAS CALLED THE FIGURES EXAGGERATED, AND HAS REPEATEDLY DENIED CHARGES THAT CROATIAN TROOPS WERE INVOLVED.

    AS RECENTLY AS FIVE DAYS AGO, U-N OFFICIALS REPORTED CONTINUED LOOTING AND DESTRUCTION IN KRAJINA, AS WELL AS WHAT THEY CALLED THE INTIMIDATION OF THE AREA'S FEW REMAINING SERB RESIDENTS. BUT NOW, ACCORDING TO A LEADING CROATIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVIST, THE CRIME AND VIOLENCE IN KRAJINA APPEAR TO HAVE SUBSIDED.

    THE HEAD OF THE LOCAL CHAPTER OF HELSINKI WATCH, IVAN ZVONIMIR CICAK, SAYS CROATIAN AUTHORITIES APPEAR TO HAVE RESPONDED TO DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL PRESSURE, AND TAKEN STEPS TO STABILIZE THE SITUATION IN KRAJINA.

    /// CICAK ACT ///

    NOW, AS I COULD SEE IT THROUGH THE REPORTS WHICH I RECEIVE DAILY, YOU HAVE A LITTLE BIT SOMETHING I WOULD CALL AT THE MOMENT STABILIZATION OF (THE) SITUATION. WHAT IT WILL BE IN THE FUTURE, WE DO NOT REALLY KNOW.

    /// END ACT/ //

    U-N OFFICIALS HERE CONFIRM THEY HAVE NO RECENT REPORTS OF VIOLENCE OR LOOTING IN KRAJINA. AN INTERNATIONAL AID WORKER SAYS IT IS CLEAR THAT THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT IS NOW TAKING THE SITUATION VERY SERIOUSLY.

    WESTERN OFFICIALS, INCLUDING U-S ENVOY JOHN SHATTUCK, HAVE BEEN URGING CROATIA TO DO MORE TO ENHANCE SECURITY IN KRAJINA AND TO ARREST AND PROSECUTE THOSE GUILTY OF CRIMINAL ACTS IN THE REGION.

    THESE OFFICIALS ARE ALSO PRESSING ZAGREB TO TAKE STEPS TO ENCOURAGE THE RETURN OF THE SERBS WHO FLED KRAJINA.

    MOST ARE NOW IN SERBIA. BUT THOUSANDS HAVE APPLIED TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES. AND MR. SHATTUCK HAS URGED THE CROATIAN FOREIGN MINISTRY TO DISPATCH MORE CONSULAR OFFICERS TO BELGRADE TO PROCESS THE APPLICATIONS.

    /// REST OPT ///

    THE U-S OFFICIAL -- WHO HAS VISITED ZAGREB REPEATEDLY OVER THE PAST FEW WEEKS -- IS ALSO URGING CROATIA TO REVOKE A DECREE THAT EFFECTIVELY PREVENTS THE SERB REFUGEES FROM RETURNING TO RECLAIM THEIR HOMES AND PROPERTY.

    /// SHATTUCK ACT ///

    CURRENTLY, A DECREE IN CROATIA REQUIRES THAT ALL CLAIMS BE MADE WITHIN 90 DAYS, AND THAT THE PEOPLE MAKING THE CLAIMS ACTUALLY OCCUPY THE PROPERTY, WHICH IS A VIRTUAL IMPOSSIBILITY AND IS CLEARLY A NEGATIVE SIGNAL TO ANY WHO WOULD WANT TO RETURN. AND FOR THESE REASONS, THOSE LIMITATIONS, THOSE LEGAL RESTRICTIONS, SHOULD BE LIFTED.

    /// END ACT ///

    CROATIAN OFFICIALS HAVE RULED OUT ANY MASS RETURN OF THE KRAJINA SERBS PENDING AN OVER-ALL BALKAN PEACE SETTLEMENT AND A BILATERAL ACCORD WITH THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT.

    BUT MR. SHATTUCK AND OTHER ENVOYS HAVE REPEATEDLY WARNED CROATIAN LEADERS THEY MUST ADDRESS THE ISSUE IF THEY WANT TO ACHIEVE THEIR GOAL OF CLOSER TIES WITH THE WEST. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DBR/JWH/GPT
    26-Oct-95 1:53 PM EDT (1753 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] E-U SCANDAL (L) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=10/26/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187497
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A EUROPEAN UNION COMMISSIONER FROM DENMARK HAS BEEN FORCED TO CANCEL THE PUBLICATION OF A CONTROVERSIAL DIARY. JOHN FRASER IN BRUSSELS REPORTS THE BOOK -- WHICH IS NONETHELESS BEING PUBLISHED IN ITS ENTIRETY BY A DANISH NEWSPAPER -- IS CRITICAL OF SEVERAL EUROPEAN LEADERS.

    TEXT: THE DIARY OF COMMISSIONER RITT BEJERREGAARD COVERS SEVERAL MONTHS SINCE HER APPOINTMENT IN JANUARY AS EUROPE'S ENVIRONMENT COMMISSIONER. HER FRANK STYLE AND CRITICISM OF MANY SENIOR EUROPEAN POLITICIANS HAS CAUSED A POLITICAL STORM IN BRUSSELS.

    IN THE BOOK, SHE IS CRITICAL OF FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC FOR TREATING WITH DISDAIN E-U COMMISSION PRESIDENT JACQIES SANTER. SHE CLAIMS THAT WHEN SHE MET CHANCELLOR HELMUT KOHL OF GERMANY, HE DID NOT EVEN KNOW WHO SHE WAS. SPANISH PRIME MINISTER FELIPE GONZALEZ IS DESCRIBED AS LACKING ENERGY. AND REGARDING GERMANY'S EUROPEAN COMMISSIONER MARTIN BANGEMANN, SHE SAYS SHE IS MORE SURPRISED WHEN HE TURNS UP FOR (ATTENDS) A MEETING THAN WHEN HE IS ABSENT.

    LEAKED REPRINTS OF THE CONTENTS OF THE DIARY LED TO PRESIDENT SANTER SUMMONING MRS. BJERREGAARD INTO HIS OFFICE, AFTER WHICH SHE ANNOUNCED SHE WAS CANCELLING THE PUBLICATION OF HER DIARY. SHE SAID HER AIM HAD BEEN TO EXPLAIN TO ORDINARY PEOPLE HOW THE EUROPEAN UNION WORKS. HOWEVER, SHE ADMITTED THAT SHE HAD GONE A BIT TOO FAR, AND HAD ANNOYED FRIENDS AND COLLEAGUES.

    GIVEN THAT MUCH OF THE CONTENTS OF THE DIARY HAA ALREADY BEEN LEAKED -- AND A DANISH NEWSPAPER IS PUBLISHING IT IN ITS ENTIRETY -- E-U OFFICIALS SAY THE DAMAGE HAS ALREADY BEEN DONE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/JF/JWH/MMK
    26-Oct-95 8:58 AM EDT (1258 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [08] E-U TRADE (L-RERUN) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=10/26/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187513
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // RERUNNING TO CLARIFY GRAF 4 OF TEXT //

    INTRO: A EUROPEAN UNION SURVEY ON TRADE WITH CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE REVEALS THAT MOST OF THESE NEWER DEMOCRACIES STILL HAVE LARGE TRADE DEFICITS WITH THE WEST. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS.

    TEXT: THE E-U SURVEY COVERS TRADE WITH MOST CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES -- INCLUDING THE BALTIC STATES, BUT EXCLUDING THE FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS.

    IT REVEALS THAT LAST YEAR, THE EUROPEAN UNION HAD A TRADE SURPLUS WITH THESE COUNTRIES OF NEARLY FIVE BILLION DOLLARS -- A SLIGHT RISE ON THE FIGURE FOR THE PREVIOUS YEAR.

    IN GENERAL TERMS, TRADE BETWEEN THE 15 NATION E-U AND ITS NEIGHBORS IN EASTERN EUROPE IS SHOOTING UP (INCREASING RAPIDLY).

    EXPORTS FROM WEST TO EAST INCREASED BY ONE HALF, WHILE EASTERN EUROPEAN EXPORTS ROSE BY NEARLY 60 PERCENT. THE E-U'S TRADE BALANCE, AS A PROPORTION OF TOTAL (WORLDWIDE) TRADE, FELL LAST YEAR FROM 19 PERCENT TO 16 PERCENT.

    THE PICTURE OF TRADE VARIES WIDELY FROM COUNTRY TO COUNTRY. LATVIA, LITHUANIA AND THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC RECORDED SMALL POSITIVE TRADE BALANCES WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    IN CONTRAST, POLAND, THE CZECH REPUBLIC, HUNGARY AND CROATIA REGISTERED LARGE TRADE DEFICITS -- WITH THOSE OF POLAND AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC EXCEEDING ONE BILLION DOLLARS.

    THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN STATES WHICH HAVE BEEN MOST SUCCESSFUL AT BOOSTING EXPORTS TO THE EUROPEAN UNION ARE THE BLATIC STATES, THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC AND CROATIA.

    THOSE WHICH ARE IMPORTING MORE AND MORE FROM THE WEST ARE THE SLOVAK REPUBIC, ESTONIA, ALBANIA AND ROMANIA.

    BOSNIA IS THE ONLY COUNTRY IN THE REGION WHICH DRAMATICALLY DECREASED ITS IMPORTS, PRESUMABLY BECAUSE OF THE EFFECT OF THE WAR THERE. IRELAND, PORTUGAL AND SPAIN ARE THE E-U STATES WHICH HAVE MOST RAISED THEIR EXPORTS TO CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE -- ALTHOUGH GERMANY REMAINS THE DOMINANT EXPORTER, WITH HALF OF THE E-U EXPORT TOTAL. BELGIUM, LUXMEMBOURG AND SPAIN HAVE BOOSTED THEIR IMPORTS THE MOST, WHILE GERMANY, AGAIN, ACCOUNTS FOR MOST IMPORTS OVERALL -- MORE THAN HALF OF THE E-U TOTAL.

    THE MAIN EUROPEAN UNION EXPORTS INCLUDE CLOTHING, MACHINERY, VEHICLES, FURNITURE, IRON AND STEEL, MINERAL FUELS, WOOD AND FOOTWEAR. (SIGNOFF)

    NEB/JF/MH/MMK
    26-Oct-95 12:18 PM EDT (1618 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [09] FORGING PEACE IN BOSNIA BY TED LANDPHAIR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/26/95
    TYPE=WORLD OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-09237
    TELEPHONE=619-3515
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: EDITORIAL WRITERS AND COLUMNISTS AROUND THE GLOBE APPEAR TO BE PINNING THEIR HOPES FOR LASTING TRANQUILITY IN WAR-RAVAGED BOSNIA ON PEACE NEGOTIATIONS BEGINNING NEXT WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES. BUT THEY ACKNOWLEDGE THAT MYRIAD PROBLEMS MAY STILL STAND IN THE WAY.

    WE GET A SAMPLING NOW FROM _______________IN THIS WEEK'S WORLD OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: THE WASHINGTON CORRESPONDENT FOR INDIA'S INDEPENDENT "HINDU," SRIDHAR KRISHNASWAMI [SREED-HAR KRISH-NAHS-WAHM-EE], PAINTED A DARK CLOUD OVER THE PROSPECTS FOR PEACE IN BOSNIA.

    VOICE: "THE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA IS RAISING THE . . . QUESTION WHETHER THE COUNTRY IS DOING THE RIGHT THING. . . . WITH LEADING REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTIAL HOPEFULS HIGHLY CRITICAL OF THE BOSNIA PEACE PLAN AND WHAT IT ENTAILS FOR THE UNITD STATES, THE LAST THING [MR.] CLINTON WOULD WANT ON HIS HANDS IS THE PROSPECT OF AMERICAN SOLDIERS GETTING KILLED IN HOSTILE TERRAIN IN THE BALKANS.

    TEXT: BRITAIN'S INDEPENDENT WEEKLY "ECONOMIST" WAS STRUCK BY U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY'S DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED NATO PEACE FORCE THAT WOULD BE DEPLOYED IN BOSNIA AS "THE BIGGEST, TOUGHEST, AND THE MEANEST DOG IN TOWN."

    VOICE: "SUCH FOLKSY TALKS SOUNDS ODD FROM THE PROSAIC MR. PERRY. ODDER STILL IS THE WHOLE BELATED EFFORT TO MAKE THE CASE FOR AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT IN BOSNIA. FOR AMERICA IS ALREADY FAR MORE DEEPLY INVOLVED THAN MOST AMERICANS PROBABLY REALIZE. IT HAS MOVED IN SNEAKILY, MUCH LIKE THE STEALTH TECHNOLOGY THAT MR. PERRY CHAMPIONED. . . . WHAT IS MORE, IT SEEMS THAT IN THE EVENT OF A PEACE AGREEMENT, THESE AMERICAN TROOPS WILL GO IN WITH OR WITHOUT CONGRESS'S SAY-SO. . . . AWKWARDLY, OTHER VITAL INTERESTS ARE AT STAKE, TOO. ONE IS [PRESIDENT] CLINTON'S INTEREST IN RE-ELECTION, WHICH MAY HAVE SOMETHING TO DO WITH THE TIMING OF THE MISSION."

    TEXT: AND BRITAIN'S CENTRIST "INDEPENDENT" IS FASCINATED WITH THE CHOICE OF WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE IN OHIO AS THE SITE OF NEXT WEEK'S PEACE TALKS. THE NEWSPAPER NOTES THAT THE AIR BASE, BRISTLING WITH THE INSTRUMENTS OF AMERICAN AIR POWER, IS AN APPROPRIATE SYMBOL OF THE IRON FIST THAT WOULD BE PRESENTED TO THE WARRING PARTIES IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA WITHIN THE GLOVED HAND OF PEACE.

    VOICE: "IN MOST RESPECTS IT FITS THE BILL PERFECTLY. . . IT IS EASILY ACCESSIBLE FOR IMPORTANT VISITORS LIKE [U-S SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN] CHRISTOPHER, BUT TOO FAR AWAY FOR AN INSTANT DASH BY A DISGRUNTLED NEGOTIATOR TO THE NETWORK TELEVISION STUDIOS. THE ABILITY TO KEEP THE PRESS AT BAY IS AMONG WRIGHT-PATTERSON'S GREATEST CHARMS."

    TEXT: GEORG REISSMUELLER [GAY-ORG RICE-MUELLER] OF GERMANY'S RIGHT-OF-CENTER "FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE" [ALL-GEH-MINE-EH] WROTE THAT THE PLANNED NATO PRESENCE IN BOSNIA VINDICATES THOSE WHO HAVE LONG DEMANDED THAT THE WESTERN ALLIANCE CONFRONT SERB AGGRESSION WITH AN IMPRESSIVE MILITARY THREAT.

    VOICE: "IT IS LIKELY THAT THE SENDING OF THE U-S MEDITERRANEAN FLEET AND ITS MISSILE POWER TO THE ADRIATIC [SOME TIME AGO] WOULD HAVE PROMPTED THE BELGRADE LEADERSHIP TO GIVE UP ITS ADVENTURE. THEN, TENS OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE NEED NOT HAVE MISERABLY DIED."

    TEXT: MAXIM YUSIN, OF RUSSIA'S REFORMIST "IZVESTIA" -- WRITING BEFORE PRESIDENTS BORIS YELTSIN AND BILL CLINTON DECIDED TO LEAVE THE QUESTION OF RUSSIA'S PEACEKEEPING ROLE IN BOSNIA TO THEIR DEFENSE CHIEFS -- NOTED THAT NOBODY BUT RUSSIA ITSELF IS LIKELY TO FINANCE ANY RUSSIAN TROOPS WHO PARTICIPATE.

    VOICE: "GIVEN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CONDITION OF RUSSIA, IT IS UNLIKELY THAT RUSSIAN TROOPS WILL MAKE THE BACKBONE OF AN INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING FORCE. IF SO, DEMANDS THAT OUR GENERALS HAVE EQUAL RIGHTS WITH NATO'S IN COMMANDING THE PROPOSED OPERATION SOUND NAIVE, TO SAY THE LEAST. HE WHO PAYS THE PIPER CALLS THE TUNE."

    TEXT: IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA ITSELF, COMMENTATORS PONDERED THE IMPLICATIONS OF A "PAX AMERICANA" -- A PEACE IMPOSED BY A POWERFUL, AMERICAN-DOMINATED FORCE OF NATO GROUND SOLDIERS. JADRANKO KATANA [YA-DRUNK-OH KAH-TAH-NUH] OF BOSNIA'S STATE-CONTROLLED R-T-V TOLD HIS VIEWERS THAT BOSNIA IS IN AMERICA'S NATIONAL INTEREST BECAUSE IT ENABLES THE UNITED STATES TO ACHIEVE THE POSITION AS THE WORLD'S ONLY TRUE SUPERPOWER.

    VOICE: "AFTER FOUR YEARS OF UNSUCCESSFUL ATTEMPTS TO RESOLVE THE BALKAN INFERNO, THE EUROPEAN ALLIES HAVE CLEARLY DEMONSTRATED TO THEMSELVES AND TO THE WORLD THAT THEY ARE UNQUALIFIED FOR THIS TASK. . . . BOSNIA, AFTER THE PERIOD OF THE COLD WAR, PROVED THE USEFULNESS OF THE EXISTENCE OF NATO. . . THE UNITED STATES SURELY DOES NOT WANT TO TAKE THE ROLE OF WORLD POLICEMAN. NATO, WITH A GREATER RANGE OF RESPONSIBILITIES, IS A PERFECT SOLUTION."

    TEXT: ELSEWHERE IN BOSNIA, THE INDEPENDENT "OSLOBODJENJE" [OHS-LAW-BOH-JANE-YEH] COMMENTED THAT SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC [SLOW-BOH-DON MILL-OH-SEH-VITCH] IS INDEED INTERESTED IN PEACE, PREFERABLY ON TERMS AS CLOSE TO HIS OWN AS POSSIBLE.

    VOICE: "HOWEVER, TO ACHIEVE LIFTING OF THE SANCTIONS AGAINST HIS COUNTRY, HE MUST DO MUCH MORE. MOST PROBABLY, HE EVEN DOES NOT KNOW WHERE THE BOTTOM LINE IS OF THE AMERICAN DEMANDS. . . THE CHANCES THAT AMERICA WILL CAVE IN ON ANY OF [THEM] ARE VERY SMALL. . . IN THE END, MILOSEVICH IS GOING TO LOSE THE DUEL AGAINST THE PIRATE OF AMERICAN DIPLOMACY, BUT RIGHT NOW HE IS TRYING TO POSTPONE THE DEFEAT."

    TEXT: IN SERBIA, THE PRO-GOVERNMENT "VECERNJE NOVOSTI" [VEH-CHERYN-YEH NOH-VOH-STEE] CLAIMED BOSNIAN MUSLIMS ARE PRESIDENT CLINTON'S NIGHTMARE.

    VOICE: "THEY HAVE NO REASON TO WANT PEACE SINCERELY, BECAUSE THEY ARE AWARE THAT IT IS ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE FOR THEM TO BE PUNISHED BY NATO, NO MATTER WHAT THEY DID. SO IT IS AN ILLUSION TO BELIEVE IN A LASTING AND FIRM PEACE UNLESS THE UNITED STATES BEGINS TO APPRECIATE THE SUBSTANTIAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ITSELF AND EUROPE. THE OLD CONTINENT IS CHARGED WITH A HISTORIC AND GENETIC STRIVING FOR NATIONAL ENCLOSURE, WITH AN EASILY FLAMMABLE NATIONALISM AND JUST A FEW STABLE BORDERS. NO MATTER HOW FAR [MR.] CLINTON HAS GONE IN HIS 'GROWLING DIPLOMACY,' IT HIS HIGH TIME FOR HIM TO TAKE OFF THE RAINMENT OF ONE PARTY IN THE CONFLICT AND START BEHAVING AS AN OBJECTIVE OBSERVER."

    TEXT: FOREIGN AFFAIRS EDITOR DRAGOSLAV RANCIC [DRAHG-OH-SLAV RAHN-CHEECH], WRITING IN THE SERBIAN INDEPENDENT WEEKLY "NIN", SAID THAT PEACE SEEMS SURE TO "BREAK OUT" IN BOSNIA, SO IT'S TIME TO THINK ABOUT WHAT COMES AFTERWARD.

    VOICE: "IT WILL BE THE PEACE MADE ACCORDING TO U-S STANDARDS . . . BUT AT THE SAME TIME UNIVERSALLY WELCOMED. . . SERBIA'S POSITION WILL BE MORE DIFFICULT THAN ANYONE ELSE'S SINCE, GEO-STRATEGICALLY, WE SHALL FIND OURSELVES IN A GORGE, WITH A REPUTATION OF EUROPE'S LEPER. . . WHAT IS MORE PROBABLE IS THAT THE FOREIGN ARMIES WILL BE USED TO DISARM THE BOSNIAN SERBS, WHILE THE MUSLIMS WILL BE TACITLY ARMED."

    TEXT: IN CROATIA, THE PRO-GOVERNMENT "SLOBODNA DALMACIJA" [SLOW-BOHD-NEH DAL-MAHTS-EE-YEH] OF SPLIT ASSERTED THAT CIVIL ORDER IN BOSNIA CAN BE ACHIEVED ONLY THROUGH THE PERMANENT PLACEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL MILITARY FORCES.

    VOICE: "THEY WILL HAVE TO REMAIN FOREVER. ANY ASSERTION OF THEIR INTENTIONS TO LEAVE 'WITHIN A YEAR OR YEAR AND A HALF' WILL SOON PROVE TO BE A POLITICAL EUPHEMISM FOR A REAL EFFORT TO ESTABLISH A PERMANENT INTERNATIONAL PROTECTORATE."

    TEXT: STILL IN THE BALKANS, SLOVENIA'S INDEPENDENT "DNEVNIK" [DNEV-NIK] WRITES THAT, BY DEMONSTRATING ITS MILITARY POWER AND USEFULNESS IN BOSNIA, NATO WILL FIND ITS NEW RAISON D'ETRE FOLLOWING THE FALL OF THE BERLIN WALL.

    VOICE: "BECAUSE THE WHITE HOUSE, AFTER ITS MONTH-LONG IMPOTENT SEARCH FOR A SOLUTION . . . ENERGETICALLY ASSUMED THE BOSNIAN STEERING WHEEL, IT IS NORMAL THAT IT WANTS TO HAVE THE LEADING POSITION IN NATO'S NEW OPERATIONS."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF THE INTERNATIONAL MEDIA'S THOUGHTS ON THE PEACEMAKING PROCESS IN BOSNIA.

    NEB/TL/PCH
    26-Oct-95 3:02 PM EDT (1902 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [10] HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE BALKANS

    DATE=OCTOBER 29, 1995
    TYPE=ON THE LINE
    NUMBER=1-00369
    EDITOR=OFFICE OF POLICY - 619-0037
    CONTENT=

    THEME: UP, HOLD UNDER AND FADE

    ANNCR: ON THE LINE -- A DISCUSSION OF UNITED STATES POLICIES AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES.

    THIS WEEK, "HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE BALKANS." HERE IS YOUR HOST, ROBERT REILLY.

    HOST: HELLO AND WELCOME TO ON THE LINE.

    WHILE SPORADIC FIGHTING CONTINUES IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, U.S.-SPONSORED PEACE TALKS ARE SCHEDULED TO BEGIN NOVEMBER 1ST IN DAYTON, OHIO. OVER THE PAST THREE AND A HALF YEARS, THERE HAVE BEEN NUMEROUS REPORTS OF MASSIVE HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS, LARGELY IN SERB-HELD REGIONS. IN RESPONSE TO THESE REPORTS, THE UNITED STATES HAS SUPPORTED THE UNITED NATIONS WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. WHETHER THOSE ACCUSED WILL EVER BE BROUGHT TO TRIAL REMAINS UNCERTAIN. SO FAR, FORTY-THREE PEOPLE HAVE BEEN INDICTED FOR WAR CRIMES IN THE BALKANS.

    JOINING ME TODAY TO DISCUSS UNITED STATES POLICY AND THE HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION IN THE BALKANS ARE THREE EXPERTS. STEVEN COFFEY IS DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE FOR DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOR. JAMES GRAHAM IS AN OFFICER WITH AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL, U.S.A., A WORLDWIDE HUMAN RIGHTS ORGANIZATION. AND PAUL GOBLE IS A SENIOR FELLOW AT THE POTOMAC FOUNDATION, A RESEARCH CENTER THAT DEALS WITH THE FORMER SOVIET UNION AND EASTERN EUROPE. GENTLEMEN, WELCOME TO THE PROGRAM.

    MR. COFFEY, LET ME BEGIN WITH YOU IF I MAY. ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE JOHN SHATTUCK RECENTLY RETURNED FROM THE BALKANS. CAN YOU TELL US WHAT HE FOUND THERE IN RESPECT TO THE HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION AS IT EXISTS NOW?

    COFFEY: WELL, THE HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION OF COURSE, IS DEPLORABLE. THE EVENTS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA REALLY FORM ONE OF THE WORST HUMANITARIAN AND HUMAN RIGHTS DISASTERS OF THIS CENTURY. AND A LOT OF THINGS HAVE HAPPENED IN THIS CENTURY, SO THAT'S SAYING A LOT. THERE ARE TWO HUNDRED THOUSAND PEOPLE - THAT'S A CONSERVATIVE ESTIMATE - [THAT] HAVE BEEN KILLED. THERE ARE TENS OF THOUSANDS OF MISSING. AND THERE ARE APPROXIMATELY THREE MILLION REFUGEES. AS YOU POINTED OUT, ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE SHATTUCK HAS BEEN TO THE REGION RECENTLY. IN FACT, HE'S BEEN TO THE REGION FOUR TIMES IN THE LAST MONTH AT THE INSTRUCTION OF SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER. WHAT HE'S BEEN TRYING TO DO ESSENTIALLY IS TO GET SOME SORT OF ACCOUNTING FOR THE MISSING. AS YOU MAY RECALL, HE VISITED SREBRENICA AND ZEPA SOON AFTER THOSE CITIES HAD BEEN OVERRUN BY THE SERBS. HE DIDN'T ACTUALLY VISIT THOSE CITIES BUT HE VISITED A REGION NEARBY WHERE HE COULD INTERVIEW REFUGEES. HE WAS VERY INSTRUMENTAL IN BRINGING THE CATASTROPHE, THE MASS KILLINGS THAT TOOK PLACE IN THOSE CITIES, TO INTERNATIONAL ATTENTION. HE CONTINUES TO TRY TO ACCOUNT FOR THE MISSING. THERE ARE STILL SEVERAL THOUSAND MISSING THAT HAVE NOT BEEN ACCOUNTED FOR. AND HE HAS ALSO BEEN VERY ACTIVE IN TRYING TO ACCOUNT FOR THE MISSING FROM THE EVENTS THAT RECENTLY UNFOLDED IN THE BANJA LUKA AREA, SANSKE MOST AREA. HE MET WITH SERBIAN PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC. MILOSEVIC HAS PUBLICLY PROMISED THAT HE WILL ALLOW INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS TO VISIT SREBRENICA, TO VISIT THE SANSKE MOST AND BANJA LUKA AREAS. HE HAS PROMISED TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ON THE MISSING AND TO FACILITATE IN THE RETURN OF ANY OF THE MISSING THAT MAY BE STILL ALIVE.

    HOST: OK, LET ME GO TO MR. GRAHAM AND ASK YOU, FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL, WHETHER THIS CEASE-FIRE WHICH IS BEING OBSERVED, PERHAPS SPORADICALLY, CREATES ANY OPTIMISM FROM YOUR POINT OF VIEW IN TERMS OF A BETTER HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION?

    GRAHAM: WELL, THE CEASE-FIRE ITSELF IS JUST THE BEGINNING OBVIOUSLY. WE HAVE TO BE OPTIMISTIC, BECAUSE IF WE WEREN'T, WE WOULDN'T EXIST AS AN ORGANIZATION. CLEARLY THE SITUATION IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA HAS BEEN A SERIES OF FAILURES ON MANY PEOPLE'S PARTS. I THINK THE ROLE THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT IS TRYING TO PLAY RIGHT NOW IN TERMS OF ENSURING THAT WE GO BEYOND THIS CEASE-FIRE TO ACTUAL PEACE NEGOTIATIONS IS A GOOD FIRST STEP. BUT CLEARLY A LOT MORE HAS TO BE DONE. AS MR. COFFEY SAID, THERE DOES NEED TO BE AN ACCOUNTING OF THE DISAPPEARED [IN] THE VARIOUS AREAS THAT HE MENTIONED IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. WE ALSO NEED TO BE LOOKING AT THE KRAJINA AREA IN CROATIA, WHERE YOU HAD MANY PEOPLE DISAPPEAR, KILLED THERE AS WELL.

    HOST: WELL, AS A MATTER OF FACT, I THINK MR. SHATTUCK DURING HIS TRIP RAISED THE PROBLEMS OF SERBS WHO HAD DISAPPEARED WHEN THE CROATIANS RETOOK THAT AREA.

    COFFEY: EXACTLY, IN FACT HE'S IN ZAGREB. THIS IS HIS THIRD VISIT IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS TO ZAGREB TO DISCUSS PRECISELY THIS ISSUE: THE FATE OF THE SERBS THAT FLED THE KRAJINA AND WANT TO RETURN. THERE ARE SOME SEVERAL HUNDRED THOUSAND OF THEM, POTENTIALLY. THERE IS ALSO, AS YOU DOUBTLESS KNOW, THERE HAVE BEEN A LOT OF KILLINGS OF SERBS WHO WERE UNABLE TO FLEE WHEN THE CROATIAN ARMY INVADED THE KRAJINA. HE HAS RAISED THESE ISSUES WITH THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT, AND WE'RE WORKING VERY HARD. THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT HAS PROMISED THAT THESE PEOPLE COULD RETURN. WHAT WE'RE TRYING TO DO IS HOLD THEIR FEET TO THE FIRE ON THIS AND GET SOME OF THE SERBS ABLE TO RETURN.

    HOST: I THINK ONE OF THE PROBLEMS, IS IT NOT, MR. GOBLE, ON EVERY SIDE OF THIS WAR WHEN THERE IS TALK ABOUT THE RETURN OF REFUGEES, THEY HAVE NOTHING TO RETURN TO BECAUSE THEIR HOMES HAVE BEEN DESTROYED.

    GOBLE: IT'S VERY DIFFICULT TO RETURN AFTER THIS KIND OF POPULATION DISPLACEMENT. IT'S VERY DIFFICULT TO IMAGINE PEOPLE BEING WILLING TO GO BACK WHEN THEY WERE SO AT RISK BEFORE. THE PROCESS OF CREATING PEACE, OF CREATING CONDITIONS NOT ONLY WHERE THOSE GUILTY OF THESE SPECIFIC CRIMES ARE PUNISHED. AND I HOPE WE CAN DO THAT AND I WELCOME WHAT THE U.S. GOVERNMENT IS DOING NOW. I THINK THERE HAVE BEEN A LOT OF FAILURES IN THE PAST, BUT RECENTLY I THINK THERE HAVE BEEN A LOT OF GOOD STEPS. ONE OF THE REASONS IS I THINK WE CAN BLAME EVERYONE, AND I THINK THAT'S A PRECONDITION FOR A LOT OF THESE DISCUSSIONS. BUT I THINK THE EXPECTATION OF PEOPLE GOING BACK TO A STATUS QUO ANTE, TO A SITUATION WHERE PEOPLE CAN LIVE IN THEIR HOMES, CAN RETURN, WILL REQUIRE A MASSIVE INVESTMENT OF EFFORT THAT I DON'T YET SEE THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY BEING WILLING TO MAKE.

    HOST: WELL, PRESIDENT CLINTON DID SAY IN NEW YORK, THE RECENT ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATION OF THE FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE U-N, WHEN HE MET WITH THE BOSNIAN PRESIDENT, MR. IZETBEGOVIC, AND THE CROATIAN PRESIDENT, MR. TUDJMAN, THAT NOW IS THE TIME TO MAKE A SUCCESSFUL PEACE SETTLEMENT. LET ME THROW OUT THE QUESTION: DO YOU THINK THAT THE ELEMENTS ARE IN PLACE FOR THIS TO HAPPEN?

    GOBLE: WE'VE CREATED, BY FINALLY BEING WILLING TO USE FORCE, SOMETHING WE WERE TOLD THAT IF WE EVER DID, IT WOULD HAVE ALL THESE DISASTROUS CONSEQUENCES. IT WAS ONLY AFTER THE USE OF NATO AIR POWER AND THE FRENCH FORCES ON THE GROUND THAT WE WERE ABLE TO CHANGE THE BALANCE OF POWER SO THAT A PEACE PROCESS, PEACE TALKS BEGAN. AND FOR THAT, I THINK THE U.S. GOVERNMENT SHOULD BE VERY PROUD. THE PROBLEM IS, THAT JUST GETS THEM STARTED; THAT DOESN'T NECESSARILY GET YOU VERY FAR. I THINK THESE GENTLEMEN MAY BE IN DAYTON, OHIO, FOR A VERY LONG TIME.

    HOST: ONE THING THAT PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS MADE VERY CLEAR IS THAT THERE WILL NOT BE PEACE IN THE BALKANS WITHOUT JUSTICE, AND THAT THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IS GOING TO BE AN ESSENTIAL PART OF THIS PEACE PROCESS. HOW IS THAT GOING TO PLAY OUT, MR. COFFEY?

    COFFEY: WELL, I THINK THAT, YES, THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IS AN ESSENTIAL PART OF THE PEACE PROCESS, UNDERSTOOD GLOBALLY. I DON'T THINK THAT THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IS GOING TO BE PART OF THE NEGOTIATIONS THAT ARE GOING TO TAKE PLACE IN DAYTON. IN FACT, AS ASSISTANT SECRETARY [OF STATE RICHARD HOLBROOKE] HAS SAID, THE WORK OF THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IS NON-NEGOTIABLE. THE WORK OF THE TRIBUNAL IS GOING TO GO ON. THE INDICTMENTS, THE INVESTIGATIONS WILL GO ON REGARDLESS OF THE NEGOTIATIONS.

    HOST: DOESN'T THAT CREATE A POLITICAL PROBLEM HOWEVER, BECAUSE YOU DO HAVE THE TWO BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS, THE CIVILIAN LEADER DR. KARADZIC, THE MILITARY LEADER GENERAL MLADIC, ARE BOTH INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS. NOW, HOW ARE WE GOING TO NEGOTIATE SUCCESSFULLY WITH INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS?

    COFFEY: THEY'RE NOT PARTIES, OF COURSE, TO THE NEGOTIATION. I MEAN, THE NEGOTIATION IS GOING TO BE, THE SERB SIDE IS GOING TO BE REPRESENTED BY [SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN] MILOSEVIC, SO THIS DOESN'T AT THIS JUNCTURE PRESENT ANY PROBLEM.

    HOST: WELL, IT WAS A PROBLEM, CERTAINLY RAISED BY CERTAIN POLITICAL FIGURES IN THE UNITED STATES SENATE WHO WERE SKEPTICAL ABOUT MR. MILOSEVIC, THOUGH OF COURSE HE IS NOT AN INDICTED WAR CRIMINAL. ARE ANY OF YOU TROUBLED BY, SORT OF SHADES OF SOMALIA HERE, WHEN THE UNITED STATES WAS ATTEMPTING TO NEGOTIATE WITH A WARLORD, GENERAL AIDEED, AND AT THE SAME TIME IT ISSUED A WARRANT FOR HIS ARREST.

    GOBLE: INTERNATIONAL POLITICS ALWAYS PUTS YOU IN THIS SITUATION WHERE YOU FREQUENTLY HAVE TO DEAL WITH PEOPLE WHO ARE EXTREMELY NOXIOUS. I THINK IT DOES MAKE THE NEGOTIATIONS FAR MORE DIFFICULT. I THINK MR. MILOSEVIC HAS A REAL PROBLEM BECAUSE OF THESE INDICTMENTS. I ALSO THINK HE IS IMPLICATED AT LEAST IN PART BY HIS SUPPORT FOR THESE GENTLEMEN IN THE PAST. HE MAY BE COMING ON AS AN UNINDICTED CO-CONSPIRATOR, PERHAPS. AND I THINK THAT'S GOING TO MAKE THE NEGOTIATIONS TAKE A GREAT DEAL LONGER THAN OTHERWISE WOULD BE THE CASE.

    GRAHAM: BUT AT THE SAME TIME, I THINK THE FACT THAT HE HASN'T BEEN INDICTED IS IMPORTANT TO KEEP IN MIND AT THIS POINT. IF WE SAY THAT WE WANT TO NOT DEAL WITH ANY OF THE PEOPLE WHO COULD BE SUBJECTED TO THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL EVENTUALLY, THEN WE'RE NOT GOING TO GET THE PRECONDITIONS FOR HAVING PEACE AND HOPEFULLY FOR RESOLVING THE HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION ON INTO THE FUTURE. SO I THINK AT THIS POINT, ALTHOUGH WE'RE CERTAINLY TROUBLED BY THE ACTIONS OF MANY OF THE PARTIES TO THE NEGOTIATIONS, WE AS AN ORGANIZATION THINK IT DOES MAKE SENSE TO SAY THAT MR. MILOSEVIC DOES NEED TO BE HERE. THE GOVERNMENT OF SERBIA IS ONE OF THE KEY ACTORS IN THE REGION.

    HOST: LET'S DISCUSS FOR A MOMENT THE ROLE OF THE UNITED NATIONS PROTECTIVE FORCES IN BOSNIA. ONE HUMAN RIGHTS GROUP, HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, HAS ACCUSED THE U-N OF BEING COMPLICITOUS IN GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA BECAUSE OF THE PASSIVITY OF U-N PROTECTIVE FORCES, SPECIFICALLY IN SREBRENICA LAST SUMMER WHEN THEY THOUGHT THEY SHOULD HAVE TAKEN ACTIONS TO PROTECT THE MUSLIM POPULATION THERE. ANY COMMENT?

    GOBLE: ANYBODY WHO'S INVOLVED ON THE GROUND IS GOING TO BE ACCUSED AT SOME POINT OF HAVING SUPPORTED SOMETHING THAT MADE SOMETHING ELSE POSSIBLE. I THINK THE MISSION OF THE U-N FORCES IS ABSOLUTELY IMPOSSIBLE. I THINK WE'VE CONFUSED WHAT PEACEMAKING IS AND PEACEKEEPING IS. OUR PEACEMAKING REQUIRES FORCE FREQUENTLY; PEACEKEEPING, WHICH IS WHAT WE SAID THESE PEOPLE ARE DOING, THESE PEOPLE WERE PUT IN BEFORE PEACEKEEPING WAS POSSIBLE. AND I THINK THAT IN A SITUATION LIKE THAT, THEY'RE GOING TO BE BLAMED FOR A GREAT DEAL. SOME OF IT MAY BE ULTIMATELY JUSTIFIED BUT IT DOESN'T SPEAK TO MOTIVE.

    GRAHAM: I THINK IT'S IMPORTANT TO KEEP IN MIND -- I DON'T WANT TO GET INTO MAKING JUDGMENTS. I MEAN, THE CHARGE OF COMPLICITY IS DIFFICULT; IT'S A DIFFICULT CHARGE. HOWEVER, I DO THINK THAT THE MISSION OF THE U-N HAS BEEN VERY ILL-DEFINED IN MANY RESPECTS. I MEAN, THE VERY SIMPLE ISSUE OF REPORTING HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES IS SOMETHING THAT HAS NOT BEEN CONSISTENTLY SUPPORTED. I THINK IN THE FUTURE IT NEEDS TO BE VERY CLEAR THAT THE RESOURCES NEED TO BE PUT IN PLACE SO THAT WE CAN HAVE CLEAR HUMAN RIGHTS REPORTING, NOT ONLY FROM THE CIVILIAN PARTS OF THE MISSION THAT HOPEFULLY WILL BE GOING IN SOON, BUT FROM THE MILITARY AS WELL. WE CANNOT HAVE THE SITUATION THAT WE FACED IN RWANDA WHERE THERE WERE SO-CALLED SILENT WITNESSES. IT NEEDS TO BE VERY CLEAR THAT THAT AT LEAST, WILL BE ADHERED TO ACROSS THE BOARD.

    HOST: WELL, DOES SOME OF THIS PROBLEM POINT TO A FUTURE PROBLEM WITH THE PLACEMENT OF OVER TWENTY THOUSAND U.S. TROOPS AS PART OF A NATO OR U-N FORCE IN THE BALKANS TO MONITOR OR ENFORCE WHAT MAY BE PRODUCED IN A FUTURE PEACE AGREEMENT? IS THIS A MATTER OF CONCERN?

    COFFEY: WELL, I THINK THAT THERE ARE SOME LESSONS TO BE LEARNED FROM THE U-N EXPERIENCE. AND ONE OF THE LESSONS IS THAT THERE HAS TO BE A CLEAR CHAIN OF COMMAND. AND, AS SECRETARY CHRISTOPHER SAID IN TESTIMONY UP BEFORE THE CONGRESS LAST WEEK, THE MILITARY FORCE THAT WILL IMPLEMENT THIS AGREEMENT WILL BE A NATO FORCE UNDER NATO COMMAND. THERE WILL NOT BE THIS "DUAL KEY" COMMAND OF NATO AND THE U-N, WHICH HAS BEEN SO CONFUSING AND SO AMBIGUOUS. SO I THINK THAT IS CLEARLY ONE OF THE LESSONS, AND THERE WILL BE A LARGE UNITED STATES COMPONENT TO THIS FORCE WHICH WAS OF COURSE NOT THE CASE BEFORE. AND CLEARLY THIS WILL BE A PEACE ENFORCER, OR PEACEKEEPING, RATHER THAN A HUMANITARIAN PROTECTION FORCE.

    HOST: DOES THE NATO COMMAND OF THIS POTENTIAL DEPLOYMENT CREATE A PROBLEM FOR RUSSIAN PARTICIPATION, MR. GOBLE?

    GOBLE: WELL, THE RUSSIANS HAVE SAID THAT IT DOES. CLEARLY THEY'RE NOT GOING TO SERVE UNDER NATO COMMAND. I SUSPECT THEY WILL BE PRESENT; SIMPLY, THEY WILL DEMAND IT.

    HOST: DOES THAT WORRY YOU, HAVING THESE TWO SEPARATE CHAINS OF COMMAND?

    GOBLE: I THINK IT'S UNFORTUNATE. I THINK THAT THE RUSSIANS AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE SHOULD BE KEPT OUT OF THIS. I THINK A SINGLE CHAIN OF COMMAND IS CRITICAL. BECAUSE I DON'T THINK WE'RE GOING TO BE INVOLVED IN PEACEKEEPING; WE'RE GOING TO BE INVOLVED IN PEACEMAKING. EVEN IF THERE IS AN AGREEMENT ON PAPER, I THINK WE'RE GOING TO HAVE TO BE INVOLVED IN PEACEMAKING. A DIVIDED COMMAND WILL MAKE THAT ABSOLUTELY IMPOSSIBLE.

    GRAHAM: BUT I WOULD HASTEN TO ADD THAT I THINK IT'S IMPORTANT THAT THE RUSSIANS HAVE A ROLE. AND I BELIEVE THAT WHEN ALL IS SAID AND DONE, THERE WILL BE A ROLE FOUND FOR THEM, A ROLE THAT IS HONORABLE AND DIGNIFIED, BECAUSE IT'S IMPORTANT AS A MEMBER OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL, AS A GREAT POWER, THAT RUSSIA BE INCLUDED IN THE PEACE ARRANGEMENT.

    HOST: MR. COFFEY, LET ME ASK YOU ANOTHER QUESTION AS OUR TIME IS COMING TO A CLOSE HERE. HOW IS THE UNITED STATES SUPPORTING THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL, BECAUSE PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS SPOKEN OF IT AS SUCH A KEY ELEMENT AND THE FACT THAT THE UNITED STATES IS HELPING?

    COFFEY: IN ALL SORTS OF WAYS. I SUPPOSE THE MOST TANGIBLE ONE IS THROUGH MONEY. WE HAVE SUPPORTED IT WITH APPROXIMATELY EIGHTEEN TO TWENTY MILLION DOLLARS. WE HAVE SECONDED TWENTY-ONE FULL TIME PERSONNEL TO THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. WE HAVE CONSTANTLY IN OUR PUBLIC STATEMENTS EMPHASIZED THE IMPORTANCE OF THE TRIBUNAL. WE HAVE ENGAGED IN EXTENSIVE INFORMATION-SHARING WITH THE TRIBUNAL. WE'VE DONE, IN SHORT, EVERYTHING WE POSSIBLY CAN DO TO SUPPORT THE TRIBUNAL, BECAUSE THIS REALLY IS THE INSTRUMENT THAT THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY, THE UNITED NATIONS, HAS SELECTED AS THE INSTRUMENT FOR ACCOUNTABILITY FOR THESE HEINOUS CRIMES. I MEAN, THERE TRULY HAVE BEEN CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY, CRIMES OF GENOCIDE, AND IT IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR THOSE CRIMES BE HELD ACCOUNTABLE.

    HOST: BUT UNTIL THERE IS A PEACE SETTLEMENT, IT SEEMS VERY DIFFICULT AS TO HOW YOU'RE GOING TO APPREHEND THOSE WHO HAVE BEEN INDICTED.

    GOBLE: BUT IT'S IMPORTANT TO MAKE THE INDICTMENTS. IT IS IMPORTANT TO SAY THAT THIS IS SOMETHING THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY WILL NOT TOLERATE, BOTH AS AN OBJECT LESSON IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, AND ELSEWHERE. AND I THINK UNLESS WE DO THIS, WE'RE GOING TO HAVE A LOT MORE FORMER YUGOSLAVIAS TO BE TALKING ABOUT IN THE FUTURE.

    HOST: MR. GRAHAM, ARE YOU HAPPY WITH WHAT THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT IS DOING? COULD IT DO MORE?

    GRAHAM: WELL, CERTAINLY IT COULD DO MORE.

    HOST: WHAT?

    GRAHAM: OUR PARTICULAR CONCERN RIGHT NOW IS THAT THE UNITED NATIONS MECHANISMS NOT BE TOTALLY EXCLUDED FROM THE PROCESS. FOR EXAMPLE, THEY HAVE A SPECIAL EXPERT ON DISAPPEARANCES WHO HAS NOT BEEN GIVEN THE SORT OF RESOURCES HE NEEDS TO DO THE WORK THAT THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT SAYS IT SUPPORTS IN TERMS OF THE ACCOUNTING FOR THE TWENTY THOUSAND. THAT PROGRAM NEEDS TO BE GIVEN MUCH MORE SUPPORT. WHEN YOU'RE TALKING ABOUT HUMAN RIGHTS MONITORING, EVEN IF IT'S A MULTILATERAL FORCE OR A NATO FORCE, WHATEVER THE STRUCTURE OF THE FORCE, IT'S IMPORTANT THAT THE HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS HAVE A KEY ROLE TO PLAY THERE. AND I THINK THAT PART OF THE FAILURE OF THE U-N IN THE PAST HAS BEEN AS A RESULT OF THE LACK OF FINANCIAL SUPPORT, BOTH FROM THE UNITED STATES AND FROM OTHER GOVERNMENTS.

    HOST: AND MR. COFFEY, A QUICK RESPONSE TO THAT?

    COFFEY: WELL, I THINK WE'RE IN DANGER HERE OF MIXING APPLES AND ORANGES. THE U-N AGENCY AND OUR OPERATION IS SOMETHING INDEPENDENT OF THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. AND I WASN'T AWARE THAT ALL THE RESOURCES OF THE U-N HAVE NOT BEEN MADE AVAILABLE TO JUDGE GOLDSTONE, BUT THAT'S SOMETHING WE CAN LOOK INTO. BUT MY UNDERSTANDING IS JUDGE GOLDSTONE IS VERY, VERY SATISFIED WITH THE DEGREE OF U.S. SUPPORT. AND IN FACT, WE'VE BEEN OUT BEATING THE DRUMS TO GET OTHER GOVERNMENTS TO SUPPORT THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL.

    HOST: I'M AFRAID THAT THAT'S ALL THE TIME WE HAVE THIS WEEK, AND I'D LIKE TO THANK OUR GUESTS -- STEVEN COFFEY, DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE FOR DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOR; JAMES GRAHAM FROM AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL, U.S.A.; AND PAUL GOBLE FROM THE POTOMAC FOUNDATION -- FOR JOINING ME THIS WEEK TO DISCUSS U.S. POLICY AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE BALKANS. THIS IS ROBERT REILLY FOR ON THE LINE. 26-Oct-95 4:34 PM EDT (2034 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [11] U-S/RUSSIA BOSNIA (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=10/26/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187541
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY AND RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER PAVEL GRACHEV APPARENTLY HAVE MADE LITTLE PROGRESS IN A FIRST ROUND OF WASHINGTON TALKS ON HOW TO ACCOMMODATE RUSSIAN TROOPS IN A NEW BOSNIAN PEACEKEEPING FORCE. THE TWO DEFENSE CHIEFS WILL CONTINUE THEIR TALKS TODAY (EDS: FRIDAY). V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: WHILE BOTH SIDES SAY THEY WOULD LIKE TO SEE RUSSIAN INVOLVEMENT IN BOSNIAN PEACEKEEPING AFTER A PEACE ACCORD IS REACHED, THEY HAVE BEEN AT ODDS OVER HOW TO ACCOMMODATE RUSSIAN TROOPS IN THE 60-THOUSAND MEMBER PEACE FORCE BEING ORGANIZED BY NATO.

    RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN ADAMANTLY REFUSES TO HAVE ANY RUSSIAN UNITS IN BOSNIA SERVE UNDER NATO COMMAND -- WHICH THE U-S SIDE CONSIDERS A FUNDAMENTAL CONDITION FOR PARTICIPATION BY MOSCOW.

    MEETING REPORTERS AFTER AN INITIAL THREE-HOUR PENTAGON MEETING WITH MR. GRACHEV, DEFENSE SECRETARY PERRY MADE IT CLEAR THAT LITTLE HEADWAY HAD BEEN MADE TOWARD FINDING A COMPROMISE ROLE FOR RUSSIAN TROOPS:

    /// PERRY ACTUALITY ///

    AT THIS MEETING, EACH SIDE CLEARLY AND UNAMBIGUOUSLY DEFINED ITS POSITION AS TO HOW RUSSIA COULD PARTICIPATE IN A PEACE IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS IN BOSNIA. THAT IS THE GOAL OF BOTH COUNTRIES. THERE WAS A DISTINCT GAP BETWEEN THE TWO POSITIONS ON HOW TO ACHIEVE THAT GOAL. WE'VE HAD A GOOD BUSINESSLIKE DISCUSSION FOR THE PAST THREE HOURS, AND SUCCEEDED IN CLOSING THAT GAP SOME.

    /// END ACT ///

    SECRETARY PERRY SAID HE REMAINS HOPEFUL AN AGREEMENT CAN BE BE ACHIEVED, AND THAT -- AS HE PUT IT -- SEVERAL "ALTERNATIVE MODALITIES" FOR A RUSSIAN PEACEKEEPING ROLE ARE UNDER DISCUSSION.

    U-S OFFICIALS HAVE OFFERED SCENARIOS UNDER WHICH RUSSIAN TROOPS WOULD CARRY OUT TASKS SUCH AS MINE-CLEARANCE AND AIRLIFT OPERATIONS OR INFRASTRUCTURE REBUILDING IN SUPPORT OF -- BUT NOT TECHNICALLY PART OF -- THE PEACE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE.

    MR. PERRY AND GENERAL GRACHEV ARE TO CONTINUE THEIR DISCUSSIONS FRIDAY WHEN THEY FLY TO THE MIDWESTERN STATE OF KANSAS TO OBSERVE AN UNPRECEDENTED JOINT PEACEKEEPING EXERCISE BY ARMY UNITS OF THE TWO COUNTRIES.

    IN ANOTHER SYMBOLICALLY IMPORTANT GESTURE, THE TWO OFFICIALS SATURDAY GO ON TO A U-S STRATEGIC MISSILE BASE IN MISSOURI. THERE, WITH MR. PERRY STANDING BY, DEFENSE MINISTER GRACHEV WILL SET OFF EXPLOSIVES TO DESTROY A MINUTEMAN-TWO INTERCONTINENTAL MISSILE SILO -- PART OF U-S COMPLIANCE WITH THE START ONE NUCLEAR ARMS REDUCTION TREATY. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DAG/CB/LWM
    26-Oct-95 7:57 PM EDT (2357 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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