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Voice of America, 18 March 1996

From: "Ioannis V. Bousnakis" <ivb19@nfi.com>

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BOSNIA / SARAJEVO (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

  • [03] BOSNIA DESTRUCTION BY JOLYON NAEGELE (BOSANSKA KRUPA)

  • [04] CHRISTOPHER-BOSNIA (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (GENEVA)

  • [05] NATO / BOSNIA (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

  • [06] RUSSIA/NATO (L-ONLY) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

  • [07] SLOVAKIA / EUROPE BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)


  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=03/18/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09483
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON MONDAY MARCH 18TH //

    INTRO: A VERY DIVERSE SELECTION OF EDITORIAL TOPICS IS OFFERED U-S NEWSPAPER READERS THIS MONDAY IN THE MIDDLE OF MARCH. THE SUBJECTS INCLUDE THE TRIAL OF TWO FORMER SOUTH KOREAN PRESIDENTS; THE IDEA OF USING REPORTERS TO SPY FOR THE C-I-A; THE DEBATE OVER GIVING THE PRESIDENT THE LINE ITEM VETO; SOME PROBLEMS IN THE GENETIC SPLICING OF FOODS; FEDERAL TAX REFORM, AND CHANGING U-S IMMIGRATION LAWS. FOR A SAMPLING OF THESE VIEWS, HERE IS _______________ WITH TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST:

    TEXT: TODAY'S "WASHINGTON POST" COMMENTS ON THE TRIAL IN SOUTH KOREA OF TWO EX-GENERALS AND MILITARY SCHOOL CLASSMATES, CHUN DOO HWAN AND ROH TAE WOO, WHO BOTH BECAME PRESIDENT OF SOUTH KOREA. NOW THE MEN ARE ON TRIAL FOR TREASON. SAYS "THE POST."

    VOICE: "THEIR CASE RAISES PERPLEXING QUESTIONS OF HOW TO BALANCE ACCOUNTABILITY WITH RECONCILIATION, JUSTICE AGAINST RETRIBUTION -- QUESTIONS THAT TROUBLE EVERY NATION MOVING FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY, WHETHER IN SOUTH AFRICA OR POLAND OR CHILE... NO LEADER OS SOUTH KOREA HAS EVER MANAGED TO PASS POWER ON AND PEACEFULLY RETIRE. IT REFLECTS WELL ON SOUTH KOREA THAT MR. CHUN AND MR. ROH ARE NOW FACING A JUDICIAL PROCESS, NOT A COUP OR ASSASSINATION."

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" TODAY COMES DOWN FIRMLY AGAINST A CURRENT IDEA BEING CONSIDERED TO ALLOW THE C-I-A TO RECRUIT JOURNALISTS TO GATHER INTELLIGENCE AND TO ISSUE PRESS CREDENTIALS TO SPIES.

    VOICE: "THE PROHIBITION ON PAYING ACCREDITED JOURNALISTS FOR INTELLIGENCE WORK SHOULD BE ABSOLUTE. THE SAME APPLIES TO ISSUING BOGUS PRESS CREDENTIALS TO A COVERT AGENT. SUCH A FIREWALL IS ESSENTIAL, FIRST OF ALL, TO PROTECT FOREIGN CORRESPONDENTS, WHOSE JOB OF QUESTIONING AND PROBING MAKES THEM ESPECIALLY VULNERABLE TO ARREST BY HOSTILE REGIMES. BUT MORE BROADLY, USING REPORTERS AS AGENTS OFFENDS AND CONFOUNDS THE PRINCIPLES OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY... THE PRESS IS THE CHRONICLER OF AND CHECK ON GOVERNMENT, NOT ITS INSTRUMENT."

    TEXT: ON ANOTHER PUBLIC ISSUE THAT HAS HAS LONG BEEN DEBATED, TODAY'S "LOS ANGELES TIMES" VOICES SUPPORT FOR GIVING THE PRESIDENT A SO-CALLED LINE ITEM VETO. SUCH A VETO WOULD GIVE A PRESIDENT THE POWER TO REJECT SPECIFIC PARTS OF LARGE FUNDING BILLS WITHOUT HAVING TO APPROVE OR VETO THE ENTIRE BILL, WHICH IS THE PRESENT SITUATION.

    VOICE: "CONGRESS IS MOVING TO GIVE THE PRESIDENT INCREASED POWER TO SQUEEZE SOME OF THE PORK [UNNECESSARY SPENDING] OUT OF POLITICS BY ENACTING A LINE-ITEM VETO BILL. THE NATION WOULD GAIN IN THIS HISTORIC CEDING OF AUTHORITY FROM THE LEGISLATIVE TO THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH... GOVERNORS OF 43 STATES HAVE LINE-ITEM VETO AUTHORITY, AND PRESIDENT CLINTON, A FORMER GOVERNOR, STRONGLY SUPPORTS IT AT THE FEDERAL LEVEL... THERE'S NO TELLING HOW EFFECTIVE SUCH A LAW WOULD BE IN REDUCING THE BUDGET DEFICIT. BUT IT COULD HELP CUT WAY BACK ON THE FAVORS THAT COME OUT OF THE PORK BARREL, AND THAT'S A REFORM WORTH HAVING."

    TEXT: SCIENTISTS HAVE PRODUCED SOME UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES IN TRYING TO BREED A SOYBEAN WITH AMINO ACIDS, BY GENE SPLICING THE AMINO ACID-PRODUCING GENE FROM BRAZIL NUTS. THEY INADVERTENTLY DEVELOPED A SOYBEAN THAT CAUSES SICKNESS IN PEOPLE WHO ARE ALLERGIC TO BRAZIL NUTS. THE INCIDENT DRAWS THIS EDITORIAL RESPONSE FROM "USA TODAY"

    VOICE: "THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HAS LONG ANTICIPATED SUCH PROBLEMS, BUT THIS IS THE FIRST ACTUAL TRANSFER. AS SUCH, IT REVIVES CONSUMER FEARS OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED FOODS, AND NOT WITHOUT CAUSE... AS A MATTER OF PUBLIC CONFIDENCE, THEREFORE, FEDERAL LAW SHOULD REQUIRE MAKERS OF D-N-A-ALTERED FOODS TO CERTIFY THEIR PRODUCTS' SAFETY."

    TEXT: IN THE NATION'S CAPITOL, "THE WASHINGTON TIMES" SAYS THAT EVEN THOUGH REPUBLICAN STEVE FORBES HAS WITHDRAWN FROM THE PRESIDENTIAL RACE, HIS FLAT TAX PROPOSAL, WITH SOME CHANGES, DESERVES ATTENTION AS A CAMPAIGN ISSUE.

    VOICE: "MR. FORBES BROUGHT THE FLAT TAX TO NATIONAL PROMINENCE, AN IMPORTANT ACCOMPLISHMENT. IT IS NOW UP TO MR. DOLE TO ACCEPT AND ADOPT THOSE IDEAS OF MR. FORBES' THAT HE THINKS WILL BE GOOD FOR THE NATION. THE REPUBLICAN PARTY CANNOT WIN IN NOVEMBER WITHOUT A STRONG AGENDA FOR PINNING BACK THE EARS [LIMITING THE AUTHORITY OF] OF THE IRS."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, TODAY'S "NEW YORK POST" COMMENTS ON A POTENTIALLY VERY EMOTIONAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN ISSUE -- IMPOSING NEW RESTRICTIONS THE NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED TO THE U-S:

    VOICE: "THE REPUBLICAN-CONTROLLED CONGRESS HAS FUMBLED THE BALL ON IMMIGRATION REFORM -- GIVING THE DEMOCRATS AND THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION AN UNDESERVED OPPORTUNITY TO PRESENT THEMSELVES AS THE PARTY THAT MOST CLOSELY REPRESENTS THE VIEW OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE ON THIS EMOTIONAL AND INCREASINGLY CONTENTIOUS ISSUE."

    TEXT: AND THAT CONCLUDES OUR BRIEF SAMPLING OF SOME OF THE EDITORIALS FROM TODAY'S U-S PRESS.

    NEB/ANG/PCH

    18-Mar-96 11:08 AM EST (1608 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] BOSNIA / SARAJEVO (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=3/18/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-194470
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO COMMANDERS IN BOSNIA ARE INSISTING THE BOSNIAN ARMY MUST WITHDRAW FROM HEADQUARTERS AND BARRACKS IN SARAJEVO BY TUESDAY TO COMPLY WITH THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT. MEANWHILE, SERBS CONTINUE TO BURN THE LAST SERB-HELD AREA OF THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL ONLY HOURS BEFORE THE AREA COMES UNDER GOVERNMENT CONTROL. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO.

    TEXT: TUESDAY IS A MAJOR DEADLINE FOR THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT IN BOSNIA. IT IS KNOWN AS D+90 (D PLUS NINETY), OR 90 DAYS SINCE NATO TOOK OVER IN BOSNIA, AND THE LAST AREAS TO BE TRANSFERRED BETWEEN THE SIDES WILL CHANGE HANDS.

    MILITARY FORCES MUST ALSO WITHDRAW FROM AREAS NEAR THE FRONT-LINE, KNOWN AS ZONES OF SEPARATION, BUT THE NATO SPOKESMAN, MAJOR SIMON HASELOCK, SAYS THE BOSNIAN ARMY IS ASKING FOR CHANGES TO THE DAYTON AGREEMENT.

    // ACT - HASELOCK //

    BOSNIAN POLITICAL AND MILITARY REPRESENTATIVES HAVE APPROACHED I-FOR (IMPLEMENTATION FORCE) TO MAKE A CASE FOR BEING ALLOWED TO LEAVE SOME TROOPS AND MILITARY FACILITIES WITHIN THE SARAJEVO ZONE.

    // END ACT //

    IN A BLUNT STATEMENT MAJOR HASELOCK SAID THE SENIOR NATO COMMANDERS HAD FLATLY REJECTED ANY CHANGE AND SAID THE MAIN BOSNIAN ARMY HEADQUARTERS HAD TO LEAVE, AND A LARGE BARRACKS IN THE HEART OF THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL HAD TO BE EVACUATED.

    // ACT - HASELOCK //

    THESE MILITARY BARRACKS AND HEADQUARTERS SHOULD BE VIEWED AS RELICS OF THE PAST. THE DEMILITARIZATION OF SARAJEVO SHOULD BE SEEN AS A SIGN-POST FOR THE FUTURE.

    // END ACT //

    AFTER MEETINGS BETWEEN NATO AND BOSNIAN GENERALS NATO OFFICIALS SAY THE BOSNIAN ARMY COMMANDER HAS AGREED TO PRESENT A PLAN FOR THE WITHDRAWAL, BUT IT IS EXTREMELY UNLIKELY THE TUESDAY MIDNIGHT DEADLINE WILL BE MET. NATO OFFICIALS ARE REFUSING TO SPECULATE WHAT ACTIONS MIGHT BE TAKEN TO ENSURE RAPID COMPLIANCE. MEANWHILE, THE BOSNIAN SERBS ARE CONTINUING TO BURN MUCH OF GRBAVICA AN URBAN DISTRICT NEAR THE HEART OF SARAJEVO, AND THE LAST SERB-HELD ARE OF THE CITY. A HEAVY NIGHT-TIME PRESENCE OF NATO SOLDIERS AND INTERNATIONAL POLICE MONITORS HAS HELPED LIMIT THE DAMAGE, BUT DURING THE DAY, GANGS OF SERB THUGS ARE LOOTING BUILDINGS, AND THREATENING SERBS WHO WANT TO STAY IN THEIR HOMES.

    NATO AND THE INTERNATIONAL POLICE ARE REFUSING TO DETAIN ARSONISTS AND OTHER CRIMINALS ANY LONGER THAN IT TAKES TO HAND THEM OVER TO THE SERB POLICE, WHO IMMEDIATELY SET THEM FREE. ON MONDAY MANY HOMES AND APARTMENT BUILDINGS WERE BURNED.

    ON TUESDAY POLICE FROM THE MUSLIM / CROAT FEDERATION WILL MOVE INTO THE AREA, CREATING A UNIFIED SARAJEVO FOR THE FIRST TIME IN ALMOST FOUR YEARS. INTERNATIONAL POLICE OFFICIALS SAY THEY WILL TRY TO LIMIT THE ACCESS TO GRBAVICA, AT LEAST FOR A FEW HOURS, IN AN EFFORT TO AVOID A REPEAT OF LAST WEEK'S HANDOVER OF ILIDZA, WHEN THOUSANDS OF CELEBRATING MUSLIMS THREATENED SERBS WHO HAD REMAINED IN ILIDZA AND LOOTED HOMES.

    STABILITY IS ONLY NOW RETURNING TO ILIDZA, AND LOCAL LEADERS OF THE SERB COMMUNITY ARE NOW PRAISING THE FEDERATION AND INTERNATIONAL POLICE. THE DEMOCRATIC INITIATIVE FOR SERB SARAJEVO IS A GROUP FORMED TO PROTECT THE RIGHTS OF SERBS WHO CHOSE TO STAY IN THEIR HOMES IN ILIDZA AFTER THE TRANSFER TO GOVERNMENT CONTROL. IT'S GENERAL SECRETARY, DUSAN SEHOVAC, SAYS MORE SERBS ARE NOW COMING BACK TO ILIDZA THAN ARE LEAVING.

    // ACT - SEHOVAC (FIVE SECS THEN FADE) //

    HE SAYS HIS GROUP WILL, IN A FEW DAYS, ANNOUNCE THAT IT IS SAFE FOR ALL SERBS TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES IN ILIDZA. HE SAYS THE GROUP IS ONLY WAITING FOR GUARANTEES SERBS WILL BE ALLOWED TO REMAIN IN THEIR HOMES, AND FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF SARAJEVO'S MUNICIPAL AUTHORITIES. THIS IS WELCOME NEWS FOR INTERNATIONAL MEDIATORS WHO HAVE SO FAR HAD LITTLE LUCK WITH THEIR EFFORTS TO ENCOURAGE A MULTI-ETHNIC BOSNIA. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DF/CF
    18-Mar-96 2:31 PM EST (1931 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] BOSNIA DESTRUCTION BY JOLYON NAEGELE (BOSANSKA KRUPA)

    DATE=3/18/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-32736
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    // EDITORS: FIRST USE OF THIS REPORT IN ENGLISH IS FOR THE "DATELINE BOSNIA" PROGRAM //

    INTRO: ACROSS BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, MORE THAN THREE YEARS OF FIGHTING HAVE TAKEN A SEVERE TOLL ON MANY COMMUNITIES. IN THE NORTHWESTERN PART OF THE COUNTRY REGIONAL OFFICIALS SAY THE TOWN OF BOSANSKA KRUPA RANKS WITH SARAJEVO AND MOSTAR AS ONE OF THE THREE MOST DAMAGED TOWNS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. JOLYON NAEGELE RECENTLY VISITED BOSANSKA KRUPA AND SENT THIS REPORT

    TEXT: FOR MORE THAN THREE YEARS THE UNA RIVER, WHICH BISECTS THE TOWN OF BOSANSKA KRUPA, FORMED THE FRONT LINE. MUSLIM GOVERNMENT FORCES HELD THE LEFT BANK INCLUDING THE TRAIN STATION. SERB FORCES OCCUPIED THE RIGHT BANK, INCLUDING A MEDIEVAL FORTRESS, ALL MAIN PLACES OF WORSHIP, MOST APARTMENT BLOCKS AND THE MAIN SHOPPING DISTRICT.

    THE SERBS FLED DOWN THE UNA LAST AUGUST TOWARD BOSANSKI NOVI WHEN CROAT GOVERNMENT FORCES LINKED UP WITH THE BOSNIAN ARMY AND BROKE THE SERB SIEGE OF THIS REGION, KNOWN HISTORICALLY AS "CAZINSKA KRAJINA" AND MILITARILY AS THE "BIHAC POCKET."

    THE LEFT BANK, HAVING BEEN A TARGET OF SERB SHELLING THROUGHOUT THE WAR, SUFFERED THE HEAVIEST DESTRUCTION WITH HARDLY ANY BUILDING LEFT HABITABLE. ACROSS THE BRIDGE, SUFFICIENTLY REPAIRED FOR VEHICULAR TRAFFIC, THE DESTRUCTION ON THE RIGHT BANK IS NOT AS THOROUGH BUT RATHER APPEARS TO HAVE BEEN SELECTIVE, WITH SERB-OWNED PROPERTIES LARGELY SPARED.

    UNTIL THE WAR, A 600-YEAR OLD ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, A SERBIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH, AND A MOSQUE WERE CLUSTERED TOGETHER BELOW A HILLTOP MEDIEVAL FORTRESS IN THE HISTORIC CENTER OF TOWN.

    THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH SUFFERED SUCH HEAVY DESTRUCTION DURING THE FIGHTING THAT IT RESEMBLES AN ANCIENT RUIN RATHER THAN A HOUSE OF WORSHIP THAT UNTIL RECENTLY SERVED A CONGREGATION. THE SERBIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH IS IN CONSIDERABLY BETTER SHAPE, HAVING SUFFERED LITTLE MORE THAN SOME UNSIGHTLY GRAZING OF ITS BELL TOWER BY GUN FIRE. THE MOSQUE, AS IN NUMEROUS COMMUNITIES OCCUPIED BY BOSNIAN SERB FORCES, IS GONE WITHOUT A TRACE.

    RUBBLE CONTINUES TO BE SHOVELED INTO THE MIDDLE OF THE STREET AND CARTED OFF REGULARLY. SERBIAN NATIONALIST GRAFFITI STILL MARS NUMEROUS WALLS. BUT SCHOOLS AND SHOPS ARE FUNCTIONING AND LIFE IS SLOWLY RETURNING TO NORMAL. CZECH I-FOR TROOPS MAINTAIN A DISCREET PRESENCE.

    ACROSS THE STREET FROM THE RUINS OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH, NEVID SEJAD, A MUSLIM RETURNEE IS REBUILDING HIS HOME, GUTTED BY FIRE DURING THE SERB OCCUPATION.

    // SEJAD ACT //

    POVRATILI SMO SE PRVI DAN POSLE OSLOBODJENIJE BOSANSKE KRUPE...

    // END ACT //

    WE RETURNED THE FIRST DAY AFTER THE LIBERATION OF BOSANSKA KRUPA, MR. SEJAD SAYS, HAVING SPENT THE WAR A FEW KILOMETERS AWAY IN GOVERNMENT-HELD TERRITORY. THERE WAS LITTLE LEFT OF WHAT HAD BEEN HIS HOME.

    // 2ND SEJAD ACT //

    OVDE NEBILO KROVA, NISTO NEBILO. UNISTENO SVE..

    // END ACT //

    THERE WAS NO ROOF HERE, NOTHING, EVERYTHING HAD BEEN DESTROYED, DEMOLISHED; ELECTRICITY, WATER, RADIATORS, PIPES, THE BOILER, EVERYTHING WAS WIPED OUT, MR. SEJAD RECOUNTS. HIS MOTHER-IN-LAW'S HOUSE NEXT DOOR FARED EVEN WORSE. ALL THAT WAS LEFT WHEN THE SEJADS RETURNED WAS A HEAP OF RUBBLE AND THE GARDEN WALL.

    // 3RD SEJAD ACT //

    CUJETE, RAT, MORAMO, MORAMO ZIVJETI...

    // END ACT //

    WE HAVE TO GO ON LIVING. MAY THIS NEVER AGAIN HAPPEN TO ANYONE IN THE WORLD BECAUSE WHAT THEY HAVE DONE TO US DOES NO HONOR TO ANYONE, MR. SEJAD LAMENTS, ASKING, WHAT CAME OVER THEM TO SET EVERYTHING ON FIRE? WE DLD NOT DO ANYTHING TO THEM. MR. SEJAD EXPRESSES FRUSTRATION THAT NO ONE IS LIKELY TO BE BROUGHT TO JUSTICE FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF HIS TOWN.

    // 4TH SEJAD ACT //

    ...POGLEDAJTE CRKVA OVAJ KATOLICKE, DZAMIJE SRUSENE...

    // END ACT //

    LOOK AT THE CATHOLIC CHURCH AND THE MOSQUE, BOTH DESTROYED. IT IS TO NO ONE'S HONOR. IT IS AS IF NO ONE IS GUILTY, NO ONE HAS DONE ANYTHING, IT IS NO ONE'S FAULT, WE WERE NOT THE CULPRIT'S NOR WAS ANYONE ELSE, MR. SEJAD SAYS, ADDING THAT HE STILL DOES NOT KNOW WHY IT ALL HAPPENED. BUT HE SAYS HE STILL HOPES THE TOWN'S SERB RESIDENTS ARE EVENTUALLY ABLE TO RETURN FROM EXILE.

    BEFORE THE WAR, MUSLIMS AND SERBS LIVED IN A RATIO OF APPROXIMATELY THREE TO ONE, ALONG WITH A TINY CROAT MINORITY, IN BOSANSKA KRUPA COMMUNE, POPULATION 58-THOUSAND INCLUDING SURROUNDING VILLAGES.

    ACCORDING TO UNITED NATIONS REFUGEE (U-N-H-C-R) OFFICIALS, ABOUT 70 PERCENT OF THE TOWN'S INHABITANTS ARE DISPLACED BECAUSE THEIR HOMES REMAIN UNINHABITABLE. THE CHAIRMAN OF THE UNA-SANA CANTON, MIRSAD VELADJIC, DESCRIBES THE PROBLEM OF HOUSING RETURNEES WHOSE HOMES HAVE BEEN DESTROYED.

    // VELADJIC ACT //

    ZATIM BOSNJACI SU SMJESTENI U MNOGIM DOMACINSTVA KDE SU SRBI ZIVELI... F

    // END ACT //

    FOR THE TIME BEING, BOSNIAN MUSLIMS ARE BEING HOUSED IN NUMEROUS HOMES WHERE SERBS HAD LIVED, SINCE THEIR OWN HOMES HAD BEEN BURNED DOWN. THIS, MR. VELADJIC SAYS, IS TYPICAL OF THE SITUATION IN BOSANSKA KRUPA. AS THE SENIOR-MOST CIVILIAN OFFICIAL IN THE REGION PUTS IT, PEOPLE OF SERB NATIONALITY WILL ONLY BE ABLE TO RETURN HERE ONCE THE MUSLIM HOMES HAVE BEEN REPAIRED AND ADEQUATE CONDITIONS CREATED TO ENABLE THEM TO MOVE OUT OF SERB HOMES. (SIGNED)

    NEB/JN/CF
    18-Mar-96 8:24 AM EST (1324 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] CHRISTOPHER-BOSNIA (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=3/18/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-194489
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER HAS MET WITH THE PRESIDENTS OF SERBIA, CROATIA AND THE ACTING PRESIDENT OF BOSNIA TO TRY TO WIN NEW COMMITMENTS FROM THEM TO IMPLEMENT THE BOSNIA PEACE AGREEMENT. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM GENEVA, THE LATEST COMMITMENT CAME ON SUSPECTED WAR CRIMINALS.

    TEXT: AS THE BOSNIA PEACE AGREEMENT MOVES INTO ITS FOURTH MONTH, THE UNITED STATES HAS WON THE FIRST PROMISES FROM SERBIA AND CROATIA TO IMPLEMENT PROVISIONS ABOUT MAKING SUSPECTS AVAILIABLE TO THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE.

    CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN HAS PROMISED THAT GENERAL TIHOMIR BLASKIC WILL TURN HIMSELF INTO THE TRIBUNAL TO FACE PROSECUTION BY THE END OF THE MONTH. GENERAL BLASKIC WAS CHIEF OF STAFF OF THE BOSNIAN CROAT ARMY AND WAS INDICTED LAST YEAR FOR HIS RESPONSIBILITY IN THE MASSACRE OF MUSLIM CIVILIANS IN THE LASVA VALLEY IN CENTRAL BOSNIA IN 1993 AND THE EXPULSION OF THE MUSLIMS FROM THEIR HOMES.

    AT THE TIME OF HIS INDICTMENT, GENERAL BLASKIC WAS GIVEN A POSITION IN THE CROATIAN ARMY'S INSPECTORS OFFICE. THAT STEP APPEARS TO HAVE PUT THE GENERAL UNDER MR. TUDJMAN'S DIRECT CONTROL. THE AGREEMENT SAYS CROATIAN AUTHORITIES WILL ARRANGE FOR GENERAL BLASKIC TO SUBMIT HIMSELF TO THE TRIBUNAL.

    SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IS ARRANGING FOR THE TRANSFER TO THE TRIBUNAL OF TWO BOSNIAN SERBS WANTED FOR QUESTIONING IN CONNECTION WITH LAST YEAR'S MASSACRE OF MUSLIMS IN SREBRENICA IN EASTERN BOSNIA. DRAZEN ERDEMOVIC IS SUSPECTED OF KILLING 1200 PEOPLE AND RADOSLAV KREMENOVIC IS WANTED ON SUSPICION OF HIDING HIM IN SERBIA.

    NEITHER OF THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAS BEEN INDICTED YET BECAUSE THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL DID NOT KNOW OF THEIR ROLES UNTIL RECENTLY WHEN THEY SPOKE TO THE NEWS MEDIA. THIS IS THE FIRST TIME SERBIA HAS OPENLY COOPERATED WITH THE TRIBUNAL BY TAKING THE MEN INTO CUSTODY AND NOW PROMISING THAT THEY WILL BE TRANSFERRED BY THE END OF THE MONTH.

    SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER SAYS HE CANNOT PROMISE THAT OTHER INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS OR SUSPECTS WILL BE FORTHCOMING.

    ///CHRISTOPHER ACT///

    THESE TWO STEPS SPEAK FOR THEMSELVES. THE BASIC COMMITMENT TO COOPERATE WITH THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IS THERE AND WE WILL GO ON REMINDING THE PARTIES OF THAT COMMITMENT. I DON'T WANT TO SAY THAT PROBLEM HAS BEEN SOLVED BUT I WILL SAY THAT TWO SIGNIFICANT STEPS WERE TAKEN TODAY.

    /// END ACT ///

    WHILE THE TRANSFER OF SUSPECTED WAR CRIMINALS HAS A TIME FRAME, BY THE END OF THE MONTH, MANY OF THE OTHER STEPS ANNOUNCED HERE ARE RE-STATEMENTS OF EARLIER COMMITMENTS TO IMPROVE THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION, TO EXCHANGE PRISONERS OF WAR AND TO EXPEL FOREIGN FORCES FROM BOSNIA.

    AS THE GRABAVICA NEIGHBORHOOD PASSES INTO BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT CONTROL, NATO FORCES PLEDGE TO STOP THE BURNING AND LOOTING THAT HAS TAKEN PLACE THERE OVER THE LAST WEEK. THE BOSNIAN SERB AUTHORITY, THAT HAS ENCOURAGED SERBS TO EVACUATE SARAJEVO SUBURBS, NOW PLEDGES TO ENCOURAGE THEIR RETURN. CROATIA PROMISES TO ALLOW CROATIAN SERBS TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES. SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER SAYS ALL THESE PROMISES WILL NEED CONSTANT ATTENTION.

    /// CHRISTOPHER ACT ///

    THIS IS A VERY COMPLEX AGREEMENT. IT COMES AFTER FOUR YEARS OF A BLOODY WAR. THE PARTIES NECESSARILY HAVE TENSE RELATIONS WITH EACH OTHER FROM TIME TO TIME ON PARTICULAR ISSUES. SO I THINK WE'LL HAVE TO GET BACK TOGETHER LIKE THIS FROM TIME TO TIME. WE DID IT AT D PLUS 45 AND WE'RE DOING SO AT D PLUS 90 AND I EXPECT THAT I'LL BE DEALING WITH THESE SAME PARTIES PERIODICALLY FOR THIS IS A STEP BY STEP PROCESS. WE MADE SOME PROGRESS TODAY BUT WE DIDN'T SOLVE ALL THE PROBLEMS. WE'LL BE BACK DEALING WITH THESE PROBLEMS OVER AND OVER AGAIN.

    /// END ACT ///

    FOR MR. CHRISTOPHER THAT MEANS AGAIN ON SATURDAY IN MOSCOW. HE WILL TAKE PART IN A MINISTERIAL MEETING THERE OF THE BOSNIA CONTACT GROUP THAT WILL INVOLVE THE FOREIGN MINISTERS OF THE UNITED STATES, RUSSIA, BRITAIN, FRANCE AND GERMANY WITH THEIR COUNTERPARTS FROM BOSNIA, CROATIA AND FEDERAL YUGOSLAVIA. (SIGNED)

    NEB/RP/LWM
    18-Mar-96 6:35 PM EST (2335 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] NATO / BOSNIA (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=3/18/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-194452
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO SECRETARY-GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA HAS BLAMED BOTH SIDES IN THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT FOR TENSIONS IN SARAJEVO AND THE CONTINUED EXODUS OF BOSNIAN SERBS FROM THE CITY. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS

    TEXT: THERE IS DEEP CONCERN INSIDE NATO ABOUT THE EXODUS OF SERBS FROM SARAJEVO. IT IS FEARED THAT UNLESS THEY CAN BE MADE TO FEEL AT HOME IN THE CAPITAL CITY OF THEIR OWN COUNTRY, THERE CAN BE LITTLE HOPE FOR THE LONG-TERM PROCESS OF RECONCILIATION AND REBUILDING.

    NATO SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA SAYS BOSNIAN SERB AUTHORITIES HAVE ACTED ABOMINABLY IN FORCING PEOPLE TO LEAVE THE CAPITAL. HOWEVER, HE ALSO HAS CRITICISM FOR THE ACTIONS OF THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION. HE SAID HE FEARS THE POLITICAL SITUATION IN BOSNIA IS DETERIORATING, AND IS THREATENING TO UNDERMINE THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD.

    MR. SOLANA SAYS THAT WHILE HE IS PLEASED THAT SARAJEVO IS AGAIN UNITED, HE IS DISTRESSED THAT THIS HAS COME ABOUT IN A WAY THAT IS UNDERMINING THE VISION OF A MULTI-ETHNIC SOCIETY. AND HE APPEALED TO THE FEDERATION TO MAKE MORE OF AN EFFORT TO STAMP OUT VIOLENCE IN SARAJEVO.

    MR. SOLANA CLAIMS THAT THE FEDERATION HAS A DUTY TO PUT AN IMMEDIATE STOP TO THE ATMOSPHERE OF LAWLESSNESS AND INTIMIDATION, AND HE SUGGESTS THAT MORE POLICE MUST BE DEPLOYED IN THOSE SUBURBS WHICH HAVE BEEN HANDED OVER TO FEDERATION CONTROL.

    // OPT //

    HE MADE HIS REMARKS AS THE U-S SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER WAS PREPARING FOR TALKS IN GENEVA WITH THE FORMER WARRING FACTIONS TO DISCUSS THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD. // END OPT // MEANWHILE, NATO'S SUPREME COMMANDER IN EUROPE, GENERAL GEORGE JOULWAN, HAS ANNOUNCED THAT THE PEACE IMPLEMENTATION MISSION, I-FOR, IS ON TARGET.

    HE SAYS A NEW ZONE OF SEPARATION WILL BE PUT IN PLACE TUESDAY, ALONG THE INTER-ETHNIC BOUNDARY LINE. THIS WILL VIRTUALLY COMPETE THE PROCESS OF DIVIDING LAND BETWEEN THE TWO SIDES IN THE NEW BOSNIA, UNDER THE FORMULA AGREED AT DAYTON.

    GENERAL JOULWAN ADDED THAT WHILE THE MAIN AIM OF HIS MISSION IS TO MAINTAIN A SECURE ENVIRONMENT, HE REMAINS READY TO GIVE MORE SUPPORT TO THE CIVILIAN SIDE OF THE PEACE IMPLEMENTATION PLAN, WHICH FALLS UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH REPRESENTATIVE CARL BILDT. IN PARTICULAR, NEW HELP WILL BE OFFERED WITH TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/JF/JWH/CF
    18-Mar-96 9:17 AM EST (1417 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] RUSSIA/NATO (L-ONLY) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=3/18/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-194479
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO SECRETARY-GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA IS GOING TO MOSCOW ON A MISSION TO EASE RUSSIAN CONCERNS ABOUT PLANS TO EXPAND THE ALLIANCE INTO EASTERN EUROPE. BUT AS WE HEAR FROM PETER HEINLEIN AT VOA'S MOSCOW BUREAU, MR. SOLANA'S MESSAGE WILL BE THAT EXPANSION IS GOING AHEAD.

    TEXT: WHEN THE NATO CHIEF ARRIVES IN MOSCOW TUESDAY, HE FACES THE TASK OF PERSUADING KREMLIN LEADERS TO ACCEPT THE ALLIANCE'S EASTWARD EXPANSION--PERHAPS RIGHT UP TO THE RUSSIAN BORDER. IT IS NOT LIKELY TO BE EASY. THE SUBJECT OF NATO ENLARGEMENT IS AN EMOTIONAL ISSUE IN RUSSIA, WHICH SEES ITSELF BEING PRESSED FROM ALL SIDES AS FORMER ALLIES DEFECT TO THEIR COLD WAR ENEMY. EVERY LEADING CONTENDER IN RUSSIA'S JUNE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OPPOSES THE IDEA, INCLUDING PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN.

    ///OPT///

    IN A COMMENTARY LAST WEEK, THE COMMUNIST PARTY NEWSPAPER PRAVDA WARNED NATO EXPANSION WOULD BRING ABOUT ANOTHER DIVISION OF EUROPE, AND FORCE RUSSIA TO BUILD UP ITS NUCLEAR DETERRENT TO PROTECT ITSELF. ///END OPT/// BUT EVEN BEFORE HIS ARRIVAL, MR. SOLANA MADE CLEAR THE EXPANSION WILL TAKE PLACE, REGARDLESS OF KREMLIN OBJECTIONS. IT IS ONLY A MATTER OF TIME. NATO DIPLOMATIC SOURCES SAY THE SECRETARY-GENERAL WILL TRY TO EASE RUSSIAN FEARS BY HOLDING OUT THE PROSPECT OF A SPECIAL RELATIONSHIP, ONE THAT WOULD BRING MOSCOW CLOSER TO THE WEST THAN AT ANY TIME SINCE WORLD WAR TWO. ANALYST DMITRI TRENIN OF THE CARNEGIE ENDOWMENT FOR WORLD PEACE MOSCOW OFFICE, SAYS MR. SOLANA, A SPANIARD, MAY BE JUST THE PERSON FOR THE JOB.

    ///TRENIN ACT///

    MR. SOLANA, I THINK, IS THE RIGHT PERSON TO PRESENT THE NEW FACE OF NATO. HE COMES FROM A COUNTRY WHICH IS NOT KNOWN FOR ITS CONFRONTATION WITH THE SOVIET UNION DURING MOST OF THE COLD WAR. HIS BACKGROUND IS DIFFERENT FROM THAT OF MANY COLD WARRIORS.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. TRENIN SAID WHILE NATO EXPANSION SEEMS INEVITABLE, RUSSIA'S SECURITY INTERESTS MUST BE TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION. HE SAID THE KEY TO SUCCESS IS A "GO SLOW" APPROACH.

    ///OPT 2ND TRENIN ACT///

    WHATEVER NATO DOES, IT SHOULD BE RUSSIA FIRST, AND I'M SAYING THAT NOT BECAUSE I'M A RUSSIAN. I THINK IT WOULD BE THE RIGHT APPROACH. AND I'M ABSOLUTELY CONVINCED THE ISSUE OF TIMING IS OF ENORMOUS IMPORTANCE. IF THE ENLARGEMENT COMES EARLY, THEN A LOT OF THINGS ARE LIKELY TO GO BAD IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE WEST.

    ///END OPT ACT///

    DESPITE THE SEEMINGLY UNANIMOUS OPPOSITION IN RUSSIA, KREMLIN LEADERS HAVE HINTED THEY MAY BE WILLING TO COMPROMISE ON NATO EXPANSION. FOREIGN MINISTER YEVGENY PRIMAKOV LAST WEEK SUGGESTED ONE POSSIBILITY MIGHT BE AN AGREEMENT NOT TO MOVE THE ALLIANCE MILITARY STRUCTURE RIGHT UP TO RUSSIA'S BORDERS. SOME WESTERN DIPLOMATS HAVE SAID SUCH AN AGREEMENT COULD MEAN DENYING NATO MEMBERSHIP TO THE THREE BALTIC COUNTRIES, WHICH WERE RULED BY MOSCOW FOR MORE THAN TWO CENTURIES. MANY BALTIC CITIZENS SAY THEY STILL WORRY ABOUT RUSSIA, ESPECIALLY ITS RESURGENT COMMUNIST PARTY. BUT A SENIOR RUSSIAN MILITARY COMMANDER MONDAY SAID HIS COUNTRY POSES NO THREAT TO EUROPEAN SECURITY, AND SHOULD NOT BE FEARED. THE INTERFAX NEWS AGENCY QUOTED COLONEL GENERAL LEONTY SHEVTSOV, WHO OVERSEES RUSSIAN TROOPS IN BOSNIA, AS SAYING MOSCOW'S PARTICIPATION IN THE BOSNIAN PEACE FORCE IS EVIDENCE OF ITS COMMITMENT TO EUROPEAN STABILITY. (SIGNED)

    NEB/PH/SKH
    18-Mar-96 4:49 PM EST (2149 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] SLOVAKIA / EUROPE BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=3/18/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-32738
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AMID PERSISTENT COMPLAINTS ABOUT ITS AUTHORITARIAN STYLE OF GOVERNMENT, THERE IS AN INCREASING PERCEPTION THAT SLOVAKIA IS NO LONGER BEING VIEWED AS AN EARLY CANDIDATE FOR INTEGRATION INTO NATO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD HAS MORE FROM PRAGUE.

    TEXT: THE PROGRAMS ARE PRINTED AND THE GUEST LIST COMPLETE. BUT A PRINCIPAL NO-SHOW FOR A PRESTIGIOUS BANKING FORUM IN PRAGUE THIS WEEK (MONDAY EVENING 3-18) IS SLOVAK PRIME MINISTER VLADIMIR MECIAR.

    THIS IS NOT THE FIRST TIME THE ASSERTIVE AND UNPREDICTABLE SLOVAK LEADER HAS BEEN SEEN TO SNUB INFLUENTIAL WESTERN BUSINESS AND EVEN GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS. LAST MONTH IN BRATISLAVA, MR. MECIAR WAS OFFICIALLY SAID TO BE ILL AND THUS UNABLE TO SEE THE VISITING EUROPEAN UNION COMMISSIONER RESPONSIBLE FOR EASTERN EXPANSION, HANS VAN DEN BROEK.

    SOME E-U DIPLOMATS SCOFF AT THE SLOVAK EXPLANATION, POINTING INSTEAD TO MR. MECIAR'S FURY LAST YEAR WHEN MR. VAN DEN BROEK HAD KEPT HIM WAITING IN AN OUTER OFFICE FOR OVER AN HOUR IN BRUSSELS.

    BUT THE E-U'S PROBLEM WITH SLOVAKIA IS NOT JUST MR. MECIAR'S OFTEN ABRASIVE PERSONAL STYLE. E-U OFFICIALS OPENLY QUESTION MR. MECIAR'S COMMITMENT TO DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS. THEY MENTION THE THREE DIPLOMATIC NOTES THEY HAVE SENT TO MR. MECIAR THAT DREW ATTENTION TO HEAVY-HANDED TREATMENT OF THE NEWS MEDIA AND OF THE OVER 500-THOUSAND STRONG ETHNIC HUNGARIAN MINORITY IN SLOVAKIA.

    // OPT //

    THEY POINT ALSO TO THE 53-YEAR-OLD PRIME MINISTER'S CRUDE ATTEMPTS TO OUST THE NON-EXECUTIVE SLOVAK PRESIDENT, WHOSE SON LAST YEAR WAS KIDNAPPED BY PEOPLE BELIEVED TO HAVE CONNECTIONS WITH SLOVAKIA'S STATE SECURITY AGENCY. // END OPT //

    UNTIL RECENTLY, SLOVAKIA HAS BEEN PART OF THE FIRST GROUP OF FAST REFORMING COUNTRIES LIKELY TO GAIN EARLY ADMISSION TO NATO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION. BUT IN RECENT MONTHS E-U DIPLOMATS ARE MORE OFTEN SAYING THE FIRST GROUP INCLUDES ONLY THE CZECH REPUBLIC, POLAND AND HUNGARY.

    THIS INFORMAL DIMINUTION OF SLOVAKIA'S STANDING ANNOYS AND DISTRESSES MANY IN THE SLOVAK GOVERNMENT. THEY SAY THERE IS NO JUSTIFICATION FOR SUCH A DOWNGRADING. THEY RIGHTLY POINT OUT THAT IN ECONOMIC TERMS, SLOVAKIA IS DOING AS WELL OR BETTER THAN THE THREE FRONT RUNNER COUNTRIES. IT HAS LOWER INFLATION, RAPID GROWTH AND RISING FOREIGN CURRENCY RESERVES.

    // OPT //

    OF PARTICULAR CONCERN IS MR. MECIAR'S STATED GOAL OF SLOVAKIA BEING A BRIDGE BETWEEN EAST AND WEST. HE HAS SOUGHT INCREASED BUSINESS TIES WITH RUSSIA AND ENCOURAGED CLOSE CONNECTIONS WITH MOSCOW. AT THE SAME TIME MR. MECIAR STRESSES HIS GOVERNMENT'S DESIRE TO JOIN THE E-U AND NATO. SOME DIPLOMATS SAY HE CANNOT HAVE IT BOTH WAYS. // END OPT //

    SLOVAK OFFICIALS SAY THEIR COUNTRY IS UNFAIRLY TREATED BY THE WESTERN MEDIA. INDEED THE MECIAR GOVERNMENT HAS QUARELLED WITH RADIO FREE EUROPE AND THE OPEN SOCIETY FOUNDATION OF HUNGARIAN BORN U-S FINANCIER GEORGE SOROS.

    DIPLOMATS STRESS THINGS COULD CHANGE. THEY SAY BRATISLAVA WILL GAIN INCREASED CREDIBILITY IF IT SOON APPROVES A FRIENDSHIP TREATY WITH HUNGARY. MR. MECIAR IS STEPPING UP HIS EFFORTS TO GAIN THE SUPPORT OF HIS RIGHT WING NATIONALIST COALITION PARTNER SO THAT THE ACCORD CAN BE PASSED BY THE SLOVAK PARLIAMENT. (SIGNED)

    NEB/BDW/ADEN/CF
    18-Mar-96 11:41 AM EST (1641 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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