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Voice of America, 14 March 1996

From: "Ioannis V. Bousnakis" <ivb19@nfi.com>

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] ALBRIGHT/BALKANS TRIP (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

  • [03] ALBRIGHT/BOSNIA AID (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

  • [04] BOSNIA / SARAJEVO (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

  • [05] BOSNIA CONFERENCE (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

  • [06] BOSNIAN CHILDREN/DEALING WITH TRAUMA BY CAROL PEARSON (WASHINGTON)


  • [01] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=03/14/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09478
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON THURSDAY, MARCH 14TH //

    INTRO: THE MIDEAST ANTI-TERRORISM SUMMIT COMES IN FOR SOME ATTENTION IN THURSDAY'S U-S PRESS EDITORIALS, BUT NOT ON A LEVEL COMPARABLE TO NEWS COVERAGE OF THE EVENT. AMONG A RANGE OF OTHER SUBJECTS DISCUSSED ARE: THE REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN; THE MASS MURDER IN SCOTLAND; THE VISIT OF SINN FEIN LEADER GERRY ADAMS TO THE U-S; CENSORSHIP IN THE BALKANS, AND SOME BLACK HEROES FINALLY GET THEIR MEDALS -- POSTHUMOUSLY. NOW, HERE IS ________________ WITH SOME OF THE TODAY'S KEY QUOTES IN OUR EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: APPARENTLY MANY PAPERS ARE WAITING UNTIL FRIDAY'S EDITIONS TO COMMENT ON THE SHARM EL-SHEIKH SUMMIT. TODAY'S "PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" HAS ITS MIND MADE UP, HOWEVER, AND SAYS:

    VOICE: "THE SYMBOLISM OF KINGS, PRESIDENTS, PRIME MINISTERS AND TOP-RANKING DIPLOMATS GATHERING AT A RED SEA RESORT YESTERDAY TO STAND ALONGSIDE FORMER ENEMIES AND DECLARE WAR ON TERRORISM CANNOT BE UNDERESTIMATED. BUT IT CANNOT BE ENOUGH ... SYMBOLISM ALONE CANNOT PREVENT TERRORISTS BENT ON DESTROYING ISRAEL FROM ACHIEVING THEIR GOALS... IF THE SUMMIT IS TO MOVE BEYOND SYMBOLS, THE WORLD LEADERS THAT [SHOULD BE "WHO"] ATTENDED MUST FIGHT TERROR WITH MORE THAN WORDS."

    TEXT: "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE TAKES A SLIGHTLY MORE OPTIMISTIC VIEW, CALLING THE SUMMIT MORE THAN "A PHOTO OP" [OPPORTUNITY].

    VOICE: "THE ARAB LEADERS WHO ATTENDED ... ARE MORALLY BOUND TO CONSIDER FAVORABLY THE CONCRETE MEASURES ... THE WORKING PARTY THIS CONFERENCE SET UP WILL PROPOSE. IT IS TOO EARLY TO ASSUME ... THIS CONFERENCE DID NOTHING TANGIBLE TO CUT THE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS OF TERRORISM."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON TIMES" SAYS IF PRESIDENT CLINTON WANTS THE MIDEAST PEACE PROCESS TO SUCCEED, HE NEEDS TO PAY AS MUCH ATTENTION TO WHAT IS GOING ON IN AMERICA AS TO INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM.

    VOICE: "PERHAPS MR. CLINTON WOULD DO WELL TO PAY MORE ATTENTION TO WHAT IS GOING ON HERE AT HOME. REPRESENTATIVE BENJAMIN GILMAN TOLD THE HOUSE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS COMMITTEE THIS WEEK THAT 13-MILLION DOLLARS EAR-MARKED FOR THE PALESTINIANS WOULD BE PUT ON HOLD UNTIL P-L-O LEADER YASSER ARAFAT PROVES THAT HE IS CLAMPING DOWN ON TERRORISTS.... [OPT] THE PRESIDENT SHOULD ALSO RECONSIDER THE COMPANY HE KEEPS. ACCORDING TO .... STEVEN EMERSON, PRODUCER OF THE P-B-S [PUBLIC BROADCASTING SERVICE] DOCUMENTARY 'JIHAD IN AMERICA,' THE PRESIDENT AND FIRST LADY THEMSELVES HAVE HOSTED THE AMERICAN MUSLIM COUNCIL, A GROUP WITH EXTENSIVE TIES TO HAMAS, AT THE WHITE HOUSE ON SEVERAL OCCASIONS. "

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK POST" ALSO VOICED A DECIDEDLY SKEPTICAL VIEW OF THE SUMMIT AND WHAT IT MIGHT ACHIEVE:

    VOICE: "AS FAR AS WE CAN SEE, THIS GATHERING DIDN'T HAVE MUCH TO DO WITH WAGING WAR ON TERRORISM; ITS CHIEF PURPOSE SEEMS TO HAVE BEEN TO PROVIDE A FORUM FOR PRESSING ISRAEL TO CEASE THE MEASURES IT HAS TAKEN UNILATERALLY TO STOP THE ATTACKS ON ITS POPULATION."

    TEXT: MANY PAPERS ARE COMMENTING ON SENATOR BOB DOLE'S INCREASINGLY SUCCESSFUL REPUBLICAN PRIMARY ELECTION CAMPAIGN, WHICH SCORED ANOTHER IMPRESSIVE SERIES OF VICTORIES TUESDAY. IN PORTLAND, OREGON, "THE OREGONIAN" IS URGING SENATOR DOLE TO CONCENTRATE LESSON HIS PAST AND SHOW A LITTLE VISION:

    VOICE: "[SENATOR] DOLE NEEDS TO RECOGNIZE THAT WHILE HIS EXPERIENCE IN THE SENATE GAVE HIM THE EDGE AGAINST LESS-EXPERIENCED REPUBLICAN RIVALS, HE NOW IS RUNNING AGAINST SOMEONE WITH ON-THE-JOB EXPERIENCE [PRESIDENT CLINTON]. [MR.] DOLE'S SENATE PAST IS PROLOGUE; HIS POTENTIAL PRESIDENCY IS WHAT HE SHOULD LOOK TO NOW. HE NEEDS TO START TALKING ABOUT THE JOB HE'S SEEKING, NOT THE ONE HE HAS."

    TEXT: IN NEW ENGLAND, THE PORTLAND, MAINE, "PRESS HERALD" SUGGESTS ITS TIME NOW FOR THE REMAINING REPUBLICAN CANDIDATES, STEVE FORBES, PAT BUCHANAN AND ALAN KEYES, TO DROP OUT OF THE RACE AND UNITE BEHIND MR. DOLE.

    VOICE: "[MR.] BUCHANAN ... PLEDGES TO WAGE A 'CONVENTION WAR' IN SAN DIEGO IN AUGUST IF [SENATOR] DOLE CHOOSES GENERAL COLIN POWELL, A PRO-CHOICE 'ROCKEFELLER REPUBLICAN', TO RUN WITH HIM... IS [MR.] BUCHANAN'S OPPOSITION TO A DOLE-POWELL TICKET CENTERED ON 'IDEAS' AND 'PRINCIPLES'? OR DOES IT HAVE TO DO WITH THE EFFECT A STRONG G-O-P TICKET MIGHT HAVE ON HIS OWN CHANCES FOR THE PRESIDENCY IN THE YEAR TWO-THOUSAND."

    TEXT: A FINAL COMMENT ON THE PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN FROM "USA TODAY", WHICH THINKS REPUBLICAN BOB DOLE AND DEMOCRAT BILL CLINTON WILL OFFER VOTERS A REAL CHOICE IN NOVEMBER:

    VOICE: "... WITH TUESDAY'S RESULTS, BOTH REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS ARE GIVING THEIR 1996 PRESIDENTIAL NOMINATIONS TO UNABASHED AND HIGHLY SKILLED CAREER POLITICIANS; AN INCUMBENT PRESIDENT AND A TWO-TIME SENATE MAJORITY LEADER WHO ELSEWHERE MIGHT HAVE BEEN PRIME MINISTER A DECADE AGO... THERE'S A REAL CHOICE HERE. VOTERS NOT ONLY CAN CHOOSE A NEW DIRECTION BUT ALSO CAN DICTATE THE SPEED OF THE MARCH."

    TEXT: ABOUT WEDNESDAY'S MASSACRE IN SCOTLAND, WHERE A CRAZED MAN ENTERED AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AND SHOT TO DEATH 16 CHILDREN AND A TEACHER, THE "MIAMI HERALD" NOTES IN ITS LEAD EDITORIAL:

    VOICE: "THE WORLD TODAY MOURNS ANOTHER MASSACRE OF INNOCENTS, THIS ONE IN DUNBLANE, SCOTLAND. [OPT] ... THERE IS GRIEF AT SUCH LOSS, PERSONAL AND PRIVATE; THERE IS EVEN RESOLVE THAT SUCH DEATHS NOT BE IN VAIN... IN TODAY'S WORLD IT TAKES ONLY ONE PERSON ARMED WITH A GUN, A BOMB AROUND THE MIDRIFF, OR -- AS AMERICANS LEARNED ... IN OKLAHOMA CITY -- A TRUCKLOAD OF FERTILIZER MIXED WITH FUEL OIL TO WREAK UNSPEAKABLE HAVOC... [END OPT] WHAT PEOPLE EVERYWHERE CAN OFFER TO THOSE WHOSE CHILDREN WERE EVILLY SNATCHED FROM THE EARTH IS SIMPLY THE COMFORT OF KNOWING THAT EVEN STRANGERS CARE -- THE SOLACE OF SORROW."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: AND ABOUT THE CURRENT VISIT OF SINN FEIN LEADER GERRY ADAMS TO THE UNITED STATES TO CELEBRATE SAINT PATRICK'S DAY, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" NOTES WRYLY:

    VOICE: "THE ONLY WAY TO KEEP THE UNITED STATES AN INTERESTED AND ACTIVE PARTY IN THE NORTHERN IRELAND QUESTION IS RESTORATION OF THE CEASE-FIRE. THAT IS THE MESSAGE GERRY ADAMS ... SHOULD CONVEY TO THE HAWKS [MILITANTS] WITHIN THE [I-R-A] ORGANIZATION... NEGOTIATIONS AND CONSENSUS ... ALONE, NOT BOMBS, CAN BREED TRUST."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" CRITICIZES WHAT IT SEES AS EFFORTS BY SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC AND CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN TO CENSOR INDEPENDENT NEWS COVERAGE OF THE BALKAN SITUATION AND WHAT LED UP TO THE PRESENT STATE OF AFFAIRS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    VOICE: "... THE CURRENT CAMPAIGN BY PRESIDENT ... MILOSEVIC OF SERBIA TO HARASS AND SUPPRESS INDEPENDENT BROADCASTERS AND NEWSPAPERS WARRANTS SPECIAL ATTENTION AND PROTEST FROM ABROAD... PREVENTING NEW VIOLENCE IN THE BALKANS DEPENDS NOT JUST ON RESPECTING CEASEFIRE LINES BUT ALSO ON ALLOWING VOICES OF PLURALISM TO COUNTER INCITEMENTS TO HATRED. MR. MILOSEVIC WILL ONLY PERSUADE THE WORLD OF HIS CONVERSION TO PEACE AND MR. TUDJMAN OF HIS COMMITMENT TO DEMOCRACY WHEN THEY SHOW THEMSELVES WILLIMG TO REINFORCE THE DAYTON AGREEMENT BY LETTING INDEPENDENT VOICES BE HEARD."

    TEXT: FINALLY, TODAY'S "CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" HAILS A RECENT CEREMONY IN WASHINGTON, AT WHICH THE DESCENDENTS OF A GROUP OF BLACK HEROES IN THE FORE-RUNNER OF TODAY'S U-S COAST GUARD RISKED THEIR LIVES TO RESCUE NINE PEOPLE FROM A GROUNDED SHIP. SAYS "THE MONITOR:"

    VOICE: "THE SURFMEN, THE ONLY ALL-BLACK CREW IN THE [U-S LIFE SAVING] SERVICE, GOT NO RECOGNITION FOR THIS DARING RESCUE OR MANY OTHERS. THAT INJUSTICE WAS RECTIFIED ... WHEN THEIR SUPPORTERS AND DESCENDANTS GATHERED IN WASHINGTON FOR THE PRESENTATION OF THE COAST GUARD'S GOLD LIFESAVING MEDAL. WE JOIN IN BELATEDLY SALUTING THE VALOR OF THE MEN OF PEA ISLAND STATION."

    TEXT: THAT HISTORIC NOTE CONCLUDES THIS BRIEF EDITORIAL SURVEY OF THURSDAY'S U-S PRESS.

    NEB/ANG/PCH
    14-Mar-96 11:02 AM EST (1602 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] ALBRIGHT/BALKANS TRIP (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=3/14/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-194306
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // BASED ON INTERVIEW 3/14 -- ENTIRE INTV. FED TO ENGLISH BUBBLE //

    INTRO: UNITED STATES AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS, MADELEINE ALBRIGHT, WILL VISIT THREE COUNTRIES OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA NEXT WEEK (BEGINNING THURSDAY) -- CROATIA, BOSNIA AND MACEDONIA -- BEARING WARNINGS FROM WASHINGTON ON HUMAN RIGHTS. THE AMERICAN ENVOY HAS EXPRESSED CONCERN THAT CONTINUING VIOLATIONS COULD THREATEN ALL PARTS OF THE BALKAN PEACE PROCESS. VOA CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS:

    TEXT: CROATIA, BOSNIA AND MACEDONIA HAVE SEPARATE OPERATIONS. BOSNIA IS RUN BY NATO. THE OTHER TWO -- BY THE UNITED NATIONS. BUT U-S OFFICIALS CONSIDER THEM LINKED IN THE SENSE THAT A BREAKDOWN OF PEACE IN ONE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC WOULD PROBABLY THREATEN STABILITY IN THE OTHERS. ETHNICITY AND HISTORY CONNECT THEM.

    U-S AMBASSADOR MADELEINE ALBRIGHT PLANS TO STOP FIRST IN ZAGREB AS WELL AS EASTERN SLAVONIA -- THE LAST POCKET OF CROATIA UNDER LOCAL SERB CONTROL THAT IS DUE TO BE TURNED BACK TO CROATIAN AUTHORITY WITHIN A YEAR. BUT EASTERN SLAVONIA HAS PROBLEMS. MOST OF THEM HINGE APPARENTLY ON CROATIA'S RELUCTANCE TO PROVIDE GUARANTEES FOR ITS SERB MINORITY.

    AMBASSADOR ALBRIGHT SAYS SHE INTENDS TO GIVE CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN A FIRM MESSAGE WHEN SHE SEES HIM:

    // ALBRIGHT ACT //

    I WILL LET HIM KNOW THAT THE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE UNITED STATES -- THE FUTURE RELATIONSHIP -- IS VERY DEPENDENT ON MAKING SURE THAT CROATIA LIVES UP TO INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS STANDARDS, THAT THEY COOPERATE WITH THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL, THAT THEY ACT APPROPRIATELY TOWARD REFUGEES...SO, NO WE ARE NOT SATISFIED AND WE ARE GOING TO KEEP GIVING THAT MESSAGE LOUD AND CLEAR.

    // END ACT //

    THE UNITED STATES EXPECTS THE CROATIANS, AS WELL AS THE SERBS OF PALE AND BELGRADE -- TO SURRENDER WAR CRIMINALS TO THE HAGUE TRIBUNAL.

    AMBASSADOR ALBRIGHT REMAINS A STAUNCH SUPPORTER OF THE TRIBUNAL -- THE FIRST OF ITS KIND ESTABLISHED WHEN A WAR WAS STILL GOING ON. THE COURT HAS BEEN BESET BY ALL KINDS OF DIFFICULTIES -- FROM FINANCIAL TO AN APPARENT RELUCTANCE BY THE NATO-LED FORCE IN BOSNIA (IFOR) TO VIGOROUSLY PURSUE SUSPECTS.

    BUT THE AMERICAN ENVOY IS NOT DISCOURAGED. SHE NOTES THAT ACCOUNTABILITY FOR HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS DURING WAR IS STILL A RELATIVELY NEW CONCEPT. SHE ALSO HAS CONFIDENCE THAT THE NATO-LED FORCE IN BOSNIA WILL PARTICIPATE MORE FULLY IN THE TRIBUNAL'S WORK ONCE IT HAS ACCOMPLISHED ITS MILITARY PRIORITIES:

    // ALBRIGHT ACT //

    I THINK PEOPLE NEED TO UNDERSTAND THAT THE RULES OF THE ROAD ARE STILL BEING DEVELOPED AND THAT THIS IS NOT AN EFFORT TO AVOID RESPONSIBLITY BUT MORE TO MAKE SURE THAT IFOR DOES WHAT IT NEEDS TO DO AND DOES ITS PRIMARY PURPOSE BEFORE IT THINKS ABOUT WHAT ELSE TO DO.

    // END ACT //

    AS FOR BOSNIAN SERB COMMANDER, GENERAL RATKO MLADIC, WHO RECENTLY WAS FILMED BY A TELEVISION CREW SKIING COMFORTABLY IN BOSNIA -- AMBASSADOR ALBRIGHT WARNS HIS DAYS ARE NUMBERED. SHE BELIEVES NONE OF THE MORE NOTORIOUS PLAYERS IN THE BALKAN WAR DRAMA WILL ESCAPE JUSTICE FOREVER. (SIGNED)

    UN/EJ/CF
    14-Mar-96 11:22 AM EST (1622 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] ALBRIGHT/BOSNIA AID (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=3/14/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-194314
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // BASED ON 3/14 INTERVIEW. FULL INTV. FED TO ENGL. BUBBLE //

    INTRO: THE U-S AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS, MADELEINE ALBRIGHT, SAYS BOSNIAN AUTHORITIES MUST DEMONSTRATE MORE RESPONSIBILITY IF THEY EXPECT MUCH ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE FOR REBUILDING THEIR COUNTRY. THE AMERICAN ENVOY IS TRAVELING TO THE REGION NEXT WEEK (THURSDAY) AND PLANS MEETINGS IN SARAJEVO. VOA CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS:

    TEXT: COMPLAINTS ARE COMING IN FROM VARIOUS AGENCIES AND ENVOYS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA THAT THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IS FAILING TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE FUNDS TO RE-BUILD THE WAR-SHATTERED COUNTRY.

    AT STAKE IS THE FATE OF SOME TWO MILLION REFUGEES, WHO U-N OFFICIALS WARN HAVE NOTHING STABLE TO COME HOME TO.

    U-S AMBASSADOR MADELEINE ALBRIGHT ACKNOWLEDGES THE DILEMMA. AT THE SAME TIME SHE SAYS BOSNIAN AUTHORITIES NEEDS TO GET THEIR OWN HOUSE IN ORDER AND START CONTROLLING GANGS -- INCLUDING GROUPS OF MUSLIMS -- THAT ARE TERRORIZING SARAJEVO RESIDENTS.

    // ALBRIGHT ACT //

    WHEN THESE PEOPLE WERE THE VICTIMS -- ONE THINKS OF THE BOSNIANS AS VICTIMS -- BUT WHEN THEY BEGIN TO VICTIMIZE OTHERS, IT'S A TURN-OFF (DISAPPOINTMENT). AND I THINK THAT WHAT HAS TO HAPPEN IS THAT THE BOSNIAN AUTHORITIES HAVE TO BEGIN TO EXERCISE SOME CONTROL OVER THESE ELEMENTS WHO ARE PREYING ON WEAK PEOPLE, WHETHER THE WEAK PEOPLE ARE BOSNIAN OR BOSNIAN SERBS.

    // END ACT //

    THIS IS THE MESSAGE AMBASSADOR ALBRIGHT SAYS SHE HOPES TO DELIVER IN SARAJEVO -- WHICH SHE REMEMBERS AT ONE TIME AS A WORKABLE, MULTI-ETHNIC SOCIETY:

    // ALBRIGHT ACT //

    AND WHETHER THERE'S SELF-CLEANSING OF THE BOSNIAN SERBS BEING FORCED BY OTHER BOSNIAN SERBS TO LEAVE OR THUGS ROAMING AROUND THREATENING PEOPLE THAT WANT TO STAY -- THAT IS WHAT IS GOING TO SLOW DOWN THE CIVILIAN PROCESS. AND THAT IS WHAT IS GOING TO SLOW DOWN THE FLOW OF MONEY.

    // END ACT //

    AMBASSADOR ALBRIGHT SAYS THE U-S CONGRESS HAS ALREADY MOVED TOWARD APPROVING SOME FUNDS FOR THE BOSNIAN RECONSTRUCTION EFFORT. BUT APPARENTLY THE QUESTION GOVERNMENTS WITH STRAPPED NATIONAL BUDGETS WILL HAVE TO ANSWER IS CAN DONATIONS MAKE A DIFFERENCE IF BOSNIA SHOWS LITTLE INCLINATION TO PUT THE PAST BEHIND IT. (SIGNED)

    UN/EJ/CF

    14-Mar-96 1:34 PM EST (1834 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] BOSNIA / SARAJEVO (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=3/14/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-194315
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SERB CIVILIANS WHO CHOSE TO REMAIN IN THEIR HOMES NEAR SARAJEVO STILL ARE THREATENED AND INTIMIDATED BY MUSLIMS WHO HAVE TAKEN CONTROL OF THE AREA. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL THERE ARE ALSO GANGS OF SERB THUGS TERRORIZING CIVILIANS IN THE LAST SERB-HELD SUBURB OF SARAJEVO.

    TEXT: THE SARAJEVO SUBURB OF ILIDZA CAME UNDER THE CONTROL OF POLICE FROM THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION ON TUESDAY. ALMOST 20-THOUSAND SERBS FLED BEFORE THE MOSTLY MUSLIM POLICE FORCE ARRIVED.

    ABOUT THREE-THOUSAND SERBS CHOSE TO STAY IN THEIR HOMES. THEY WERE TOLD BY NATO, THE UNITED NATIONS, AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS THEY WOULD BE SAFE. BUT ALEX IVANKO, THE SPOKESMAN FOR THE INTERNATIONAL POLICE FORCE SET UP TO MONITOR THE FEDERATION POLICE, SAYS THINGS HAVE NOT GONE ACCORDING TO PLAN.

    // ACT IVANKO //

    THE U-N INTERNATIONAL POLICE IN ILIDZA RECEIVES NUMEROUS CALLS FROM SERBS STILL LIVING IN THE AREA ASKING FOR PROTECTION. THE U-N ALSO CONTINUES TO RECEIVE REPORTS OF ROBBERIES AND INTIMIDATION.

    // END ACT //

    NATO AND THE INTERNATIONAL POLICE (IFOR) ARE SENDING MORE MEN INTO ILIDZA TO STOP GANGS OF MUSLIM THUGS THAT ARE ROVING THE STREETS, LOOTING HOMES AND THREATENING SERBS.

    MORE BOSNIAN FEDERATION POLICE WILL ALSO BE SENT IN TO TRY TO RESTORE LAW AND ORDER BUT DISAGREEMENTS BETWEEN MUSLIM AND CROAT OFFICIALS ARE SLOWING THE PROCESS.

    THE MUSLIM AUTHORITIES ARE CONTINUING TO PREVENT AUTHORIZED CROAT POLICE FROM JOINING THE FEDERATION POLICE FORCE IN ILIDZA. THE DISAGREEMENT IS SUPPOSEDLY ABOUT UNIFORMS. IN REALITY, THERE IS A FIERCE POWER STRUGGLE GOING ON BETWEEN THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS ABOUT HOW MUCH POWER EACH WILL HAVE IN THE BOSNIAN FEDERATION.

    NATO OFFICIALS ARE WARNING THE DAYTON AGREEMENT WILL COLLAPSE IF BOTH THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS DO NOT START TRYING TO MAKE THE FEDERATION WORK. MEANWHILE, THERE IS ONE MORE SERB-HELD AREA OF THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL LEFT TO BE HANDED OVER TO GOVERNMENT CONTROL. GRBAVICA IS PART OF THE URBAN CENTER OF SARAJEVO, AND AS HAPPENED IN ILIDZA LAST WEEK, HOMES AND BUILDINGS ARE BEING BURNED BY ANGRY SERBS. AND, INTERNATIONAL POLICE SPOKESMAN ALEX IVANKO SAYS THE SERB POLICE ARE DOING NOTHING.

    // ACT IVANKO //

    PEOPLE ARE STILL BEING TERRORIZED BY CRIMINAL GANGS. THE LOCAL POLICE IS DOING NOTHING TO STOP THESE THUGS. INCREASED U-N POLICE AND I-FOR PATROLS ARE THE ONLY DETERRENT AGAINST THE LAWLESSNESS IN GRBAVICA.

    // END ACT //

    THE POLICE SPOKESMAN SAYS NATO AND INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS ARE TRYING TO PREVENT MORE DESTRUCTION AND VIOLENCE BY THE SERBS. HE SAY SENIOR OFFICIALS DISCUSS THE DETERIORATING SECURITY ENVIRONMENT EVERY DAY. SO FAR, THERE HAS BEEN NO DECISION TO SPEED NEXT TUESDAY'S SCHEDULED HAND-OVER OF GRBAVICA TO FEDERATION POLICE.

    WITH THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION IN TATTERS AND MORE OF THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL IN FLAMES, MANY NATO AND INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS SAY THEY CAN ONLY HOPE THINGS DO NOT GET ANY WORSE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DF/JWH/CF
    14-Mar-96 2:00 PM EST (1900 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] BOSNIA CONFERENCE (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=3/14/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-194301
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKEY AND THE UNITED STATES ARE SPONSORING A MEETING FRIDAY IN ANKARA, SEEKING MONEY TO TRAIN AND EQUIP THE ARMY OF THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. AMBERIN ZAMAN IN ANKARA REPORTS MOST NATIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION ARE GIVING THE IDEA ONLY LUKEWARM SUPPORT.

    TEXT: EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES HAVE SAID THEY DO NOT CONSIDER RE-ARMAMENT OF THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION IN BOSNIA TO BE AN URGENT ISSUE. MOST OF THEM CONSIDER STABILIZATION AND RECONSTRUCTION TO BE MORE IMPORTANT. AND SO THEY ARE KEEPING THEIR PARTICIPATION LOW.

    RUSSIA HAS DECLINED TO TAKE PART ALTOGETHER, SAYING THE CONFERENCE CONFLICTS WITH THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT.

    BUT U-S OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE CONFIDENT THE MEETING WILL BE A SUCCESS. THEY SAY MORE THAN 20 COUNTRIES -- INCLUDING ITALY, KUWAIT, BANGLADESH, AND SAUDI ARABIA -- ARE EXPECTED TO ATTEND AND TO CONTRIBUTE EITHER MATERIAL OR MONEY FOR THE PROJECT.

    OFFICIALS SAY 800-MILLION DOLLARS IS NEEDED TO EQUIP AND TRAIN THE MUSLIM-CROAT ARMY.

    U-S OFFICIALS SAY THE PROJECT IS SEPARATE FROM THE PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN BOSNIA, AND WILL BE CARRIED OUT IN FULL COMPLIANCE WITH THE PROVISIONS OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT.

    THE U-S SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE FOR MILITARY STABILIZATION IN THE BALKANS -- JAMES PARDEW -- SAYS THE PROGRAM'S MAIN OBJECTIVE IS TO HELP CONSOLIDATE PEACE IN THE REGION BY CORRECTING MILITARY IMBALANCES BETWEEN SERBS AND THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION.

    // PARDEW ACT //

    NOTHING WE FORESEE WILL BE OUTSIDE THE ARMS CONTROL MECHANISMS. OUR GOAL IS CAPABILITY FOR DEFENSE AND DETERRENCE, NOT AN OFFENSIVE MILITARY FORCE. IT IS NOT DESIGNED SIMPLY TO ARM ONE NATIONALITY, ONE ETHNIC GROUP, ONE RELIGIOUS GROUP. BUT IT IS DESIGNED TO SUPPORT A MULTI-ETHNIC FEDERATION.

    // END ACT //

    MR. PARDEW SAID TURKEY AND THE UNITED STATES ARE COOPERATING CLOSELY IN THE PROGRAM. HE SAID BOTH COUNTRIES ARE INTERESTED IN TRAINING THE BOSNIAN FEDERATION ARMY. BUT HE WOULD NOT SAY WHAT OTHER COUNTRIES ARE ALSO WILLING TO HELP TRAIN THE FORCE. HE SAID THE OTHER NATIONS MIGHT WANT TO KEEP WHAT HE CALLED A LOW PROFILE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/AZ/JWH/CF
    14-Mar-96 9:45 AM EST (1445 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] BOSNIAN CHILDREN/DEALING WITH TRAUMA BY CAROL PEARSON (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=3/14/96
    TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE
    NUMBER=3-24552
    TELEPHONE=619-3903
    EDITOR=SMART
    CONTENT= [INSERTS IN AUDIO SERVICES]

    INTRO: ONE OF THE RESULTS OF THE RELIEF EFFORTS IN BOSNIA AND OTHER PARTS OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA IS THAT MANY HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS ARE WORKING TOGETHER TO PROVIDE HELP. CAROL PEARSON SPOKE TO A CHILD PSYCHIATRIST JUST BEFORE SHE LEFT FOR THE BOSNIA AND CROATIA TO WORK IN COOPERATION WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS ON BEHALF OF THE CHILDREN THERE.

    TEXT: DR. PARAMJIT JOSHI IS ESPECIALLY CONCERNED ABOUT THE CHILDREN IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. SHE'S THE DIRECTOR OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY AT JOHNS HOPKINS HOSPITAL IN BALTIMORE, MARYLAND.

    BECAUSE THE HOSPITAL RECEIVED A GRANT TO PROVIDE PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSISTANCE TO CHILDREN WHO ARE VICTIMS OF WAR, DR. JOSHI IS WORKING WITH EXPERTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB AND WITH CATHOLIC RELIEF SERVICES IN SARAJEVO AND ZAGREB.

    TAPE CUT ONE: JOSHI :29 "ONE OF THE MOST EFFECTIVE WAYS OF PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO THE VICTIMS IS REALLY EMPOWERING THE PEOPLE WHO ARE THERE. (BEGIN OPT) IT IS WONDERFUL TO HAVE INTERNATIONAL EXPERTS AND OTHERS GOING INTO WAR-TORN AREAS AND PROVIDING ASSISTANCE, AND WHAT HAVE YOU, BUT TO HAVE ANY CONTINUITY AND LONG TERM SUSTAINABILITY OF ANY PROJECT LIKE THIS, YOU HAVE TO HAVE PEOPLE IN THE AREA (END OPT) BECAUSE THEY CAN CROSS LANGUAGE BARRIERS AND CULTURAL BARRIERS AND ALL OF THAT."

    TEXT: DR. JOSHI VISITED SOME REFUGEE CAMPS AND HOSPITALS IN THE REGION LAST FALL SO SHE ALREADY HAS A GOOD GRASP OF THE NEEDS OF THE CHILDREN THERE. SHE'S HOPEFUL THAT MANY OF THEM WILL BE ABLE TO PUT THEIR TRAUMAS BEHIND THEM.

    TAPE CUT TWO: JOSHI :27 "THERE ARE LOTS OF VARIABLES WHEN YOU ARE A VICTIM OF ANY KIND OF TRAUMA. AND SOME OF THEM ARE WHAT WAS THE CHILD'S CONDITION BEFORE ANY OF THIS EVER HAPPENED. WE HAVE TO ASSUME THAT MOST OF THE POPULATION WAS PSYCHOLOGICALLY HEALTHY BEFORE THE WAR. WITHIN THE POPULATION THERE ARE ALWAYS PEOPLE WHO ARE SUFFERING FROM MENTAL ILLNESS, BUT BY AND LARGE, THESE WERE REGULAR PEOPLE LEADING REGULAR LIVES."

    TEXT: SHE SAYS THE PSYCHIATRISTS TRY TO DRAW ON THE COPING SKILLS THE CHILDREN DEVELOPED BEFORE THE WAR BEGAN.

    TAPE CUT THREE: JOSHI :25 "THE SECOND FACTOR, AND STUDIES HAVE SHOWN, IS THE MOTHER'S, THE CAREGIVER'S, THE PARENT'S, ABILITY TO COPE WITH STRESS AND BE ABLE TO PROVIDE FOR HER CHILDREN. AND SO THE STUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT IF THE PARENT FIGURE IS HAVING A HARD TIME, THE CHILDREN WILL HAVE A HARD TIME. SO IT'S VERY IMPORTANT THAT WE ARE LOOKING AT THE WHOLE FAMILY AND NOT JUST THE CHILD."

    TEXT: DR. JOSHI SAYS OTHER FACTORS ARE HOW MANY TRAUMAS A CHILD HAS SUFFERED AND HOW SEVERE THE TRAUMAS WERE. CHILDREN WHO HAVE BEEN DISPLACED AND HAVE GONE FROM ONE REFUGEE CAMP TO ANOTHER WILL HAVE A HARDER TIME RECOVERING, AS WILL CHILDREN WHO HAVE WITNESSED KILLINGS AND MASSACRES. SHE SAYS ONE OF THE TOUGHEST THINGS FOR CHILDREN TO OVERCOME IS EXPERIENCING TRAUMA AT HOME OR IN SCHOOL.... IN A PLACE WHERE THEY THOUGHT THEY WERE SAFE.

    TAPE CUT FOUR: JOSHI :16 "WE SAW SOME REFUGEE CHILDREN AT A CAMP. IT'S SUPPOSED TO BE A RELATIVELY SAFE PLACE. BUT THE CAMP ITSELF WAS SHELLED. IT COMPLETELY DESTROYS THEIR TRUST. AND SO THEY FIND THEMSELVES NEVER TO BE IN A SAFE SITUATION. AND THAT IN ITSELF IS TRAUMATIZING."

    TEXT: DR. JOSHI SAYS THAT AFTER THEIR CAMP WAS SHELLED, THE CHILDREN BEGAN HAVING NIGHTMARES, AND MANY OF THEM STARTED WETTING THEIR BEDS AT NIGHT. AFTER COUNSELORS WORKED WITH THEM, THESE SYMPTOMS BEGAN TO SUBSIDE. BUT THEN THE CAMP WAS SHELLED AGAIN. AND AGAIN, THE CHILDREN STARTED HAVING NIGHTMARES. ONLY THIS TIME, IT TOOK A MUCH LONGER TIME FOR THEIR SYMPTOMS OF FEAR TO SUBSIDE.

    ON THIS TRIP TO BOSNIA DR. JOSHI WILL TEACH A PROGRAM ON DEALING WITH POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AND DEPRESSION IN CHILDREN AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SARAJEVO. SHE ALSO HOPES TO WORK WITH TRAUMATIZED TEENAGER GIRLS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/CAP/NES
    14-Mar-96 11:35 AM EST (1635 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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