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Voice of America, 27 October 1995

From: yanni@ix.netcom.com (Ioannis Bousnakis)

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY TED LANDPHAIR (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] !!! VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- OCTOBER 27, 1995 !!!

  • [03] BOSNIA / GORAZDE BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

  • [04] BOSNIA / VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP BY JOHN PITMAN (WASHINGTON)

  • [05] CROATIA ELECTIONS BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (ZAGREB)

  • [06] CROATIA ELECTION PREVIEW (L) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (ZAGREB)

  • [07] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

  • [08] U-S / RUSSIA / BOSNIA (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WASHINGTON4)

  • [09] U-S / SLOVAKIA (S) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

  • [10] U-S BOSNIA (S ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT )

  • [11] U.N. AT 50 / DISCONTENT BY HASSAN BENSON TURAY (WASHINGTON)


  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY TED LANDPHAIR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/27/95
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09239
    TELEPHONE=619-3515
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON FRIDAY, OCTOBER 27TH //

    INTRO: EDITORIAL WRITERS FOR MANY OF AMERICA'S LEADING DAILIES PICKED A POTPOURRI OF TOPICS, BOTH INTERNATIONAL AND DOMESTIC, TO ADDRESS TODAY. PRESIDENT CLINTON'S SUMMIT TALKS WITH THE RUSSIAN AND CHINESE PRESIDENTS WAS A FAVORITE TOPIC IN SEVERAL PAPERS.

    HERE IS _________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK IN FRIDAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: "NEWSDAY", BASED ON NEW YORK'S LONG ISLAND, TOOK NOTE OF THE DIFFERENCE IN TONE BETWEEN PRESIDENT CLINTON'S MEETINGS THIS WEEK WITH RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN AND CHINA'S JIANG ZEMIN. THE TALKS WITH MR. YELTSIN WAS CORDIAL, AND EVEN GIDDY, AT TIMES. BUT "NEWSDAY" SAYS THE MEETING BETWEEN THE U-S AND CHINESE LEADERS WAS AN EXERCISE IN WARY DIPLOMACY BETWEEN TWO GREAT POWERS WHOSE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC INTERESTS INCREASINGLY ARE COMING INTO CONFLICT.

    VOICE: "WHAT WAS REMARKABLE WAS THE MEETING [BETWEEN MR. CLINTON AND PRESIDENT JIANG] TOOK PLACE AT ALL. . . . BOTH LEADERS SEEM AWARE OF THE DANGER OF PLUNGING THE ALREADY FROSTY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WASHINGTON AND BEIJING INTO A DEEP FREEZE THAT COULD REVIVE THE DESTRUCTIVE RIVALRIES AND TENSIONS OF THE COLD WAR. [STILL, MR.] JIANG STIFFED [MR.] CLINTON ON HUMAN RIGHTS, REFUSING EVEN TO DISCUSS THE ISSUE. AND [MR.] CLINTON STIFFED [PRESIDENT] JIANG ON TAIWAN, INSISTING THAT THE UNITED STATES WOULD INVITE WHOMEVER IT WISHED REGARDLESS OF BEIJING'S OBJECTIONS. THE BEST WAY TO LOOK AT THIS IS THAT THE TWO MEN WERE WILLING AT LEAST TO BEGIN A DIALOGUE, HOWEVER HALTING, THAT MAY PUT BACK ON A CONSTRUCTIVE COURSE A RELATIONSHIP THAT HAS GONE BADLY ADRIFT."

    TEXT: "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" ALSO HAS ITS EDITORIAL GAZE DIRECTED WESTWARD TO ASIA, WHERE THE "BIG THREE" U-S AUTOMAKERS THIS WEEK INTRODUCED MORE THAN HALF A DOZEN NEW MODELS OF RIGHT-HAND-DRIVE AUTOMOBILES AT A BIG CAR SHOW IN JAPAN, WHERE MOTORISTS DRIVE ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE ROAD.

    VOICE: "THE VEHICLES WILL PROVIDE A MAJOR MARKET TEST OF WHETHER JAPANESE CONSUMERS WILL BUY AMERICAN CARS THAT ARE ADAPTED TO THEIR NEEDS. U-S AUTO MAKERS HAVE LONG DECRIED TOYKO'S OBSTACLES TO AMERICANS CRACKING THE MARKET. JAPANESE CRITICS IN TURN HAVE MAINTAINED THAT DETROIT'S FAILURE TO PROVIDE RIGHT-HAND-DRIVE VEHICLES HAS BEEN THE PROBLEM. . . . EVEN IF U-S MODELS CATCH ON, HOWEVER, THEIR SALES MAY NOT MAKE MUCH OF A DENT IN THE 37-(B)BILLION-DOLLAR U-S TRADE DEFICIT WITH JAPAN IN THE EXPORT OF CARS AND AUTO PARTS. THE BIG THREE HOPE COLLECTIVELY TO SELL 400-THOUSAND CARS IN JAPAN IN THE YEAR TWO-THOUSAND. THAT COMPARES TO TWO-(M)MILLION JAPANESE AUTOS A YEAR NOW COMING INTO U-S PORTS. . . . IN THE FACE OF UNKNOWNS, DETROIT WILL HAVE TO EARN THE TRUST AND YEN OF JAPANESE CONSUMERS. IF IT DOES NOT BUILD IT RIGHT, THEY SURELY WON'T [BUY AMERICAN CARS]."

    TEXT: "THE WALL STREET JOURNAL" IS THE LATEST NEWSPAPER TO REFLECT ON NEXT MONDAY'S VOTE BY RESIDENTS OF THE PREDOMINANTLY FRENCH-SPEAKING CANADIAN PROVINCE OF QUEBEC ON WHETHER TO DECLARE INDEPENDENCE OR TO REMAIN A PART OF CANADA. ONE THING IS CLEAR, ACCORDING TO "THE JOURNAL", AND THAT IS HOW DISRUPTIVE A "YES" VOTE FOR SEPARATION WOULD BE -- BOTH FOR QUEBEC AND FOR THE REST OF CANADA.

    VOICE: "THE SEPARATIST [PARTY] INSISTS THAT PASSAGE OF THE REFERENDUM MEANS . . . QUEBEC WOULD CONTINUE TO USE THE CANADIAN DOLLAR, THAT THE BORDERS WOULD REMAIN OPEN TO CANADA, AND THAT CITIZENS OF THE NEW SOVEREIGN NATION OF QUEBEC COULD ALSO REMAIN CITIZENS OF CANADA. THE REST OF CANADA, HOWEVER, DOES NOT SEE IT THAT WAY. AFTER 128 YEARS OF MAKING CONCESSIONS TO QUEBEC'S [SO-CALLED] 'DISTINCT SOCIETY,' THEY'RE FED UP WITH THE FRENCH, AND A 'YES' VOTE MAY WELL BE THE CATALYST THEY NEED TO SAY GOOD RIDDANCE. . . . A HOST OF OTHER ISSUES REMAINS UNRESOLVED -- INCLUDING QUESTIONS OF HOW MUCH OF THE NATIONAL DEBT QUEBEC WOULD TAKE RESPONSIBILITY FOR, AND WHETHER IT WOULD BECOME A MEMBER OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT. . . . THE MOST UNCERTAIN ISSUE OF ALL IS WHETHER THE REST OF CANADA WOULD REMAIN UNITED IF QUEBEC SECEDES. THAT WOULD LEAVE [THE PROVINCE OF] ONTARIO WITH 50 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION OF THE NEW CANADA -- AND MIGHT WELL ENCOURAGE BRITISH COLUMBIA AND ALBERTA [OUT WEST] TO STRIKE OUT ON THEIR OWN, TOO. AFTER ALL, VANCOUVER IS A LOT CLOSER TO SEATTLE [IN THE UNITED STATES] THAN IT IS TO TORONTO. BREAKING UP, IT SEEMS, IS HARD TO DO."

    VOICE: "THE BALTIMORE SUN" ADMIRED THE RESOLVE OF HOUSE SPEAKER NEWT GINGRICH AND OTHER HOUSE REPUBLICANS IN PASSING A BUDGET THAT WILL PURPORTEDLY CUT TAXES, BALANCE THE FEDERAL BUDGET IN SEVEN YEARS, PARE THE SIZE OF THE FEDERAL BUREAUACRACY, AND HOLD DOWN SPENDING ON SOCIAL PROGRAMS LIKE MEDICARE. "VOICE: "[BUT THERE IS] A FEAR IN SOME REPUBLICAN CIRCLES THAT THE HIGHLY IDEOLOGICAL STAND IMPOSED BY THE GINGRICH LEADERSHIP COULD MAKE REPUBLICAN CANDIDATES VULNERABLE TO DEMOCRATIC ATTACKS IN NEXT YEAR'S ELECTIONS. . . . COULD THIS POLITICAL SCORPION TURN AROUND AND BITE REPUBLICANS SEEKING A FUNDAMENTAL REDUCTION IN THE SIZE AND ACTIVITIES OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT? WILL ELDERLY VOTERS REACT TO CUTBACKS IN MEDICARE AND TURN THEIR WRATH ON REPUBLICAN LEGISLATORS? WILL REDUCTIONS IN STUDENT LOANS SET OFF A CAMPUS REBELLION, AS DEMOCRATS HOPE? SUCH QUESTIONS ACHIEVED MORE URGENCY AFTER A 'NEW YORK TIMES' POLL SUGGESTED THAT THE PUBLIC REJECTS REPUBLICAN TAX CUT PROPOSALS BY THREE-TO-ONE. . . . THE COURSE ADOPTED BY THE HOUSE REPUBLICANS IS A STEP INTO THE UNKNOWN. LEGISLATORS FROM MARGINAL DISTRICTS COULD GET BURNED. . . . BUT WHATEVER CITIZENS MAY THINK OF THE PARTICULARS IN THE 1995 REPUBLICAN AGENDA, THEY SHOULD ADMIRE THE WILLINGNESS OF REPUBLICANS TO TAKE POLITICAL RISKS AND DO WHAT THEY HAD PROMISED, REGARDLESS OF PUBLIC OPINION POLLS. . . . THAT'S WHAT REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY IS ALL ABOUT."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF LOOK AT SOME OF THE EDITORIALS IN THE AMERICAN PRESS THIS FRIDAY.

    NEB/TL/PCH
    27-Oct-95 11:21 AM EDT (1521 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] !!! VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- OCTOBER 27, 1995 !!!

    DATE=10/27/95
    TYPE=ADVISORY
    CONTENT=

    VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- 10/27/95 THE FOLLOWING IS A SYNOPSIS OF SIGNIFICANT REPORTING ON BOSNIA BY THE VOICE OF AMERICA THAT HAD BEEN BROADCAST OR FIRMLY SCHEDULED AT THE TIME OF PUBLICATION. THIS SELECTION IS NOT INTENDED TO BE EXHAUSTIVE, AND DOES NOT INCLUDE LATE-BREAKING NEWS OR THE MANY REPORTS IN ALL VOA LANGUAGES THAT ARE BASED ON COMMERCIAL WIRE SERVICES OR OTHER SECONDARY SOURCES. WE REGRET THAT WE CANNOT RESPOND TO REQUESTS FOR TRANSCRIPTS OF SPECIFIC BROADCASTS OR PROGRAM SEGMENTS. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT VOA, OFFICE OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS. TELEPHONE: +1-202-619-2538. ELECTRONIC MAIL: LETTERS@VOA.GOV (FOR CORRESPONDENCE FROM OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES); LETTERS-USA@VOA.GOV (FOR CORRESPONDENCE WITHIN THE UNITED STATES).

    REPORTS BY VOA NEWS SERVICES:

    PERRY / GRACHEV -- US DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY AND RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER PAVEL GRACHEV CONTINUE TALKS TODAY ON HOW TO INCLUDE RUSSIAN TROOPS IN A FUTURE NATO PEACEKEEPING OPERATION IN BOSNIA. THE TWO DEFENSE CHIEFS ARE OBSERVING UNPRECEDENTED JOINT US-RUSSIAN PEACEKEEPING EXERCISES IN KANSAS. CORRESPONDENT DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON. (10/27)

    UN / BOSNIA -- UNPROFOR REPRESENTATIVES IN SARAJEVO STATED THAT THE FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT OF CIVILIANS AROUND SARAJEVO WILL BE THE MOST IMPORTANT STEP IN THE COMING WEEKS. AT THE SAME TIME, THE UNCHR NOTED THAT THE EXPULSION OF NON-SERB INHABITANTS OF BANJALUKA CONTINUES. STRINGER BORO KONTIC REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO. (SERBIAN 10/26)

    CROATIA / HUMAN RIGHTS -- US ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE JOHN SHATTUCK SAYS SERBIAN PRESIDENT S MILOSEVIC HAS PROMISED HIM THAT HE WOULD ASK THE BOSNIAN SERBS TO PROVIDE ACCESS INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGED IN THEIR WORK. MR SHATTUCK WARNED AGAINST FURTHER ABUSE OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN BOSNIA. STRINGER STEVICA SUSA REPORTS FROM ZAGREB. (SERBIAN 10/26)

    BOSNIA ATROCITIES -- REPORTER TERRY WING TALKS WITH DAN NELSON AND DAVID ROHDE ABOUT THE WASHINGTON POST'S FRONT-PAGE STORY ON SERB ATROCITIES IN SREBRENICA. MR. NELSON IS DIRECTOR OF GRADUATE STUDIES IN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS AT OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY AND IS AN AUTHORITY ON THE BALKANS CONFLICT. DAVID ROHDE IS A CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR CORRESPONDENT IN ZAGREB WHO HAS REPORTED ON THE ALLEGATIONS AND SPOKEN TO A NUMBER OF WITNESSES. THEY AGREE THAT THERE'S NO QUESTION ABOUT THE TRUTH OF THE REPORTS THAT THIS IS THE WORST MASSACRE SINCE THE END OF WORLD WAR II. THEY AGREE THAT PROSECUTION OF THE SERB PERPETRATORS IS THE ONLY JUSTICE THAT CAN BE HAD. (ENGLISH NEWS PROGRAM 10/26)

    MORE BOSNIA ATROCITIES -- REPORTER TOM CROSBY TALKS WITH HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH RESEARCHER IVANA NIZICH IN NY. HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH SAID THERE WAS A BODY OF EVIDENCE AVAILABLE BACK IN JULY AND AUGUST TO INDICATE A MASSACRE OF BOSNIAN MUSLIM MEN. (ENP 10/26)

    GOBLE / BOSNIA PEACE -- SENIOR FELLOW AT POTOMAC FOUNDATION, PAUL GOBLE DISCUSSED THE POSSIBLE OUTCOME OF THE BOSNIA PEACE TALKS IN DAYTON, OHIO. IN AN INTERVIEW WITH STAFFER DRAGANA MILIC, MR GOBLE SAID HE CONSIDERS THE TALKS WITH THE PRESIDENTS OF SERBIA, CROATIA, AND BOSNIA AS JUST A SMALL STEP ON A VERY LONG ROAD. (SERBIAN 10/26)

    MACEDONIA / RESIGNATION -- MACEDONIAN INTERIOR MINISTER L FRCKOVSKI OFFERED HIS RESIGNATION AT NEWS CONFERENCE IN SKOPJE. EXPLAINING HIS DECISION, MR FRCKOVSKI ASSUMED POLITICAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR NOT PREVENTING THE ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT ON PRESIDENT K GLIGOROV. STRINGER ZELJKO BAJIC REPORTS FROM SKOPJE. (SERBIAN 10/26) 27-Oct-95 4:33 PM EDT (2033 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] BOSNIA / GORAZDE BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=10/27/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31482
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE PAST TWO MONTHS HAVE SEEN DRAMATIC CHANGES IN BOSNIA. THE CEASEFIRE IS HOLDING, AID SUPPLIES ARE MOVING FREELY TO SARAJEVO, AND PEACE TALKS ARE SCHEDULED TO RESUME AGAIN IN THE UNITED STATES NEXT WEEK. BUT THE FATE OF GORAZDE, THE ONLY REMAINING GOVERNMENT-CONTROLLED ENCLAVE IN EASTERN BOSNIA, IS OFTEN OVERLOOKED. SURROUNDED BY THE BOSNIAN SERBS AND CUTOFF FOR THREE-AND-ONE-HALF YEARS, GORAZDE HAS ENDURED THE WORST OF THE WAR. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM GORAZDE ABOUT HOW THE PEOPLE THERE HAVE KEPT THEMSELVES AND THEIR HOPES FOR A BETTER FUTURE ALIVE.

    TEXT:

    /// CHILDREN SCREAMING FOR CANDY ACT ///

    GORAZDE IS FULL OF CHILDREN, AND THE SAME AS CHILDREN EVERYWHERE THEY LIKE CANDY, AND HOPE THE NEW VISITORS WILL GIVE THEM SOME. THE ROAD ACROSS BOSNIAN SERB TERRITORY TO THE ENCLAVE HAS BEEN MORE OR LESS OPEN TO HUMANITARIAN AID DELIVERIES FOR A WEEK NOW. BUT AFTER MONTHS AND YEARS WHEN LITTLE OR NO AID REACHED GORAZDE, THE SPIRIT OF THE PEOPLE HERE IS STILL, PERHAPS SURPRISINGLY, VERY STRONG.

    BRIAN SADLER, THE SENIOR U-N REPRESENTATIVE IN GORAZDE, EXPLAINS:

    /// SADLER ACT ///

    THERE IS AN ISOLATION MENTALITY HERE, A SURVIVAL MENTALITY, AND PEOPLE HAVE TO DIG DEEP TO FIND THE FAITH THEY HAVE IN THE FUTURE PLANS FOR BOSNIA.

    /// END ACT ///

    /// ADEMIR SINGING ARMY SONG ACT ///

    A YOUNG MAN ON THE STREET SINGS OF THE BOSNIAN ARMY AND HIS LOVE FOR HIS COUNTRY, DESPITE THE DEPRIVATIONS THE WAR AND THE SIEGE HAVE BROUGHT TO THIS TOWN.

    /// SADLER ACT ///

    PERHAPS PRICES ARE SOMETHING WE ALL UNDERSTAND. WHEN COFFEE IS 400 D-M (DEUTSCHMARKS) A KILOGRAM THAT GIVES AN INDICATION OF SUPPLY. WHEN SALT ON THE 21ST OF SEPTEMBER WAS 110 D-M A KILOGRAM UNTIL A UNHCR CONVOY GOT IN WITH A 17 TONS OF SALT, THAT'S AN INDICATION OF SUPPLY.

    /// END ACT ///

    GORAZDE IS A BEAUTIFUL TOWN, SITTING ASTRIDE THE DRINA RIVER, BUT IN 1992, NO ONE HERE WAS READY FOR THIS WAR. THE DIRECTOR OF GORAZDE'S HOSPITAL, DOCTOR ALIJA ,BEGOVIC REMEMBERS THAT TIME AND TELLS OF PERFORMING SURGERY IN ALMOST MEDIEVAL CONDITIONS.

    /// BEGOVIC ACT ///

    WE'VE BEEN USING JUST SIMPLE KITCHEN KNIVES FOR THAT SURGERY, WITHOUT ANESTHESIA, USING JUST MORPHINE INJECTION, AND ALCOHOL, A FEW GLASSES OF ALCOHOL.

    /// END ACT ///

    THINGS AT THE HOSPITAL HAVE IMPROVED SINCE THEN, LARGELY DUE TO THE EFFORTS OF THE MEDECINE SANS FRONTIERS ORGANIZATION. THE COORDINATOR IN GORAZDE, NATALIE RAFFOUX, SAYS THE ROAD COULD CLOSE AGAIN ANY TIME AND THEY HAVE TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THIS OPPORTUNITY.

    /// OPT RAFFOUX ACT ///

    I THINK THESE DAYS ITS TO BRING, TO BRING ,TO BRING, TO BRING THINGS HERE. ITS STILL AN ENCLAVE, AND WE ARE VERY HAPPY NOW THE THINGS ARE THERE, SO FOR THE WINTER, WE HAVE STOCK, BUT WE NEED MORE, BUT AT LEAST WE RECEIVE SOMETHING, SO THE PEOPLE WILL NOT BE IN SO BAD CONDITION AS LAST WINTER.

    /// END OPT ACT ///

    /// CUTTING WOOD ACT ///

    PREPARING FOR WINTER HERE -- A COLD WINTER WITHOUT GAS OR WATER OR ELECTRICITY -- TAKES UP EVERYONE'S TIME. THE STREETS ARE STACKED WITH FIREWOOD, AND EVERYWHERE THE ADULTS ARE BUSY CHOPPING WOOD OR MAKING OTHER PREPARATIONS, AND THE CHILDREN HAVE LITTLE TO DO.

    // OPT //

    NATALIE RAFFOUX SAYS SCHOOLS HAVE BEEN CLOSED FOR MOST OF THE WAR BECAUSE OF THE SHELLING.

    /// RAFFOUX ACT ///

    FOR THE PARENTS TO SEE THE CHILDREN IN THE STREET EVERY DAY, AND YOU HAVE NO TIME BECAUSE YOU HAVE TO CARRY WOOD, YOU HAVE TO CARRY WATER, YOU HAVE TO TRY TO FIND FOOD, YOU SEE YOUR CHILDREN AND YOU HAVE NO REALLY TIME TO TAKE CARE. YOU SEE THE CHILDREN WITHOUT SCHOOL AND WITHOUT EDUCATION AND FOR THE FUTURE ITS A BIG PROBLEM.

    /// END ACT ///

    // END OPT //

    EVERYONE HERE SPEAKS OF THE CHILDREN, AND HOW THEIR LIVES CAN BE IMPROVED, AND THE PEOPLE ARE TRYING.

    /// CHILDREN SINGING ACT ///

    A SMALL SHOW IS PUT ON FOR THE NEIGHBORS AND THE YOUNG GIRLS, DRESSED IN THEIR BEST CLOTHES, DANCE AND SING, AND THERE ARE SMILES AND LAUGHTER ALL AROUND. EVERYONE HERE SAYS THEY WILL NEVER GIVE UP GORAZDE, AND THE OPTIMISM, MORALE AND RESOLVE OF THE PEOPLE IS UNLIKE MANY PARTS OF BOSNIA WHERE PEOPLE ARE SIMPLY WEARY OF THE WAR. BUT DOCTOR BEGOVIC SAYS THE PEOPLE HERE KNOW MUCH HAS BEEN LOST DURING THE PAST THREE-AND-ONE-HALF YEARS.

    /// BEGOVIC ACT ///

    I THINK THAT EVERYBODY ARE LOSERS IN THIS WAR, BUT LETS HOPE THAT WAR WILL STOP AND SOON WE WILL START TO WORK, TO LIVE NORMALLY, RESPECTING EACH OTHER.

    /// END ACT ///

    IN BESIEGED GORAZDE THAT SEEMS ALMOST AN IMPOSSIBLE DREAM, BUT IT IS A DREAM SHARED BY ALL THE PEOPLE HERE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DF/JWH
    27-Oct-95 10:16 AM EDT (1416 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] BOSNIA / VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP BY JOHN PITMAN (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/27/95
    TYPE=NEWS FEATURE
    NUMBER=5-31475
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // RERUNNING FROM YESTERDAY WITH NUMBER (OUT OF ORDER) //

    INTRO: BOSNIA. THE NAME ITSELF EVOKES AN IMMENSE AND COMPLEX COLLAGE OF NAMES, PLACES, EVENTS AND HORRORS. THE WAR IN BOSNIA HAS PRODUCED AN ENORMOUS AMOUNT OF INFORMATION, AND EVEN EXPERTS ADMIT THEY SOMETIMES HAVE DIFFICULTY KEEPING TRACK OF IT ALL. FOR NON-SPECIALISTS, STAYING INFORMED IS EVEN HARDER. BUT NOW A GROUP OF AMERICAN PROFESSORS IS USING THE INTERNET TO BRING A HISTORY OF THE CONFLICT TO COMPUTER SCREENS EVERYWHERE. V-O-A'S JOHN PITMAN SPENT THE AFTERNOON WITH THE CREATORS OF "THE BOSNIAN VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP," AND HAS THE STORY.

    TEXT: JEFFREY CRAMPTON TEACHES GEOGRAPHY AT GEORGE MASON UNIVERSITY IN FAIRFAX, VIRGINIA. SITTING IN HIS SMALL OFFICE WITH HIS MACINTOSH COMPUTER, HE NAVIGATES THROUGH THE WORLD-WIDE-WEB, POINTING-AND-CLICKING WITH HIS MOUSE AS HE GOES.

    /// CRAMPTON ACT ///

    SO I JUST CLICK ON THAT, AND WE JUST END UP GOING TO FIRST PAGE OF THAT. AND WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE IS, ACROSS THE TOP, IT'S GOT 'THE BOSNIAN VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP,' AND A PHOTOGRAPH OF A COUPLE OF TOWERS IN DOWNTOWN SARAJEVO. ... ANYWAY, AS WE SCROLL DOWN THE PAGE, WE GET SOME INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE FIELD TRIP. PERHAPS I SHOULD JUST READ WHAT THIS SAYS HERE, 'THE BOSNIAN VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP IS A PROJECT TO 'TAKE' YOU TO BOSNIA. THE PURPOSE IS TO SEE BOSNIA WITHOUT GOING THERE. WE CANNOT GO THERE BECAUSE OF THE EXPENSE, TIME AND SAFETY. AND YET, THIS IS A TERRIBLE WAR IN EUROPE THAT WE REALLY DON'T KNOW ENOUGH ABOUT.'

    /// END ACT ///

    THE BOSNIAN VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP WAS CONCEIVED AS A TEACHING TOOL FOR GEORGE MASON STUDENTS IN POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY COURSES. PROFESSOR BETH RUNDGREN WROTE SOME OF THE QUESTIONS STUDENTS ENCOUNTER AS THEY WORK THROUGH THE PROGRAM.

    /// RUNDSTROM ACT ///

    WHAT WE'RE PRESENTING IS A VIEW OF THE ETHNICITY, THE TOPOGRAPHY, THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND IN THIS REGION AND TRYING TO BRING IT ALL TOGETHER. SO THERE'S A LOT TO LOOK AT. WHEN STUDENTS START TO ASK QUESTIONS WHY THERE IS A CONFLICT THERE, WE WANT THEM TO KNOW FIRST OF ALL THERE IS A CONFLICT, AND THEN GIVE THEM SOME BACKGROUND ON WHY IT'S THERE.

    /// END ACT ///

    STUDENTS AREN'T ALLOWED TO GET OUT OF THE PROGRAM WITHOUT A TEST. THE END OF THE FIELD TRIP INCLUDES AN ESSAY QUESTION WHICH STUDENTS MUST ANSWER FROM THE POINT-OF-VIEW OF A BOSNIAN REFUGEE, A UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPER, OR A BOSNIAN SERB SOLDIER.

    /// BEGIN OPT PITMAN-CRAMPTON ACT ///

    PITMAN: CAN WE READ SOME OF THE ANSWERS YOU'VE GOTTEN? THE FIRST QUESTION IS: 'YOU'RE A REFUGEE FROM ZEPA. WHAT IS YOUR LIKELY ETHNICITY? WHY ARE YOU LEAVING ZEPA? WHAT IS YOUR LIKELY DESTINATION? WHAT IS YOUR LIKELY TRAVEL EXPERIENCE?' WHAT DO PEOPLE SAY TO THAT?

    CRAMPTON: WE JUST DID THIS IN CLASS. JUST LAST WEEK. AND IT WAS AMAZING TO ME BECAUSE A LOT OF STUDENTS WROTE VERY, VERY EVOCATIVE PIECES. THEY BEGAN BY SAYING, FOR EXAMPLE, 'MY NAME IS SLAVIC. I AM A YOUNG WOMAN IN ZEPA AND MY HUSBAND HAS BEEN TAKEN AWAY AND I DON'T KNOW WHERE. IT'S THE MIDDLE OF THE NIGHT. I'M WRITING THIS FROM SOME REFUGEE CAMP IN TUZLA. ' AND THIS WAS THE BEST PART FOR ME AS I GRADED THESE QUESTIONS, THEY WERE VERY GOOD, VERY IMAGINATIVE. THE STUDENTS WHO DID THIS REALLY GOT THEMSELVES INTO THE ROLES.

    /// END ACT // END OPT ///

    BUT THE BOSNIAN FIELD TRIP IS NOT JUST FOR STUDENTS. THE CREATORS SAY MORE THAN 20-THOUSAND PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD HAVE PLUGGED INTO PROGRAM, WHICH INCLUDES SECTIONS ON BALKAN HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY, AS WELL AS A GLOSSARY OF OFTEN USED TERMS, LIKE "ETHNIC CLEANSING."

    ALL OF THE MATERIAL WAS COLLECTED FROM MEDIA REPORTS AND ACADEMIC RESEARCH BY THE CREATORS.

    PROFESSOR CRAMPTON SAYS THE BOSNIA FIELDTRIP WAS DESIGNED PRIMARILY TO EDUCATE, BUT ALSO TO STIMULATE DEBATE. THE PROGRAM INCLUDES A BULLETIN BOARD WHERE USERS CAN POST THEIR OPINIONS.

    /// OPT ///

    PROFESSOR CRAMPTON SAYS HE REGRETS THAT BOSNIANS DO NOT HAVE ACCESS TO THE INTERNET, AND CAN NOT, FOR THE MOMENT, JOIN THE DISCUSSION. /// END OPT ///

    /// CRAMPTON ACT ///

    ONE OF THE GOALS WE HAD WAS TO BEGIN DEBATE IN THE COMMUNITY ABOUT THIS AND FOR PEOPLE TO FEEL THAT THEY COULD RESPOND. I DON'T EDIT WHAT PEOPLE SAY. IF WE GO BACK TO THE PREVIOUS LIST THERE'S ON THAT'S, IN FACT, VERY ANGRY WITH US. HE'S TITLED HIS PIECE, 'LIES, LIES, LIES.' AND HE TOOK GREAT EXCEPTION TO WHAT WE WROTE AND THAT'S GREAT BECAUSE I WANT THAT KIND OF DEBATE TO BE OUT THERE. I DON'T WANT TO CENSOR PEOPLE OR ANYTHING. I WANT THEM TO FEEL THEY CAN SUBMIT SUGGESTIONS OR THEIR PERSPECTIVES.

    /// END ACT ///

    EACH SECTION CONTAINS HIGHLIGHTED WORDS, OR LINKS, THROUGH WHICH USERS CAN JUMP TO OTHER PARTS OF THE PROGRAM OR OTHER, RELATED, SECTIONS OF THE INTERNET. WITH A POWERFUL COMPUTER, USERS CAN VIEW FULL COLOR PRESS PHOTOS OF THE FIGHTING, AND LISTEN TO SOUNDBITES /// BEGIN OPT /// --- LIKE THIS ONE FROM THE BOSNIAN PRIME MINISTER, HARIS SILADZIC.

    /// BEGIN OPT SILADZIC SFX IN FULL, FADE BEFORE TEXT ///

    TO FIND THE BOSNIA VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP ON THE WORLD WIDE WEB, USE A WEB BROWSER, AND TYPE IN LOWERCASE LETTERS: H-T-T-P - COLON - SLASH - SLASH - G-E-O-G - DOT - G-M-U - DOT - E-D-U - SLASH - G-E-S-S - SLASH - J-W-C - SLASH - B-O-S-N-I-A - DOT - H-T-M-L.

    /// OPT ///

    AGAIN, THAT'S: H-T-T-P - COLON - SLASH - SLASH - G-E-O-G - DOT - G-M-U - DOT - E-D-U - SLASH - G-E-S-S - SLASH - J-W-C - SLASH - B-O-S-N-I-A - DOT - H-T-M-L./// END OPT /// (SIGNED) (EDS AND PRODUCERS: ABOVE READS: "HTTP://GEOG.GMU.EDU/GESS/JWC/BOSNIA.HTML.") 27-Oct-95 1:04 PM EDT (1704 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .

    [05] CROATIA ELECTIONS BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (ZAGREB)

    DATE=10/27/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31481
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: OPPOSITION POLITICAL PARTIES IN CROATIA ARE STRUGGLING TO ATTRACT VOTES FOR SUNDAY'S PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS. BUT MOST POLITICAL ANALYSTS ARE PREDICTING A LANDSLIDE VICTORY FOR THE RULING CROATIAN DEMOCRATIC UNION. THE PARTY OF PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN IS HOPING TO CAPITLIZE ON A WAVE OF NATIONALIST EUPHORIA FOLLOWING THE CROATIAN ARMY'S VICTORIES OVER REBEL SERB FORCES EARLIER THIS YEAR. FROM ZAGREB, VOA'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS.

    TEXT: // ACT--FREE SOUND/CAMPAIGN RALLY //

    SEVERAL THOUSAND NOISY SUPPORTERS OF CROATIA'S LARGEST OPPOSITION PARTY -- THE SOCIALIST LIBERALS -- GATHERED IN A ZAGREB SPORTS ARENA FOR A CAMPAIGN RALLY.

    IT WAS AN ENTHUSIASTIC CROWD, AND THERE WAS THUNDEROUS APPLAUSE AS THE PARTY'S CANDIDATES WERE CALLED TO THE STAGE, WAVING SMALL YELLOW FLAGS.

    // OPT ACT NATIONAL ANTHEM //

    THE RALLY BEGAN WITH A FEMALE CHORUS SINGING CROATIA'S NATIONAL ANTHEM. AND THEN THERE WAS A MOMENT OF SILENCE FOR THE COUNTRY'S WAR DEAD.

    THE SEEMINGLY ENDLESS BALKAN CONFLICTS ARE INEVITABLY THE PREDOMINANT THEME IN THE REGION'S POLITICS. AND IT IS THE CROATIAN ARMY'S STUNNING VICTORIES OVER REBEL SERB FORCES THIS YEAR THAT HAVE SET THE TONE FOR SUNDAY'S VOTE HERE.

    PRESIDENT TUDJMAN CALLED THE ELECTIONS A YEAR AHEAD OF SCHEDULE AFTER ZAGREB GOVERNMENT FORCES OVER-RAN THE LARGEST OF THE REBEL STRONGHOLDS -- KRAJINA -- LAST AUGUST. AND POLITICAL ANALYSTS, INCLUDING HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVIST IVAN ZVONIMIR CICAK, SAY THE PRESIDENT HAS SUCCEEDED IN PORTRAYING THAT BATTLEFIELD SUCCESS AS A VICTORY FOR HIMSELF AND THE RULING DEMOCRATIC UNION, THE H-D-Z.

    // CICAK ACT //

    YOU KNOW, THE FACT THAT CROATS -- I MEAN THE CROATIAN STATE, AND NOT ONLY THE GOVERNMENT, BUT THE PEOPLE --LIBERATED PART OF THEIR TERRITORY WAS USED BY THE RULING PARTY TO STABILIZE THEIR POSITION.

    // END ACT //

    DESPITE REPORTS OF WIDESPREAD HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE IN KRAJINA AFTER THE CROATIAN VICTORY, THERE HAS BEEN VIRTUALLY NO OPPOSITION CRITICISM OF THE GOVERNMENT'S CONDUCT OF THE WAR. THAT, SAY ANALYSTS HERE, WOULD BE A FATAL MISTAKE GIVEN WHAT THEY CALL THE TRIUMPHANT MOOD OF THE CROATIAN ELECTORATE. INSTEAD, OPPOSITION LEADERS HAVE TRIED TO SHIFT THE FOCUS OF THE CAMPAIGN. AND THEY HAVE ALSO FORMED ALLIANCES IN A BID TO STRENGHTEN THEIR PROSPECTS IN THE COUNTRY'S COMPLEX ELECTORAL SYSTEM.

    OPPOSITION LEADERS CHARGE THAT THE H-D-Z USED ITS SOLID MAJORITY IN THE OUTGOING PARLIAMENT TO RAM THROUGH AMENDMENTS THAT VIRTUALLY GUARANTEE IT WILL INCREASE ITS STRENGTH IN SUNDAY'S VOTE.

    AT THE SOCIALIST LIBERAL CAMPAIGN RALLY, SPEAKER AFTER SPEAKER LASHED OUT AT THE RULING PARTY, ACCUSING ITS LEADERS OF MASSIVE CORRUPTION AND A BLATANT ATTEMPT TO MONOPOLIZE POWER IN THE COUNTRY.

    THERE WERE SHARP ATTACKS ON THE GOVERNMENT'S PROGRAM TO PRIVATIZE THE STATE-OWNED COMPANIES LEFT OVER FROM THE YUGOSLAV ERA, AND CHARGES THAT THE RULING PARTY IS FAILING TO PROVIDE SUFFICIENT SUPPORT FOR PENSIONERS, UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND OTHER LOW-INCOME GROUPS THAT HAVE CLEARLY SUFFERED UNDER AN ECONOMIC AUSTERITY PROGRAM.

    THE SOCIALIST LIBERAL LEADER, DRAZEN BUDISA -- A FORMER STUDENT ACTIVIST JAILED REPEATEDLY IN THE COMMUNIST ERA -- CONFIDENTLY FORECAST VICTORY IN SUNDAY'S ELECTIONS. TO SUSTAINED APPLAUSE, MR. BUDISA SAID THE QUESTION IS NOT WHETHER THE OPPOSITION WILL WIN, BUT BY WHAT MARGIN.

    INDEPENDENT ANALYSTS DISMISS THE PREDICTION AS CAMPAIGN BRAVADO. ZAGREB UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR ZARKO PUHOVSKI SAYS OPPOSITION LEADERS HAVE FAILED TO PERSUADE VOTERS THEY REPRESENT A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO THE H-D-Z. AND THEIR ONLY REAL HOPE, HE ADDS, IS TO BLOCK THE RULING PARTY'S AVOWED QUEST FOR AN ABSOLUTE MAJORITY.

    // PUHOVSKI ACT //

    WELL, THE BEST THEY CAN HOPE FOR IS TO PREVENT TWO THIRDS MAJORITY FOR H-D-Z -- THAT IS THE BEST THEY CAN. BECAUSE WHATEVER THEY SAY, THEY ALL SAY MORE OR LESS THE SAME. ONLY H-D-Z CAN SHOW THEY DELIVER. THEY HAVE FULFILLED SOME THINGS. THEY HAVE WON SOME BATTLES.

    // END ACT //

    SOME ANALYSTS ARE PREDICTING THAT THE H-D-Z WILL WIN MORE THAN 100 OF THE 127 SEATS IN THE LEGISLATURE, KNOWN AS THE SABOR. MR. PUHOVSKI DOES NOT BELIEVE THE MARGIN OF VICTORY WILL BE THAT GREAT. BUT HE SAYS THE OPPOSITION IS NOT LIKELY TO MAKE ANY SIGNIFICANT GAINS UNTIL THE NEXT ELECTIONS, FOUR YEARS FROM NOW, WHEN THE EUPHORIA OVER THE VICTORY IN KRAJINA HAS FADED. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DBR/MH/CF
    27-Oct-95 9:43 AM EDT (1343 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] CROATIA ELECTION PREVIEW (L) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (ZAGREB)

    DATE=10/27/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187571
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: CROATIAN VOTERS GO TO THE POLLS SUNDAY IN PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS AMID PREDICTIONS OF A SOLID VICTORY FOR THE RULING CROATIAN DEMOCRATIC UNION. BUT CRITICS CHARGE THAT THE PARTY OF PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN HAS SOUGHT TO GUARANTEE VICTORY THROUGH QUESTIONABLE CHANGES IN THE COUNTRY'S ELECTORAL SYSTEM AND BY DENYING OPPOSITION CANDIDATES EQUAL ACCESS TO THE STATE-CONTROLLED BROADCASTING NETWORK. V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS FROM ZAGREB.

    TEXT: THE RULING PARTY, THE H-D-Z, ALREADY HOLDS THE LARGEST SINGLE BLOC OF VOTES IN THE 127 SEAT CROATIAN PARLIAMENT. BUT PRESIDENT TUDJMAN AND OTHER PARTY LEADERS HAVE PUBLICLY STATED THAT THEIR GOAL NOW IS A TWO-THIRDS MAJORITY.

    MR. TUDJMAN CALLED THE ELECTIONS A YEAR AHEAD OF SCHEDULE, CLEARLY HOPING TO CAPITALIZE ON HIS GOVERNMENT'S SOARING POPULARITY IN THE WAKE OF THE CROATIAN ARMY'S STUNNING VICTORIES OVER REBEL SERB FORCES EARLIER THIS YEAR.

    SHORTLY AFTER THE ELECTIONS WERE ANNOUNCED, THE H-D-Z PUSHED THROUGH A NUMBER OF CHANGES IN THE ELECTORAL SYSTEM THAT ANALYSTS SAY FURTHER TIPPED THE BALANCE IN FAVOR OF THE RULING PARTY.

    THE CHANGES INCLUDE A HIGHER DEGREE OF PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION AND RULES THAT EFFECTIVELY LIMIT OPPOSITION PARTY ACCESS TO THE STATE-CONTROLLED TELEVISION NETWORK, FAR AND AWAY THE MOST POWERFUL MEDIUM IN THE COUNTRY.

    THE H-D-Z CONTROLLED GOVERNMENT HAS ALSO ENFRANCHISED NEARLY ONE-HALF-MILLION DIASPORA CROATS -- FEW OF THEM CROATIAN CITIZENS -- INCLUDING ABOUT 385-THOUSAND CROATS IN BOSNIA. TWELVE SEATS IN THE NEW PARLIAMENT HAVE BEEN SET ASIDE FOR THE DIASPORA CROATS, AND ANALYSTS SAY H-D-Z CANDIDATES ARE LIKELY TO WIN EVERY ONE OF THEM.

    POLITICAL ANALYSTS HERE, INCLUDING ZAGREB UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR ZARKO PUHOVSKI, QUESTION THE FAIRNESS OF THE GOVERNMENT AND H-D-Z TACTICS IN THE RUN-UP TO SUNDAY'S VOTE.

    /// PUHOVSKI ACT ///

    WELL, IN TRADITIONAL TERMS, THE QUESTION IS ALWAYS WHETHER THE ELECTIONS ARE FREE AND FAIR. AND I WOULD SAY YES, THEY ARE FREE, AND NO, THEY ARE NOT FAIR.

    /// END ACT ///

    /// OPT ///

    OPPOSITION LEADERS HAVE FORMED A NUMBER OF ALLIANCES, HOPING TO ENHANCE THEIR ELECTORAL PROSPECTS. AND IN THE LATTER STAGES OF THE CAMPAIGN, THEY ALSO HAVE TRIED TO SHIFT THE FOCUS OF ATTENTION TO ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ISSUES.

    /// OPT ///

    BUT ANALYSTS, INCLUDING PROFESSOR PUHOVSKI, SAY THE OPPOSITION HAS NOT DONE ENOUGH TO CONVINCE VOTERS IT CAN OFFER A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO H-D-Z RULE. AND THE RULING PARTY, THEY ADD, CAN POINT TO SOLID ACHIEVEMENTS, ESPECIALLY THE BATTLEFIELD VICTORIES OVER SERB FORCES. /// END OPT ///

    OPINION POLLS SHOW H-D-Z CANDIDATES LEADING IN MOST CONSTITUENCIES, BUT NOT NECESSARILY BY WIDE MARGINS. AND OPPOSITION LEADERS ARE REPORTEDLY AHEAD IN SOME AREAS.

    BUT ANALYSTS QUESTION THE ACCURACY OF THESE POLLS. MOST ARE PREDICTING A LOP-SIDED VICTORY FOR THE H-D-Z. AND MANY SAY THE ONLY REAL QUESTION IS WHETHER THE RULING PARTY WILL ACHIEVE ITS OBJECTIVE OF AN ABSOLUTE MAJORITY IN PARLIAMENT. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DBR/JWH/MMK
    27-Oct-95 1:42 PM EDT (1742 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=10/27/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31489
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS HOLDS ITS 50TH BIRTHDAY CELEBRATION. PRESIDENT CLINTON PLEDGES UNITED STATES SUPPORT, WHILE KEY ALLIES CRITICIZE WASHINGTON FOR NOT PAYING ITS U-N DUES. MEANWHILE, SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI APPEALS FOR ASSISTANCE TO HELP LIBERIA END ITS CIVIL WAR -- TESTING THE WILLINGNESS OF RICH COUNTRIES TO TAKE RESPONSIBILITY FOR PEACE AND SECURITY. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REVIEWS THE MAIN DEVELOPMENTS OF THE PAST WEEK:

    TEXT: THE U-N'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY OBSERVANCE BROUGHT SCORES OF WORLD LEADERS TO NEW YORK. AMONG THEM -- PRESIDENT CLINTON, WHO WAS PERCEIVED TO BE IN THE AWKWARD POSITION OF REPRESENTING THE U-N'S LARGEST DEBTOR WHILE EXPRESSING SUPPORT FOR THE ORGANIZATION. THE UNITED STATES OWES MORE THAN ONE BILLION DOLLARS -- A SUM CURRENTLY BEING HELD UP IN THE U-S CONGRESS:

    ///CLINTON ACT///

    THE UNITED NATIONS HAS NOT BEEN ALL THAT WE WISHED IT WOULD BE, BUT IT HAS BEEN A FORCE FOR GOOD AND A BULWARK AGAINST EVIL. SO AT THE DAWN OF A NEW CENTURY SO FULL OF PROMISE, YET PLAGUED BY PERIL, WE STILL NEED THE UNITED NATIONS. AS SO FOR ANOTHER 50 YEARS AND BEYOND, YOU CAN COUNT THE UNITED STATES IN.

    ///END ACT///

    KEY U-S ALLIES ACKNOWLEDGED WASHINGTON'S COMMITMENT. BUT THEY QUESTIONED WHETHER THE UNITED STATES CAN BE A LEADER IN THE ORGANIZATION WITHOUT PAYING ITS DUES. FRANCE AND ESPECIALLY BRITAIN SUPPORTED PRESIDENT CLINTON'S CALLS FOR DEEP U-N REFORMS. AT THE SAME TIME, THEY DEMANDED FULL AND TIMELY PAYMENT OF THE U-S CONTRIBUTION.

    THE LEADERS OF LARGE AND SMALL NATIONS ALIKE WORRIED ABOUT THE U-N'S FINANCIAL STABILITY. PRIME MINISTER LESTER BIRD OF ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA IN THE CARIBBEAN SAID IF THE UNITED NATIONS WERE A MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION IT WOULD HAVE DISAPPEARED A LONG TIME AGO:

    ///BIRD ACT///

    IT WOULD HAVE BEEN PUT INTO RECEIVERSHIP OR LIQUIDATION AND A PUBLIC INQUIRY WOULD HAVE BEEN HELD INTO THE CONDUCT OF ITS OPERATIONS. SOMEBODY OR BODIES WOULD HAVE HAD TO PAY -- OR PAY UP.

    ///END ACT///

    BUT THE UNITED NATIONS WAS GIVEN A PSYCHOLOGICAL BOOST FOR ITS 50TH BIRTHDAY AND A UNANIMOUSLY APPROVED NEW LEASE ON LIFE WELL INTO THE 21ST CENTURY.

    U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI TESTED THIS RESOLVE LATER IN THE WEEK WHEN HE LAUNCHED AN APPEAL FOR EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE FOR LIBERIA. WEST AFRICAN GOVERNMENTS FIELDING A LARGE PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN THE COUNTRY NEED 150 MILLION DOLLARS TO DISARM AND DEMOBILIZE LIBERIA'S MILITIAS AFTER SIX YEARS OF WAR.

    MR. BOUTROS-GHALI CALLED LIBERIA THE FORGOTTEN EMERGENCY -- 150-THOUSAND PEOPLE HAVE DIED SINCE 1989 -- AND URGED THE WORLD'S RICH COUNTRIES TO BE GENEROUS:

    ///BOUTROS-GHALI ACT///

    THIS IS A TIME OF FINANCIAL DIFFICULTY FOR MANY MEMBER STATES. BUT EVEN A RELATIVELY SMALL INVESTMENT WILL BRING SIGNIFICANT BENEFIT NOT ONLY TO LIBERIA, BUT TO THE REGION AS A WHOLE AND TO AFRICA AS A WHOLE. A RESPONSE IS NEEDED NOW.

    ///END ACT///

    AFTER THE GALA EVENTS OF THE U-N'S ANNIVERSARY, IT IS BACK TO BUSINESS FOR THE U-N. THE ORGANIZATION IS STILL SCRAMBLING FOR MONEY, TRYING TO STIR INTEREST IN SMALL COUNTRY CONFLICTS WITH BIG CASUALTY LISTS. MR. BOUTROS-GHALI WENT TO WASHINGTON AFTER THE ANNIVERSARY SUMMIT TO MEET WITH MEMBERS OF CONGRESS DEALING WITH INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS.

    UNLESS THE CONGRESS AGREES TO PAY ITS U-N DUES ON A REGULAR BASIS -- U-N OFFICIALS SAY THEY WILL BE FORCED TO CONSIDER OTHER WAYS OF RAISING MONEY. (SIGNED)

    NEB/EJ/BG

    27-Oct-95 3:04 PM EDT (1904 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [08] U-S / RUSSIA / BOSNIA (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WASHINGTON4)

    DATE=10/27/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187591
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA HAVE REACHED A PARTIAL AGREEMENT ON HOW RUSSIAN TROOPS WILL TAKE PART IN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS IN BOSNIA ONCE A SETTLEMENT IS REACHED THERE. U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY AND RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER PAVEL GRACHEV ANNOUNCED THE ACCORD IN THE MIDWESTERN STATE OF KANSAS, WHERE THEY ATTENDED JOINT MILITARY EXERCISES. V-O-A DEFENSE CORRESPONDENT DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA HAVE AGREED TO SET UP A SPECIAL JOINT MILITARY UNIT THAT WILL SUPPORT OPERATIONS OF A NATO-LED PEACE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE IN BOSNIA. THE U-S / RUSSIAN SUPPORT UNIT WILL CONSIST OF SEVERAL THOUSAND TROOPS AND CARRY OUT ENGINEERING, TRANSPORT AND CONSTRUCTION DUTIES ON BEHALF OF THE 60-THOUSAND MEMBER NATO FORCE THAT IS TO POLICE AN EVENTUAL BOSNIAN PEACE DEAL.

    U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY AND RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER PAVEL GRACHEV ANNOUNCED THE COMPROMISE ARRANGEMENT AT FORT RILEY, KANSAS, WHERE THEY WATCHED ARMY UNITS OF THE TWO COUNTRIES CARRY OUT A PEACEKEEPING TRAINING EXERCISE -- THE FIRST OF ITS KIND EVER HELD ON U-S SOIL.

    MR. GRACHEV SAID THE TWO SIDES REMAIN AT ODDS OVER WHETHER RUSSIAN TROOPS CAN TAKE PART IN ACTUAL PEACE ENFORCEMENT DUTIES IN BOSNIA. RUSSIA HAS BEEN SEEKING SUCH A ROLE BUT REFUSES ALLOW ITS TROOPS TO BE UNDER NATO COMMAND, WHICH THE U-S SIDE SAYS IS A FUNDAMENTAL CONDITION FOR TAKING PART.

    THE DEFENSE CHIEFS ARE TO HOLD MORE TALKS ON THE ISSUE NEXT MONTH IN BRUSSELS. MR. GRACHEV SAYS FIVE OR SIX OPTIONS FOR RESOLVING THE ISSUE ARE UNDER CONSIDERATION AND THAT HE IS QUITE CERTAIN AN UNDERSTANDING CAN BE REACHED.

    THE RUSSIAN-AMERICAN MILITARY SUPPORT GROUP WOULD GO INTO BOSNIA A MONTH AFTER THE NATO IMPLEMENTATION FORCE IS DEPLOYED THERE. IT WOULD BE HEADED BY THE U-S TOP GENERAL IN EUROPE, GENERAL GEORGE JOULWAN, WITH A RUSSIAN GENERAL AS SECOND-IN-COMMAND.

    ON SATURDAY, SECRETARY PERRY AND GENERAL GRACHEV ARE TO GO TO A U-S STRATEGIC MISSILE BASE IN MISSOURI -- WHERE THE RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER WILL PERSONALLY SET OFF CHARGES THAT WILL DESTROY A U-S MINUTEMAN-TWO MISSILE SILO.

    THE GESTURE IS TO UNDERSCORE THE TWO SIDES' COMMITMENT TO CARRYING OUT THE START-ONE NUCLEAR ARMS REDUCTION ACCORD. EVEN DEEPER REDUCTIONS ARE CALLED FOR IN THE START-TWO AGREEMENT, WHICH STILL AWAITS RATIFICATION BY THE U-S SENATE AND RUSSIAN DUMA. (SIGNED)

    NEB / DAG / BD / SKH
    27-Oct-95 6:50 PM EDT (2250 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [09] U-S / SLOVAKIA (S) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=10/27/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187580
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES HAS JOINED THE EUROPEAN UNION IN WARNING THE SLOVAK GOVERNMENT THAT ITS POLICIES ARE DAMAGING ITS CHANCES OF JOINING WESTERN INSTITUTIONS. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: THE UNITED STATES HAS FOLLOWED THE EUROPEAN UNION IN PRESENTING A DIPLOMATIC NOTE TO THE SLOVAK GOVERNMENT, COMPLAINING ABOUT THE PRIME MINISTER'S EFFORT TO FORCE PRESIDENT MICHAL KOVAC FROM OFFICE.

    THE AMERICAN AMBASSADOR, THEODORE RUSSELL, DELIVERED THE COMPLAINT FRIDAY, CALLING ON THE GOVERNMENT TO TOLERATE DIFFERENT OPINIONS. STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS THE SLOVAK GOVERNMENT'S POLICIES ARE LOSING AMERICAN SUPPORT.

    ///BURNS ACT///

    THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT IS CONCERNED THAT ACTIONS MAY BE TAKING PLACE AGAINST THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF SLOVAKIA WHICH COULD HAVE A NEGATIVE EFFECT ON THE DEMOCRATIC PROCESS IN SLOVAKIA. THE UNITED STATES URGES THAT ALL EFFORTS BE UNDERTAKEN TO RE-ESTABLISH COOPERATION AMONG THE CONSTITUTIONALLY ESTABLISHED INSTITUTIONS OF THE STATE OF SLOVAKIA.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. BURNS SAYS SLOVAKIA'S EFFORTS TO JOIN NATO WILL BE JUDGED BY THE GOVERNMENT'S ACCEPTANCE OF DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES. SLOVAK PRIME MINISTER VLADIMIR MECIAR HAS ISSUED A STATEMENT REJECTING THE AMERICAN CONCERN. (SIGNED)

    NEB/RP/BG
    27-Oct-95 4:23 PM EDT (2023 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [10] U-S BOSNIA (S ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT )

    DATE=10/27/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187577
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES HAS EXPRESSED DISAPPOINTMENT ABOUT THE CANCELLATION OF RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN'S MEETING WITH THE THREE BALKAN LEADERS. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT THERE IS NO CHANGE IN THE AMERICAN PLANS FOR BOSNIA PEACE TALKS NEAR DAYTON, OHIO.

    TEXT: THE UNITED STATES HAS A DRAFT PEACE AGREEMENT TO PRESENT TO THE PRESIDENTS OF SERBIA, CROATIA AND BOSNIA ON CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES, SEPARATION OF FORCES, TERRITORIAL DIVISION, ELECTIONS, REFUGEES AND RECONSTRUCTION.

    SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER WILL PRESENT THE DOCUMENTS TO THE BALKAN PRESIDENTS ON WEDNESDAY AT WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE OUTSIDE DAYTON, OHIO. THE AGREEMENT WILL BE PUT IN ITS FINAL FORM TUESDAY WHEN MR. CHRISTOPHER AND DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY MEET PRESIDENT CLINTON.

    THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS IT WILL TAKE AT LEAST 24 TO 48 HOURS FOR THE PRESIDENTS TO ABSORB THE COMPLICATED DOCUMENTS. AT THE SAME TIME, OFFICIALS SAY EACH ISSUE CONTAINS WHAT THEY CALL "DEAL-BREAKERS" AND THE CLOSED-DOOR NEGOTIATIONS MAY LAST TWO WEEKS OR MORE.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS REJECTS SUGGESTIONS BY SENATOR ROBERT DOLE THAT SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC BE EXCLUDED FROM NEGOTIATIONS.

    ///BURNS ACT///

    THERE WON'T BE PEACE UNTIL THE BOSNIAN SERBS, THE SERBS, SIT DOWN WITH THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT AND THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT AND NEGOTIATE A PEACE ARRANGEMENT. IT WON'T HAPPEN. IT IS A FANTASY TO THINK THAT IT WILL AND THE PEOPLE WHO BELIEVE THIS ARE COMPLETELY SEPARATED FROM REALITY.

    ///END ACT///

    PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WILL REPRESENT THE BOSNIAN SERBS IN DAYTON. (SIGNED)

    NEB/RP/MMK
    27-Oct-95 3:22 PM EDT (1922 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [11] U.N. AT 50 / DISCONTENT BY HASSAN BENSON TURAY (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/27/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31487
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AFTER 50 YEARS IN EXISTENCE, THE UNITED NATIONS HAS WEATHERED MUCH CRITICISM BUT CAN DEMONSTRATE REAL ACCOMPLSIHMENTS. ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATIONS IN NEW YORK THIS WEEK HIGHLIGHT THE INSTITUTION'S SIZE -- NOW TRIPPLE ITS ORIGINAL MEMBERSHIP -- AND ITS WEALTH AND DIVERSITY. AS HASSAN BENSON TURAY REPORTS, THE U-N ALSO HAS BROUGHT GLOBAL ATTENTION TO SUCH ISSUES AS ENVIROMENTAL COOPERATION, HUNGER, HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRACY.

    TEXT: WITH IT'S MEMBERSHIP REACHING 185 AND ITS DEFICIT REACHING THREE BILLION DOLLARS, THERE ARE EXPECTATIONS THAT THE UNITED NATIONS IS IN NEED OF REFORM.

    FOR SOME MEMBER STATES THOSE REFORMS SHOULD INCLUDE A MOVE FROM UNITED STATES FOR SEVERAL REASONS. ONE OF THEM IS THAT THE UNITED STATES IS ONE-POINT-THREE BILLION DOLLARS BEHIND IN ITS DUES AND OBLIGATIONS.

    SOME MEMBERS, INCLUDING CUBA AND JAPAN, SAY THE SECURITY COUNCIL VETO POWERS SHOULD BE EXPANDED TO INCLUDE THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES.

    CUBAN LEADER FIDEL CASTRO WAS ONE WHO SPOKE FROM THE RANKS OF THE LESS POWERFUL COUNTRIES. HE ADDRESSED THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY ON SUNDAY ON THE ISSUE OF REFORM PARTICULARLY THE EXPANSION OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL

    THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAS 15 MEMBERS AND FIVE OF THEM ARE PERMANENT MEMBERS WITH VETO POWERS. THE COUNCIL WIELDS THE MOST POWER WITHIN THE UNITED NATIONS AND CAN AUTHORIZE PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS, ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AND EVEN WARS LIKE THE 1991 PERSIAN GULF CONFLICT.

    THE UNITED STATES, RUSSIA, BRITAIN, FRANCE AND CHINA -- ALL ALLIES DURING WORLD WAR TWO -- ARE PERMANENT SECURITY COUNCIL MEMBERS. BUT ECONOMIC POWER IS SHIFTING AND GERMANY HAS GAINED GLOBAL STATUS STIRRING THE PRESSURES FOR REFORM.

    OTHER LEADERS SEE A NEED FOR OTHER REFORMS. AFRICAN LEADERS LIKE NELSON MANDELA OF SOUTH AFRICA ARGUE THAT DESISIONS AFFECTING MANKIND SHOULD NOT BE LEFT TO A HANDFUL OF COUNTRIES.

    // MANDELA ACT //

    INDEED, THE U-N HAS TO REASSES ITS ROLE, REDEFINE IT PROFILE, AND RESHAPE ITS STRUCTURES. IT SHOULD TRULY REFLECT THE DIVERSITY OF OUR UNIVERSE, AND ENSURE EQUALITY AMONG THE NATIONS, IN THE EXERCISE OF POWER WITHIN THE SYSTEM OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS IN GENERAL AND THE SECURITY COUNCIL IN PARTICULAR. WE RAISE THIS MATTER TO MAKE THE FUNDEMENTAL POINT THAT THE AGENDA OF THE NEXT CENTURY, AND THE PROGRAM OF ACTION TO PROMOTE IT, CAN ONLY BE TRUE TO THE PURPOSE OF THIS ORGANIZATION IF THEY ARE SEARCHED BY ALL OF US. WE MUST, WITHOUT DELAY, CONSTITUTE A NEW LEADERSHIP AND BRING SUNSHINE TO THE HEARTS OF BILLIONS.

    // END ACT //

    THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES IN AFRICA, LATIN AMERICA AND THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT SEEK PERMANENT REPRESENTATION IN THE SECURITY COUNCIL ALTHOUGH ROTATING MEMBERSHIP OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL IS ANOTHER OPTION DISCUSSED.

    PRESIDENT CLINTON OF THE UNITED STATES SAID THAT U-N REFORMS MUST ENTAIL THE REDUCTION OF BUREAUCRATUC INEFFICIENCY.

    // CLINTON ACT //

    ALL WHO HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO THE U-N'S WORK, AND CARE ABOUT ITS FUTURE, MUST ALSO BE COMMITTED TO REFORMING THE U-N TO ENDING BUREAUCRATIC INEFFICEINCY AND OUTDATED PRIORITIES. THE U-N MUST BE ABLE TO SHOW THAT THE MONEY IT RECEIVES SUPPORTS SAVINGS IN ENRICHING PEOPLE'S LIVES AND NOT UNNEEDED OVERHEAD. REFORM REQUIRES ELIMINATING ABSOLETE AGENCIES AND DOING MORE WITH LESS. THE U-N MUST REFORM TO REMAIN RELEVANT AND TO PLAY A STRONGER ROLE IN THE MARCH OF FREEDOM, PEACE AND PROSPERITY.

    // END ACT //

    CLEARLY, MEMBER STATES DO AGREE THAT THE UNITED NATIONS NEEDS MAJOR REFORM BUT THE QUESTION THAT REMAINS IS THAT HOW SOON WILL SUCH REFORM INITIATIVES BE TAKEN. (SIGNED)

    NEB/HT/CF
    27-Oct-95 12:48 PM EDT (1648 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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