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Voice of America, 97-03-24

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] ALBANIA / ORPHANAGE (L-ONLY) BY KYLE KING (ELBASAN)
  • [02] ITALY / ALBANIA (L ONLY) BY PEGGY POLK (ROME)
  • [03] BOSNIA / FEDERATION BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (MOSTAR, BOSNIA)
  • [04] U-S / BOSNIA (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)
  • [05] U-S/ BOSNIA (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)
  • [06] EDITORIAL: TRUMAN DOCTRINE -- 50TH ANNIVERSARY
  • [07] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)
  • [08] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] ALBANIA / ORPHANAGE (L-ONLY) BY KYLE KING (ELBASAN)

    DATE=3/24/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211920
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RED CROSS OFFICIALS SAY MORE THAN 300-THOUSAND ALBANIANS ARE IN URGENT NEED OF HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE. THEY SAY MANY OF THE WORST OFF ARE THE HANDICAPPED AND ELDERLY WHO ARE LIVING IN INSTITUTIONS. FROM CITY OF ELBASAN IN CENTRAL ALBANIA, VOA'S KYLE KING REPORTS.

    TEXT:

    // SOUNDS OF CHILDREN, ESTABLISH AND FADE //

    AT THE ORPHANAGE RUN BY MOTHER TERESA'S MISSIONARY ORDER IN ELBASAN, SISTER LASHERISH AND HER COLLEAGUE TRY TO COAX ONE THE TRAUMATIZED CHILDREN TO SAY HELLO.

    ALTHOUGH THEY WERE SPARED ANY DIRECT ATTACK DURING THE RAMPAGE OF VIOLENCE AND LOOTING THAT SWEPT THROUGH THE COUNTRY RECENTLY, SISTER LASHERISH SAYS THE CHILDREN ARE AFRAID.

    // LASHERISH ACT //

    SURE, WHEN THEY HEAR SO MUCH SHOOTING THEY ARE REALLY FRIGHTENED, ESPECIALLY IN THE NIGHT. THEY ARE FRIGHTENED IN THEIR ROOMS.

    // END ACT //

    WITH 24 ORPHANS, RANGING IN AGE FROM THREE MONTHS TO 10 YEARS, SISTER LASHERISH SAYS THEY ARE NOW PROTECTED AT NIGHT BY A MAN WITH A GUN WHO COMES TO STAND GUARD AT THE ORPHANAGE. BUT SECURITY IS NOT HER ONLY CONCERN.

    LIKE OTHER SOCIAL SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS IN ALBANIA, THE ORPHANAGE IS RUNNING LOW ON FOOD.

    // SECOND LASHERISH ACT //

    THERE IS NO FOOD. ITS VERY DIFFICULT TO BUY, ITS VERY EXPENSIVE. EVEN YESTERDAY, I WENT TO THE MARKET, AND YOU CAN'T HARDLY GET FRUIT. AND WHAT IS THERE IS VERY EXPENSIVE.

    // END ACT //

    AND THE ORPHANAGE IN ELBASAN IS NOT ALONE.

    DOCTOR SHYQYRI SUBASHI, THE PRESIDENT OF THE ALBANIAN RED CROSS, SAYS THERE ARE ABOUT 300-THOUSAND PEOPLE AROUND THE COUNTRY WHO NEED EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE. OF THOSE, HE SAYS, ABOUT 10-THOUSAND PEOPLE ARE TRAPPED IN INSTITUTIONS.

    // SUBASHI ACT IN ALBANIAN, ESTABLISH AND FADE //

    THE PROBLEM, DOCTOR SUBASHI SAYS, IS WITH INSTITUTIONS FOR THE HANDICAPPED, OLD FOLKS HOMES, CHILDREN'S HOMES AND SOCIAL SERVICE PROVIDERS. HE SAYS THEY ARE RUNNING DANGEROUSLY LOW ON BOTH FOOD AND MEDICINES.

    // SUBASHI ACT TWO IN ALBANIAN, ESTABLISH AND FADE //

    IN THESE INSTITUTIONS, HE SAYS, THERE ARE SERIOUS NEEDS. IN SOME CHILDREN'S HOMES, THE TEACHERS HAVE HAD TO TAKE THE KIDS HOME THEMSELVES TO CARE FOR THEM.

    LIKE THE EUROPEAN UNION ASSESSMENT TEAM THAT VISITED ALBANIA LAST WEEK, THE RED CROSS SAYS THE MAIN PROBLEM NOW IS PROVIDING SECURITY FOR ANY EMERGENCY AID THAT CAN BE BROUGHT IN.

    DURING THE VIOLENCE AND ANARCHY, ALL THE RED CROSS WAREHOUSES IN THE COUNTRY WERE EITHER LOOTED OR DAMAGED. RED CROSS OFFICIALS SAY WHAT THEY WANT TO ENSURE, IS THAT ANY NEW AID THAT IS BROUGHT IN WILL REACH THOSE WHO NEED IT MOST. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/PCF
    24-Mar-97 5:08 AM EST (1008 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] ITALY / ALBANIA (L ONLY) BY PEGGY POLK (ROME)

    DATE=3/24/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211940
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ITALY HAS DECIDED TO CLOSE ITS PORTS TO ALBANIAN BOATS. PEGGY POLK IN ROME REPORTS THE ITALIAN GOVERNMENT VIEWS THE LATEST ALBANIANS CROSSING THE ADRIATIC SEA TO ITALY AS ECONOMIC MIGRANTS RATHER THAN REFUGEES FROM CIVIL DISORDER.

    TEXT: ITALY HAS TAKEN IN ABOUT 12-THOUSAND ALBANIANS SINCE MARCH 13TH, AND THE GOVERNMENT HAS DECIDED TO CALL A HALT.

    THE COMMANDER OF THE ADRIATIC PORT OF BRINDISI REPORTED HE HAS RECEIVED STRICT ORDERS TO SEND APPROACHING VESSELS BACK TO ALBANIA, UNDER TOW IF NECESSARY.

    ONLY BOATS SAILING WITH PERMISSION FROM ALBANIAN AUTHORITIES WILL BE PERMITTED TO ENTER ITALIAN PORTS.

    ITALY HAS REPATRIATED SEVERAL HUNDRED SUSPECTED CRIMINALS AND OTHER UNDESIRABLES, BUT HAD BEEN GRANTING MOST ALBANIANS PERMISSION TO REMAIN IN THE COUNTRY FOR 90 DAYS.

    NOW OFFICIALS SAY THE LATEST ARRIVALS NO LONGER APPEAR TO BE TRUE REFUGEES, FLEEING THE DISORDER THAT HAS SWEPT ALBANIA. INSTEAD, THEY ARE CONSIDERED TO BE ECONOMIC MIGRANTS -- LIKE THE 40-THOUSAND ALBANIANS WHO TRIED TO ENTER ITALY IN 1991 FOLLOWING THE FALL OF STALINIST RULE. ITALY TURNED THE ALBANIANS BACK BUT PROVIDED EUROPE'S POOREST COUNTRY WITH SORELY NEEDED FOOD AND MEDICINES.

    STOPPING THE NEW FLOW OF ALBANIANS WILL NOT BE EASY.

    ONE BOATLOAD OF ABOUT 350 ALBANIANS REACHED BRINDISI EARLY MONDAY, APPARENTLY ARRIVING JUST UNDER THE WIRE.

    AUTHORITIES LET ANOTHER BOAT CARRYING ABOUT 100 ALBANIANS INTO PORT AFTER SHOTS WERE FIRED FROM THE BOAT AT THE COAST GUARD CUTTER TOWING IT BACK TO ALBANIAN WATERS, AND PASSENGERS THREATENED TO JUMP INTO THE WATER.

    AT BRINDISI, AUTHORITIES BOARDED THE BOAT AND TOOK ONE MAN INTO CUSTODY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PP/JWH
    24-Mar-97 12:12 PM EST (1712 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] BOSNIA / FEDERATION BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (MOSTAR, BOSNIA)

    DATE=3/24/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-36020
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BOSNIA'S MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION IS THREE YEARS OLD THIS MONTH, AND MANY OF THE FEDERAL INSTITUTIONS ARE NOW IN PLACE. BUT THE U-S SPONSORED ALLIANCE REMAINS AS SHAKY AS EVER. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS AN INCIDENT IN THE SOUTHERN TOWN OF MOSTAR LAST MONTH UNDERSCORED THAT FRAGILITY.

    TEXT: IT WAS BAIRAM, THE FEAST DAY MARKING THE END OF THE ISLAMIC HOLY MONTH OF RAMADAN. A GROUP OF SEVERAL HUNDRED MUSLIMS WALKED ACROSS A WOODEN BRIDGE OVER THE FAST-RUNNING WATERS OF THE NERETVA RIVER TO VISIT FAMILY GRAVES ON THE CROAT SIDE OF MOSTAR.

    WHAT HAPPENED TO THAT SMALL PROCESSION WAS SPLASHED ACROSS THE FRONT PAGES OF THE WORLD'S PRESS, AND THERE IS A GENERAL CONSENSUS ON BOTH SIDES OF THIS STILL DIVIDED TOWN THAT IT BROUGHT BOSNIA'S MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION TO A TURNING POINT.

    WHEN THE MUSLIMS ARRIVED AT THE GRAVEYARD ON LISKA STREET, THEY WERE CONFRONTED BY A GROUP OF CROAT MEN -- SOME IN POLICE UNIFORMS, THE REMAINDER IN CIVILIAN CLOTHES.

    SCUFFLES BROKE OUT AS THE CROATS TRIED TO PUSH THE PILGRIMS BACK TOWARDS THE RIVER. AND THEN, THE CROATS OPENED FIRE. ONE MUSLIM MAN WAS KILLED, MORE THAN 20 WERE WOUNDED.

    SAFET ORUSEVIC, THE MUSLIM DEPUTY MAYOR OF MOSTAR, WAS AMONG THOSE PRESENT.

    /// ORUSEVIC ACT, IN SERBO-CROAT - FADE UNDER ///

    WE INFORMED THE CROAT AUTHORITIES OF THE PROCESSION, HE SAID, AND WE DID NOT EXPECT ANY TROUBLE. WHEN THE CROATS STARTED SHOOTING AT US, HE ADDED, IT WAS LIKE AN ATTACK ON THE FEDERATION ITSELF.

    THE INCIDENT OF FEBRUARY TENTH WAS THE WORST OUTBREAK OF VIOLENCE IN BOSNIA SINCE THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD WAS SIGNED 16 MONTHS AGO. IT OCCURRED IN FULL VIEW OF AGENTS OF THE U-N POLICE FORCE.

    THE U-N COMPILED AN EXHAUSTIVE, 61-PAGE REPORT COMPLETE WITH PHOTOGRAPHS THAT IN ALMOST EVERY RESPECT BACKED THE MUSLIM VERSION OF THE INCIDENT.

    IT ACCUSED MEMBERS OF WEST MOSTAR'S CROAT POLICE FORCE, INCLUDING THE DEPUTY CHIEF, OF FIRING POINT BLANK INTO THE CROWD OF UN-ARMED MUSLIMS. OFFICIALS OF THE HIGH REPRESENTATIVE'S OFFICE IN SARAJEVO DEMANDED THE IMMEDIATE SUSPENSION AND ARREST OF THREE OF THE CROAT OFFICERS.

    THE RESPONSE FROM THE CROAT LEADERSHIP HAS BEEN ONE OF COLLECTIVE DENIAL.

    /// PULJIC ACT, IN SERBO-CROAT - FADE UNDER ///

    MILE PULJIC, LOCAL HEAD OF THE CROATIAN DEMOCRATIC UNION, DESCRIBED THE U-N REPORT AS UNSATISFACTORY. HE INSISTED THAT MOSTAR'S MUSLIM LEADERS PROVOKED THE VIOLENCE IN ORDER TO BRING MORE INTERNATIONAL PRESSURE TO BEAR ON THE CROAT COMMUNITY.

    IN THE IMMEDIATE AFTERMATH OF THE FEBRUARY TENTH INCIDENT, TENSIONS IN MOSTAR REACHED A BOILING POINT.

    MORE MUSLIMS WERE EVICTED FROM THEIR HOMES IN WEST MOSTAR. CROATS WHO VENTURED ACROSS THE RIVER WERE BEATEN BY GANGS OF MUSLIM YOUTHS. SHOTS WERE FIRED ACROSS THE FORMER FRONT LINE. AFTER GRENADES WERE FIRED AT NATO PATROLS IN WEST MOSTAR, THE PEACEKEEPING FORCE STEPPED UP ITS PRESENCE IN THE CITY, ENFORCING A NIGHT-TIME CURFEW.

    DURING THE PAST FEW WEEKS, THE TENSIONS HAVE EASED SOMEWHAT. UNDER STRONG INTERNATIONAL PRESSURE, CROAT AUTHORITIES HAVE HALTED THE EVICTIONS OF MUSLIM RESIDENTS OF WEST MOSTAR. AND POLICE FROM NEIGHBORING CROATIA HAVE JOINED IN A CRACKDOWN AGAINST CROAT GANG LEADERS, WIDELY ACCUSED OF PROVOKING CONTINUED ETHNIC TENSIONS IN THE CITY.

    THE LOCAL DIRECTOR OF THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY, NEIL WRIGHT, SAID BOTH SIDES SEEM TO HAVE STEPPED BACK FROM THE ABYSS.

    /// WRIGHT ACT ///

    THE SECURITY INCIDENT ON THE TENTH (OF FEBRUARY) IS CERTAINLY A TURNING POINT. IT ONCE AGAIN BROUGHT TO EVERYBODY'S ATTENTION THE LEVEL OF HORROR, AMONG THE INTERNATIONAL ACTORS PARTICULARLY, AND NOW I HOPE AMONG THE LOCAL LEADERS AS WELL, THAT SUCH A FLAGRANT HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE COULD CONTINUE SO LONG AFTER DAYTON.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT CROAT LEADERS ARE STILL REFUSING TO COMPLY WITH DEMANDS FOR THE PUNISHMENT OF THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE FEBRUARY TENTH INCIDENT.

    THE THREE POLICE OFFICERS BLAMED FOR THE SHOOTING WERE GIVEN SUSPENDED SENTENCES BY A CROAT COURT. AND THAT SAME COURT HAS FILED CHARGES AGAINST 11 MUSLIMS, INCLUDING DEPUTY MAYOR ORUSEVIC, ACCUSED OF PROVOKING THE INCIDENT.

    MUSLIM LEADERS HERE SAY THE FATE OF THE FEDERATION HINGES ON A CHANGE IN THE CROAT ATTITUDE. A PROMINENT BROADCASTER IN EAST MOSTAR, SENAD EVICA, SAYS THE TWO COMMUNITIES ARE NOW AT A CROSSROADS.

    /// EVICA ACT, IN SERBO-CROAT - FADE UNDER ///

    WE HAVE REACHED A WALL, HE SAID, AND IT IS TIME TO TAKE OFF OUR MASKS AND PLACE OUR CARDS ON THE TABLE. EITHER WE DECIDE TO BREAK DOWN THE BARRIER AND MOVE FORWARD, HE SAID, OR THE WHOLE PROJECT WILL COLLAPSE, AND THERE WILL BE NO MORE FEDERATION.

    IRONICALLY, MILE PULJIC OF THE CROATIAN DEMOCRATIC UNION, FULLY SHARES THAT ASSESSMENT.

    /// PULJIC ACT, IN SERBO-CROAT ///

    YES, THERE IS A WALL, HE SAID, AND WE DO HAVE TO MAKE A DECISION. BUT WE CROATS FAVOR SEPARATION, HE SAID, ADDING THAT HE IS VERY PESSIMISTIC ABOUT THE FEDERATION. IT IS NOT AN ALLIANCE MADE BY THE PEOPLE, SAID MR. PULJIC, BUT BY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY. AND THE FEDERATION CAN ONLY BE AS STRONG AS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY MAKES IT.

    INDEPENDENT ANALYSTS HERE SAY THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER WESTERN POWERS HAVE INVESTED TOO MUCH IN THE FEDERATION TO ALLOW IT TO COLLAPSE. BUT THEY ACKNOWLEDGE THAT, FOR THE TIME BEING AT LEAST, THE MUSLIM-CROAT ALLIANCE IS AS SHAKY AS THAT WOODEN BRIDGE OVER THE NERETVA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DBR/JWH
    24-Mar-97 10:58 AM EST (1558 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] U-S / BOSNIA (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=3/24/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211963
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BOSNIAN PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC SAYS THERE CAN BE NO REAL PEACE IN HIS COUNTRY AS LONG AS INDICTED BOSNIAN SERB WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS REMAIN AT LARGE. THE BOSNIAN LEADER IS IN THE UNITED STATES FOR TALKS THAT WILL INCLUDE A MEETING WITH PRESIDENT CLINTON WEDNESDAY. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS A REPORT FROM THE DEFENSE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: MR. IZETBEGOVIC SAYS THE INDICTED BOSNIAN SERBS -- IN PARTICULAR, FORMER PRESIDENT RADOVAN KARADZIC -- STILL INFLUENCE SERB POLITICS. AND HE SAYS THERE CAN BE NO REAL PEACE UNTIL MR. KARADZIC AND THE FORMER SERB MILITARY CHIEF, RATKO MLADIC, ARE SENT TO THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL AT THE HAGUE.

    THE BOSNIAN PRESIDENT SPOKE AT A PHOTO SESSION WITH (U-S) DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN, NORMALLY A VENUE FOR DIPLOMATIC NICETIES. BUT MR. IZETBEGOVIC SAID HE WOULD INSIST THAT THE UNITED STATES DO MORE ON THE WAR CRIMES ISSUE AND ACCELERATE THE PROGRAM TO RE-ARM AND TRAIN THE ARMY OF THE MUSLIM / CROAT FEDERATION.

    HE SAID THE U-S SPONSORED PROGRAM IS ONLY 20 PERCENT COMPLETE AND COMPLICATED BY THE FACT THAT THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE IGNORED OBLIGATIONS UNDER THE DAYTON PEACE PROCESS TO REDUCE THEIR ARMAMENTS.

    MR. COHEN REITERATED HIS DETERMINATION TO SEE THE NATO-LED PEACEKEEPING OPERATION IN BOSNIA END ON SCHEDULE IN JUNE OF NEXT YEAR. MR. IZETBEGOVIC MADE CLEAR HE WANTS TO SEE AN OPEN-ENDED COMMITMENT AND THAT, IN HIS VIEW, A 1998 PULLOUT IS FEASIBLE ONLY IF THE EQUIP-AND-TRAIN PROGRAM IS COMPLETED, THE SERBS DISARM, AND BOSNIA IS ADMITTED TO NATO'S "PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE." (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/CB/RRM
    24-Mar-97 5:45 PM EST (2245 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] U-S/ BOSNIA (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=3/24/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211966
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BOSNIAN PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC SAYS THERE CAN BE NO REAL PEACE IN HIS COUNTRY AS LONG AS INDICTED BOSNIAN SERB WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS REMAIN AT LARGE. THE BOSNIAN LEADER IS IN THE UNITED STATES FOR TALKS THAT WILL INCLUDE A MEETING WITH PRESIDENT CLINTON WEDNESDAY. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS A REPORT FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: MR. IZETBEGOVIC SAYS THE INDICTED BOSNIAN SERBS -- AND IN PARTICULAR FORMER PRESIDENT RADOVAN KARADZIC -- STILL INFLUENCE SERB POLITICS. AND HE SAYS THERE CAN BE NO REAL PEACE UNTIL MR. KARADZIC AND THE FORMER SERB MILITARY CHIEF, RATKO MLADIC, ARE SENT TO THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL AT THE HAGUE.

    THE BOSNIAN PRESIDENT SPOKE AT A PHOTO SESSION WITH DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN, NORMALLY A VENUE FOR DIPLOMATIC NICETIES. BUT MR. IZETBEGOVIC SAID HE WOULD INSIST THAT THE UNITED STATES DO MORE ON THE WAR CRIMES ISSUE, AND ACCELERATE THE PROGRAM TO REARM AND TRAIN THE ARMY OF THE MUSLIM/CROAT FEDERATION.

    HE SAID THE U-S SPONSORED PROGRAM IS ONLY 20 PER CENT COMPLETE, AND COMPLICATED BY THE FACT THAT THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE IGNORED OBLIGATIONS UNDER THE DAYTON PEACE PROCESS TO REDUCE THEIR ARMAMENTS.

    MR. COHEN REITERATED HIS DETERMINATION TO SEE THE NATO-LED PEACEKEEPING OPERATION IN BOSNIA END ON SCHEDULE IN JUNE OF NEXT YEAR. MR. IZETBEGOVIC MADE CLEAR HE WANTS TO SEE AN OPEN-ENDED COMMITMENT, AND THAT IN HIS VIEW A 1998 PULLOUT IS FEASIBLE ONLY IF THE EQUIP AND TRAIN PROGRAM IS COMPLETED, THE SERBS DISARM, AND BOSNIA IS ADMITTED TO NATO'S PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/LWM
    24-Mar-97 6:18 PM EST (2318 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] EDITORIAL: TRUMAN DOCTRINE -- 50TH ANNIVERSARY

    DATE= MARCH 25, 1997
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-07207
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    MARCH 25, 1997.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL REFLECTING AMERICAN IDEALS AND INSTITUTIONS.

    VOICE:

    THIS MONTH MARKS THE FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF A PRESIDENTIAL SPEECH THAT REDEFINED AMERICA'S RELATIONSHIP WITH THE REST OF THE WORLD. ON MARCH 12TH, 1947, PRESIDENT HARRY TRUMAN CALLED ON THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS TO PROVIDE ECONOMIC AND MILITARY AID TO GREECE AND TURKEY. BOTH COUNTRIES WERE IN GRAVE DANGER OF BEING TAKEN OVER BY COMMUNISTS. GREECE WAS BATTLING INSURGENTS WHO ENJOYED SANCTUARY IN NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES UNDER SOVIET CONTROL. TURKEY FACED MOUNTING PRESSURES FROM THE SOVIET UNION ITSELF.

    BUT THE ISSUE WENT BEYOND GREECE AND TURKEY. PRESIDENT TRUMAN RECOGNIZED THE SOVIET UNION'S DRIVE FOR EXPANSION, INCLUDING ITS TIGHTENING GRIP ON EASTERN EUROPE AND ITS SEARCH FOR A FOOTHOLD IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AND THE PERSIAN GULF. THAT RECOGNITION -- AND THE PLEDGE TO CONTAIN COMMUNIST EXPANSION -- BECAME KNOWN AS THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE.

    THE THREAT FACED BY GREECE AND TURKEY WAS ONE FACING ALL FREE NATIONS. THAT THREAT CAME FROM A SYSTEM, IN PRESIDENT TRUMAN'S WORDS, "BASED UPON THE WILL OF A MINORITY FORCIBLY IMPOSED UPON THE MAJORITY. IT RELIES UPON TERROR AND OPPRESSION, A CONTROLLED PRESS AND RADIO, FIXED ELECTIONS, AND THE SUPPRESSION OF PERSONAL FREEDOMS." PRESIDENT TRUMAN DECLARED THAT "IT MUST BE THE POLICY OF THE UNITED STATES TO SUPPORT FREE PEOPLES WHO ARE RESISTING ATTEMPTED SUBJUGATION BY ARMED MINORITIES OR BY OUTSIDE PRESSURES."

    THIS POLICY SIGNALED A SHARP BREAK WITH AMERICA'S EARLIER EFFORTS TO STAND ALOOF FROM WORLD AFFAIRS. BY THE MID-TWENTIETH CENTURY, AS PRESIDENT TRUMAN AND OTHER AMERICAN LEADERS RECOGNIZED, IT HAD BECOME NECESSARY FOR THE U.S. TO MAINTAIN A STRONG INTERNATIONAL PRESENCE IN TIMES OF PEACE, AS WELL AS WAR.

    THE ENUNCIATION OF THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE WAS FOLLOWED BY THE MARSHALL PLAN, WHICH INCLUDED LARGE AMOUNTS OF AMERICAN AID TO HELP REBUILD THE ECONOMIES OF EUROPE'S WAR-TORN NATIONS. IN 1949, THE U.S. AND CANADA JOINED WITH WEST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES TO FORM THE NATO ALLIANCE. FOR THE NEXT FOUR DECADES, NATO STOOD FIRM AGAINST SOVIET EXPANSION. TODAY, THE COLD WAR IS OVER, BUT NATO STILL GUARDS AGAINST POTENTIAL THREATS TO EUROPEAN SECURITY. AND THE U.S. CONTINUES TO MAINTAIN A STRONG PRESENCE NOT ONLY IN EUROPE BUT THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL REFLECTING AMERICAN IDEALS AND INSTITUTIONS. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR.
    24-Mar-97 2:01 PM EST (1901 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

    DATE=3/24/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211945
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SHARE PRICES WERE MIXED IN TRADING MONDAY ON MAJOR EUROPEAN MARKETS. V-O-A'S JACK HUIZENGA HAS THE CLOSING MARKET REPORT FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: STOCK PRICES WERE UP IN GERMANY ON MONDAY, BUT DROPPED IN BOTH BRITAIN AND FRANCE.

    IN FRANKFURT, STOCKS ROSE DESPITE CONCERNS ABOUT A POSSIBLE BOOST IN U-S INTEREST RATES. THE DAX-30 INDEX FINISHED THE DAY UP BY MORE THAN 23 POINTS, ABOUT SEVEN-TENTHS OF ONE PERCENT.

    PRICES WERE OFF SHARPLY IN LONDON -- THE SIXTH CONSECUTIVE DECLINE. THE FOOTSIE-100 INDEX CLOSED DOWN 40 POINTS, ABOUT NINE-TENTHS PERCENT.

    AND IN PARIS, THE CAC-40 INDEX FINISHED DOWN ALMOST EIGHT POINTS, ABOUT THREE-TENTHS PERCENT.

    ON THE LONDON CURRENCY EXCHANGE, THE U-S DOLLAR ROSE IN VALUE AGAINST THE JAPANESE YEN AND THE GERMAN MARK, BUT IT LOST VALUE AGAINST THE BRITISH POUND. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JWH/MMK
    24-Mar-97 1:28 PM EST (1828 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=03/24/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10081
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON MONDAY MARCH 24TH //

    INTRO: AMERICA'S DAILY PAPERS ARE STILL COMMENTING THIS MONDAY ON THE JUST-COMPLETED U-S - RUSSIAN SUMMIT IN HELSINKI. OTHER EDITORIALS INCLUDE COMMENTS ON THE LATEST TENSIONS IN THE MIDDLE EAST; AN ADMISSION ABOUT SMOKING BY CIGARETTE COMPANIES; COMMENTS ON THE HIRING OF MERCENARIES; AND A BIG DECISION FOR THE PRESIDENT ON BURMA.

    NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS ___________________ IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: ONE OF THE COMMENTS ON THE SUMMIT MEETING IS A SUGGESTION IN MONDAY'S HARTFORD COURANT THAT RUSSIA BE MADE A FULL PARTNER OF NATO NOW.

    VOICE: "PRESIDENT CLINTON TOLD RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN AT THEIR SUMMIT ... NOT TO FEAR THE [NATO] EXPANSION. DON'T BLAME MR. YELTSIN IF HE DOES NOT BUY THE ASSURANCE. NATO IS A MILITARY ORGANIZATION. ADMITTING POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC WOULD BRING NATO SOLDIERS TO RUSSIA'S DOORSTEP. .... WHAT MAJOR POWER WOULD LIKE TO HAVE SUCH A MIGHTY MILITARY MACHINE SURROUND IT PERMANENTLY? ..... STILL, THE REALITY IS THAT NATO WILL PROBABLY EXPAND SOON. THE WESTERN ALLIANCE, LED BY THE UNITED STATES, HAS DETERMINED THAT THE PLUSES OUTWEIGH THE MINUSES. PERHAPS THE BENEFITS WILL BECOME OBVIOUS IF NATO USES ITS POWER EFFECTIVELY TO STEM POTENTIAL BRUSH FIRES IN EUROPE BEFORE THEY TURN INTO BLOODBATHS. BUT PREVENTIVE MEASURES ARE FARE MORE LIKELY TO SUCCEED IF RUSSIA PARTICIPATES AS A FULL PARTNER. .... AND IF THE WEST WANTS RUSSIA'S DEMOCRATICALLY ELECTED PARLIAMENT TO RATIFY THE SALT TWO TREATY, NATO MEMBERSHIP FOR MOSCOW WILL MAKE A BIG DIFFERENCE."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: USA TODAY IS PLEASED WITH THE SUMMIT'S RESULTS, CALLING IT A "WIN-WIN" MEETING FOR BOTH SIDES.

    VOICE: "[PRESIDENT] YELTSIN BASICALLY CAVED [GAVE IN] ON NATO'S PLAN TO OFFER MEMBERSHIP TO FORMER SOVIET BLOC SATELLITES IN EUROPE. IT WAS A NOTABLE WIN FOR [MR.] CLINTON ..... WHO HAD PUSHED FOR ENLARGEMENT OF THE ALLIANCE DESPITE WARNINGS THAT THIS COULD UNDERCUT [MR.] YELTSIN'S POWER TO REFORM. .... ON FRIDAY, THE RUSSIAN PRESIDENT PROMISED [PRESIDENT] CLINTON THAT HE WOULD PUSH HIS PARLIAMENT TO DO WHAT IT PREVIOUSLY REFUSED TO DO: RATIFY THE SECOND CHAPTER OF THE STRATEGIC ARMS REDUCTION TREATY (START TWO) , WHICH CUTS NUCLEAR ARSENALS OF BOTH COUNTRIES. .... (MR.) CLINTON WIDELY MADE [PRESIDENT YELTSIN''S TASK EASIER BY OFFERING ECONOMIC INITIATIVES AND BY GIVING RUSSIA MORE TIME TO MEET ITS TREATY DEMANDS."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TODAY'S WALL STREET JOURNAL TAKES A VERY DIFFERENT VIEW, SUGGESTING IT WAS DISAPPOINTED WITH AGREEMENTS ON MISSILE LIMITATION AND U-S MISSILE DEFENSE.

    VOICE: "BILL CLINTON RETURNED FROM THE HELSINKI SUMMIT ... CLAIMING SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS. ON CLOSER INSPECTION, THEY ARE NOT ALTOGETHER EVIDENT. THE MOST IMPORTANT ISSUE DISCUSSED WITH RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN WAS NUCLEAR MISSILES AND MISSILE DEFENSE, AND IT IS HERE THAT THE AGREEMENT REACHED WAS THE MOST AMBIGUOUS. .... HE [PRESIDENT CLINTON] AGREED TO LIMIT THE CAPABILITY OF U-S THEATER [DEFENDS AGAINST SHORT-RANGE MISSILE] SYSTEMS; THEY CANNOT BE TESTED AGAINST ENEMY MISSILES THAT CAN TRAVEL FURTHER THAN 35-HUNDRED KILOMETERS OR FASTER THAN FIVE KILOMETERS PER SECOND. HE ALSO PLEDGED A YEARLY EXCHANGE OF DETAILED INFORMATION ON THE SYSTEMS AND TO 'NOT DEVELOP, TEST OR DEPLOY SPACE-BASED THEATER MISSILE DEFENSE INTERCEPTORS.' SPACE SYSTEMS JUST HAPPEN TO BE THE MOST EFFECTIVE FORM OF MISSILE DEFENSE."

    TEXT: TODAY'S WASHINGTON POST IS CONCERNED ABOUT THE RHETORIC THAT FOLLOWED THE LATEST TERRORIST ACT IN ISRAEL.

    VOICE: "ISRAELI LEADER ... BINYAMIN NETANYAHU YESTERDAY AGAIN ACCUSED YASSER ARAFAT'S PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY OF GIVING A 'GREEN LIGHT' [PERMISSION] TO THE TERRORISTS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE LATEST SUICIDE BOMBING IN TEL AVIV ..... NO COUNTRY CAN BE EXPECTED TO PUT UP WITH 'THE MENTALITY THAT SAYS IF WE HAVE A DISAGREEMENT WITH SOMEONE WE CAN GO AND BLOW THEM UP.' THAT IS THE ANTITHESIS OF WHAT A NEGOTIATION OUGHT TO BE. [HOWEVER] ..... EVEN AS MR. NETANYAHU INSISTS THAT THE PALESTINIANS CONTAIN THEIR FRUSTRATION AND NOT ABANDON NEGOTIATION FOR VIOLENCE, ON JERUSALEM HE SHORT-CIRCUITS NEGOTIATION. ..... MR. NETANYAHU MUST RECALCULATE AN ISRAELI GOVERNMENT STRATEGY THAT, IN SOME OF ITS ASPECTS, NOT YASSER ARAFAT BUT LEADING [ISRAELI] LABOR [PARTY] LIGHT EHUD BARAK WARNS 'MAY LEAD TO VIOLENCE.' THE JERUSALEM ISSUE SHOULD GO BACK ON THE TABLE."

    TEXT: HERE AT HOME, THE ADMISSION BY THE LIGGETT CIGARETTE CORPORATION THAT THEIR PRODUCT CAN CAUSE CANCER, IS ADDICTIVE AND HAS BEEN MARKETED TO CHILDREN, CAME AS A BOMBSHELL IN THE VARIOUS LAW SUITS AGAINST TOBACCO COMPANIES. NEWSDAY IS CALLING FOR THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TO MOVE QUICKER TO REGULATE TOBACCO USE.

    VOICE: " ..... IT [THE LIGGETT ADMISSIONS] COULD DESTROY THEIR [THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY] ARGUMENTS AGAINST REGULATION OF NICOTINE BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, WHICH HAS ALREADY TAKEN STEPS TO HEAD OFF THE COMPANIES' EFFORT TO PEDDLE THEIR PRODUCT TO CHILDREN. THAT'S ESSENTIAL, BECAUSE IT'S ALL TOO CLEAR THAT KNOWING CIGARETTES ARE LETHAL DOESN'T PREVENT PEOPLE FROM SMOKING."

    TEXT: THE BALTIMORE SUN DISCUSSES THE ISSUE OF MERCENARIES IN TWO RECENT SITUATIONS, ZAIRE AND PAPUA NEW GUINEA, WHERE THEY WERE NOT SUCCESSFUL.

    VOICE: "TWO SPECTACULAR DEFEATS OF MERCENARY FORCES BY THE TROOPS THEY WERE MEANT TO TRAIN, IN RECENT DAYS, MAY KILL THAT FAD. .... MOBUTU SESE SEKO, THE DICTATOR OF ZAIRE, HIRED FRENCH AND SERB MERCENARIES .... TO DEFEND THE CRUCIAL CONGO RIVER PORT OF KISANGANI FROM ZAIRIAN REBELS. MERCENARIES WHO MAY HAVE BEEN WAR CRIMINALS IN BOSNIA BEHAVED AS SUCH IN KISANGANI, MURDERING ON WHIM. ZAIRIAN SOLDIERS WHO WERE UNWILLING TO FIGHT REBELS TURNED THEIR GUNS ON THE MERCENARIES, HASTENING THEIR DEPARTURE DOWNRIVER TO KINSHASA AND, PRESUMABLY, SERBIA. THE PRIME MINISTER OF PAPUA-NEW GUINEA ... SIR JULIUS CHAN, HIRED A BRITISH CONSULTANT FIRM ... TO TRAIN HIS ARMY TO SUPPRESS A SECESSIONIST REBELLION ON THE NEARBY ISLAND OF BOUGAINVILLE. THE ARMY..... OBJECTED TO THE 70 [FOREIGN] INSTRUCTORS AND TO BLOOD-SPILLING ON BOUGAINVILLE. IN QUICK ORDER .... THE ARMY MUTINIED AND ROUTED THE MERCENARIES, MOBS LOOTED [THE CAPITOL OF] PORT MORESBY, TENSION ROSE BETWEEN THE ARMY AND POLICE ..... AND THE MOB DEMANDED THE RESIGNATION OF SIR JULIUS."

    TEXT: LASTLY, IN ANOTHER ASIAN ISSUE, THE NEW YORK TIMES SAYS IT IS TIME FOR PRESIDENT CLINTON TO IMPOSE SANCTIONS AGAINST BURMA FOR ITS HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES.

    VOICE: "THE DECISION WHETHER TO APPLY SANCTIONS TO MYANMAR FOR ITS HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES NOW RESTS WITH PRESIDENT CLINTON. LAST JULY, CONGRESS PASSED A LAW CALLING FOR A BAN ON NEW AMERICAN INVESTMENT IN MYANMAR IF THAT COUNTRY'S REPRESSIVE GOVERNMENT HARMED OR REARRESTED THE DEMOCRACY LEADER DAW AUNG SAN SUU KYI OR CRACKED DOWN ON THE DEMOCRACY MOVEMENT. ..... FOR THE SAKE NOT ONLY OF DEMOCRACY IN MYANMAR, BUT ALSO OF AMERICAN CREDIBILITY WHEN DEALING WITH OTHER DICTATORIAL REGIMES, PRESIDENT CLINTON SHOULD INVOKE THE LAW."

    TEXT: THAT CONCLUDES THIS BRIEF LOOK AT SOME OF THE EDITORIALS IN TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/NL
    24-Mar-97 11:27 AM EST (1627 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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