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Voice of America, 98-01-05

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] CONFLICT RESOLUTION: PSYCHOLOGY OF VICTIMIZATION BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] CZECH POLITICS (L ONLY) BY ART CHIMES (PRAGUE)
  • [03] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [04] FRANCE VIOLENCE (L-ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)
  • [05] GERMANY / KURDS (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)
  • [06] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [07] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [08] NORTHERN IRELAND (L-ONLY) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)
  • [09] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L-ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

  • [01] CONFLICT RESOLUTION: PSYCHOLOGY OF VICTIMIZATION BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=1/05/98
    TYPE=WORLDWIDE ENGLISH FEATURE
    NUMBER=7-17825
    TELEPHONE=619-3464
    EDITOR=GARY EDQUIST
    CONTENT= (TAPE CUTS IN AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: WAR, VIOLENCE, AND ETHNIC CONFLICT CREATE VICTIMS, WHO MAY IN TURN VICTIMIZE OTHERS -- OVER YEARS AND ACROSS GENERATIONS. SOME DIPLOMATS AND MEDIATORS WHO TRY TO RESOLVE INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES ARE EXPLORING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ROOTS OF THE PROCESS OF "VICTIMIZATION,"

    WHICH AFFECTS CERTAIN ETHNIC GROUPS AND NATIONS. VOA'S

    JUDITH LATHAM HAS TALKED WITH A FORMER U.S. DIPLOMAT WHOSE WORK IS NOW DEVOTED TO PREVENTING DEADLY CONFLICT AND TO UNDERSTANDING THE HUMAN AND HISTORICAL FORCES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO IT. HERE'S ____ WITH A REPORT.

    TEXT: FORMER STATE DEPARTMENT CAREER DIPLOMAT JOSEPH MONTVILLE NOW DIRECTS THE PREVENTIVE DIPLOMACY PROGRAM AT THE CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES IN WASHINGTON, D-C. HE SAYS HIS WORK IN CONFLICT RESOLUTION, AT BOTH THE OFFICIAL AND NON-OFFICIAL LEVEL, DRAWS ON THE FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY. MR. MONTVILLE HAS COLLABORATED OVER THE YEARS WITH THE TURKISH CYPRIOT-AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIST, VAMIK VOLKAN. HE WROTE THE INTRODUCTION TO DR. VOLKAN'S BOOK, "THE NEED TO HAVE ENEMIES AND ALLIES." THE BOOK, SAYS JOE MONTVILLE, HELPED TO EXPLAIN THE ROOTS OF HUMAN VIOLENCE AND CONFLICT.

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- MONTVILLE (0:52) "WE BOTH BELIEVED THAT JUST SIMPLY FEELING GOOD TOWARDS HUMANKIND AND HAVING THE RIGHT KIND OF MOTIVES IS NOT SUFFICIENT IN DEALING WITH POTENTIAL CONFLICT. IF YOU'RE REALLY GOING TO BE EFFECTIVE, YOU HAVE TO HAVE A POWERFUL ANALYTICAL APPROACH TOWARDS UNDERSTANDING THE ROOTS THAT GENERATE POTENTIAL VIOLENCE AND CONFLICT, IN IDENTITY RELATIONSHIPS, INTERNATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS, AND INTERETHNIC RELATIONSHIPS. AND SO, THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE BOOK WAS THAT IT EXPLAINED IN SCIENTIFIC TERMS, IN CLINICAL TERMS, HOW 'ENEMIES' OR 'OUTSIDERS' HELP HUMAN BEINGS DEFINE WHO THEY ARE BY WHO THEY ARE NOT. [OPT] THE DILEMMA IN HUMAN RELATIONS IS THAT THESE IDENTIFICATIONS WITH IDENTITY GROUPS, NATIONS, OR TRIBES CAN BE EXASCERBATED BY EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCES, INVASION, ECONOMIC DISASTER, AND LEAD TO EXTREME NATIONALISM AND VIOLENCE IN DEFENSE OF THE SELF." [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE TRAGIC RESULT OF THIS NORMAL HUMAN PHENOMENON OF IDENTIFYING ALLIES AND ENEMIES, MR. MONTVILLE SAYS, IS THAT IT LEADS TO VICTIMIZING CERTAIN GROUPS OR NATIONS.

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- MONTVILLE (0:25) "WHEN A GROUP OR NATION HAS BEEN THE VICTIM OF SOME KIND OF TRAUMATIC AGGRESSION, WHERE THEY'VE SUSTAINED SIGNIFICANT LOSSES, THEY DEVELOP A PSYCHOLOGY OF VICTIMHOOD, WHICH UNDERMINES THEIR SENSE OF JUSTICE IN THE WORLD, BUT IS ALSO SUSTAINED BY THEIR FEAR THAT THE AGGRESSOR WILL TRY AGAIN TO HURT THEM AND CAUSE THEM GREATER LOSSES. SO, THE PSYCHOLOGY OF VICTIMHOOD IS WHAT SUSTAINS WHAT ARE CALLED 'INTRACTABLE' ETHNIC AND SECTARIAN CONFLICTS."

    TEXT: MR. MONTVILLE SAYS THE VICTIMIZATION OF NATIONS OR ETHNIC GROUPS DESTROYS THE NORMAL HUMAN DEFENSIVE STRUCTURE. IT EXPOSES THE VICTIMS TO UNRELIEVED ANXIETY ABOUT REAL THREATS TO THEIR EXISTENCE. AND, HE SAYS, IT PRODUCES A NEED FOR CONSTANT DEFENSIVE ACTION -- WHETHER THAT TAKES THE FORM OF CYNICISM, VIOLENCE, OR TERRORISM -- TO ASSURE SURVIVAL IN WHAT IS SEEN AS A RELENTLESSLY HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT. MOST IMPORTANT, HE ADDS, BELIEVING THERE WAS NO JUSTIFICATION FOR THE VIOLENCE AGAINST THEM, VICTIMS FEAR THE PERPETRATOR WILL CONTINUE, OR RESUME, THE VIOLENCE AT ANY TIME. SOME OF THE MOST OBVIOUS EXAMPLES OF THIS PROCESS OF VICTIMIZATION INCLUDE THE STRIFE IN NORTHERN IRELAND, THE ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN CONFLICT, THE GENOCIDE IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, AND THE VIOLENCE AGAINST ROMA, OR GYPSIES, IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE. NONETHELESS, MR. MONTVILLE SAYS, THERE ARE WAYS TO DISMANTLE THOSE DEFENSES BROUGHT ABOUT BY A PROLONGED EXPERIENCE OF VICTIMIZATION.

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- MONTVILLE (0:49) "I'VE COME TO THE CONCLUSION, AFTER PERSONALLY EXPERIENCING THE POTENTIAL FOR CHANGE IN RELATIONSHIPS AMONG VICTIMS OF ETHNIC CONFLICT, THAT THE FIRST STEP IN ANY TRANSFORMATION OF A RELATIONSHIP TO SOMETHING HEALTHIER REQUIRES AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT ON THE PART OF THE AGGRESSORS OR THEIR DESCENDANTS OF THE TRAGEDY OF THE PAST, OF THE EXISTENTIAL INJUSTICE OF WHAT HAPPENED AND SOME EXPRESSION OF CONTRITION, AN APOLOGY. IF THAT IS CONVEYED WITH ANY SENSE OF PERSUASIVENESS -- AND ONLY THE VICTIMS KNOW AND CAN MAKE THE JUDGMENT ABOUT HOW SINCERE IT IS -- THEN THIS TRANSACTION CAN BE COMPLETED BY SOME EXPRESSION OF FORGIVENESS ON THE PART OF THE VICTIMS OR THE DESCENDANTS OF THE VICTIMS. TO FORGIVE, WITHOUT HAVING ACKNOWLEDGMENT AND CONTRITION ON THE PART OF THE AGGRESSOR OF THE DESCENDENTS, MEANS THEY'RE SIMPLY INVITING THE AGGRESSOR TO COME IN AND HURT THEM AGAIN."

    TEXT: PART OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESS OF PREPARING FOR CONFLICT WITH YOUR ENEMY OR OF DEFENDING YOURSELF AGAINST ATTACKS BY YOUR ENEMY, MR. MONTVILLE SAYS, IS DEHUMANIZING "THE OTHER."

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- MONTVILLE (0:57) "THE HUMAN MIND REQUIRES A CERTAIN DEHUMANIZATION OF THE OTHER, OF THE ENEMY, BEFORE YOU CAN ACTUALLY ORGANIZE YOURSELF TO KILL THEM. THIS HAS BEEN DOCUMENTED IN SO MANY WAYS -- IN PREPARING TORTURES, FOR INSTANCE. THERE'S A FASCINATING STUDY ABOUT HOW GREEK TORTURERS UNDER THE REGIME OF THE COLONELS IN THE 1970'S WERE GRADUALLY BRUTALIZED SO THEY COULD ACTUALLY TORTURE THEIR VICTIMS AND NOT FEEL TOO BAD ABOUT IT. [OPT] THE SAME GOES FOR KHMER ROUGE RECRUITS, TRIBAL OR MOUNTAIN KIDS RECRUITED AT AGE 12 AND TAUGHT HOW TO KILL SMALL ANIMALS BEFORE THEY COULD BE RAISED TO THE LEVEL OF KILLING FELLOW HUMANS. [END OPT] ONE SIDE WILL USE DEGRADING TERMS LIKE CALLING THE OTHER SIDE 'ANIMALS' OR 'INSECTS.' [OPT] AMERICANS DID IT WITH JAPANESE IN WORLD WAR II. [END OPT] UNFORTUNATELY, THAT'S A CHARACTERISTIC OF WAR. WHEN YOU'RE TRYING TO HEAL RELATIONSHIPS, THE TASK IS TO REHUMANIZE, TO RECOGNIZE THAT ALL OF THE STEREOTYPES WE USE TO MOBILIZE OURSELVES TO FIGHT AND KILL OUR ENEMIES WERE WRONG AND UNJUST."

    TEXT: THE PROCESS OF REHUMANIZATION, OF HEALING RELATIONSHIPS WITH A LONG HISTORY OF VICTIMIZATION, JOE MONTVILLE OF THE CENTER FOR STATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES SAYS, IS AT THE HEART OF HIS WORK WITH THE PREVENTIVE DIPLOMACY PROGRAM. (OPT) IN THE NEXT SEGMENT OF THIS SERIES ON "CONFLICT RESOLUTION," A LOOK AT TRACK TWO DIPLOMACY -- OR UNOFFICIAL, NON-GOVERNMENTAL CONTACTS TO PREVENT CONFLICT -- AND HOW SOMETIMES IT CAN LEAD TO FORMAL AGREEMENTS AT THE OFFICIAL, GOVERNMENTAL LEVEL.

    [END OPT]

    05-Jan-98 3:03 PM EST (2003 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] CZECH POLITICS (L ONLY) BY ART CHIMES (PRAGUE)

    DATE=1/5/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-224818
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CZECH REPUBLIC'S NEW CARETAKER GOVERNMENT HAS HELD ITS FIRST MEETING SINCE BEING SWORN IN FRIDAY BY PRESIDENT VACLAV HAVEL. AS WE HEAR FROM PRAGUE CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES, THE MEETING WAS SOMEWHAT ROUTINE AND SOMEWHAT OVERSHADOWED BY A SPLIT WITHIN THE FORMER COALITION-LEADING "CIVIC DEMOCRATIC PARTY."

    TEXT: CARETAKER PRIME MINISTER JOSEF TOSOVSKY PRESIDED OVER THE GOVERNMENT MEETING, WHICH DEALT MORE WITH ORGANIZATIONAL MATTERS THAN WITH SUBSTANCE. THE 16-MEMBER CABINET DID AGREE IT WANTED TO DELAY A CONFIDENCE VOTE IN PARLIAMENT UNTIL AFTER LAWMAKERS VOTE FOR PRESIDENT.

    PARLIAMENT IS SCHEDULED TO VOTE FOR PRESIDENT ON JANUARY 20TH, WHICH MEANS THE VOTE OF CONFIDENCE IN THE NEW GOVERNMENT AND ITS PROGRAM WOULD BE TOWARD THE END OF JANUARY. VACLAV HAVEL IS THE ONLY DECLARED CANDIDATE FOR THE PRESIDENCY, WHICH IS LARGELY A CEREMONIAL POST.

    THE NEW CABINET INCLUDES SOME HOLDOVERS FROM THE OLD COALITION GOVERNMENT, WHICH COLLAPSED WHEN A FUNDING SCANDAL HIT THE CIVIC DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF FORMER PRIME MINISTER VACLAV KLAUS.

    FOUR MEMBERS OF A REBEL FACTION OF THE CIVIC DEMOCRATIC PARTY ARE IN THE NEW GOVERNMENT, AND MR. KLAUS SAYS THE FOUR SHOULD EITHER QUIT THE CABINET, OR QUIT THE PARTY.

    THE DEEP DIVISIONS AMONG THE CIVIC DEMOCRATS INDICATE THIS MONTH'S CONFIDENCE VOTE IS ANYTHING BUT A SURE THING. THE NEW GOVERNMENT INCLUDES FINANCE MINISTER IVAN PILIP, A HOLDOVER FROM THE PREVIOUS GOVERNMENT, AND A LEADING MEMBER OF THE ANTI-KLAUS FACTION OF THE CIVIC DEMOCRATIC PARTY.

    MR. PILIP AND TWO OTHER MEMBERS OF THE NEW GOVERNMENT WALKED OUT OF A PARTY EXECUTIVE COUNCIL MEETING MONDAY IN A DISPUTE OVER THEIR STATUS.

    THE GOVERNMENT CRISIS COMES AT A KEY TIME FOR THE CZECH REPUBLIC. THE CZECHS ARE ABOUT TO BEGIN NEGOTIATIONS ON JOINING NATO AND WERE RECENTLY NAMED IN THE FIRST GROUP OF COUNTRIES LIKELY TO JOIN AN EXPANDED EUROPEAN UNION. THE ECONOMY HAD A DIFFICULT YEAR IN 1997, WITH A CURRENCY DEVALUATION, AND IT FACES CHALLENGING PRIVATIZATIONS, INCLUDING THE BIG, MOSTLY STATE-OWNED BANKS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/PCF
    05-Jan-98 12:37 PM EST (1737 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=1/5/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-224821
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-S DOLLAR'S SURGE IN VALUE AGAINST THE JAPANESE YEN GAVE INVESTORS IN EUROPE A REASON TO BUY STOCKS ON MONDAY. PAUL FRANCUCH IN OUR LONDON BUREAU HAS TODAY'S EUROPEAN MARKET REPORT.

    TEXT: THE DOLLAR'S SOARING VALUE CARRIED OVER INTO EUROPEAN CURRENCY TRADING MONDAY, WITH ADVANCES OF MORE THAN A CENT AGAINST THE BRITISH POUND AND UP TWO PFENNIGE AGAINST THE GERMAN MARK.

    THE STRONGER DOLLAR IS OFTEN INTERPRETED AS A SIGN THAT AMERICA IS IN A BETTER POSITION TO BUY IMPORTED PRODUCTS AND THAT, IN TURN, HELPS PROPEL STOCK PRICES AMONG LIKELY EXPORTERS.

    WESTERN EUROPE'S MAJOR STOCK INDEXES ALL GAINED MORE THAN A FULL PERCENTAGE POINT IN VALUE DURING TRADING MONDAY. HERE IN LONDON, THE "FINANCIAL TIMES" 100 INDEX CLOSED UP 69 POINTS, THE GERMAN "DAX 30" WAS UP MORE THAN 69 POINTS AS WELL, AND THE "CAC 40" INDEX IN PARIS GAINED ALMOST 33 POINTS.

    INVESTORS WERE NOT, APPARENTLY, BUYING GOLD. AN OUNCE OF THE PRECIOUS METAL WAS PRICED AT JUST OVER 283-DOLLARS -- THAT'S A DROP OF NEARLY FIVE DOLLARS SINCE FRIDAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF/RRM
    05-Jan-98 1:13 PM EST (1813 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] FRANCE VIOLENCE (L-ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)

    DATE=1/5/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-224810
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AFTER A NEW YEAR HOLIDAY SEASON DISTURBED BY THE URBAN VIOLENCE THAT HAS BECOME THE HALLMARK OF FRANCE'S UNDERPRIVILEGED SUBURBS, FRENCH JUSTICE AUTHORITIES ARE PROMISING TO CRACK DOWN ON OFFENDERS. JULIAN NUNDY REPORTS FROM PARIS.

    TEXT: ALTHOUGH URBAN VIOLENCE HAS BEEN COMMON IN FRANCE SINCE THE BEGINNING OF THE 1990S -- AFFECTING AREAS SUFFERING FROM HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT AND OTHER SOCIAL ILLS -- THE PHENOMENON IS STEADILY BECOMING ALARMING.

    IN THE CITY OF STRASBOURG ON NEW YEAR'S EVE, A TOTAL OF 60 CARS WERE SET ALIGHT BY RAMPAGING YOUTHS. THERE WAS NO PARTICULAR PRETEXT FOR THE VIOLENCE, EXCEPT THAT THE CHRISTMAS AND NEW YEAR HOLIDAYS HAVE BEEN MARRED FOR SEVERAL YEARS BY SUCH INCIDENTS IN THE CITY.

    FOR THE PAST FOUR MONTHS, VIOLENCE HAS BECOME A DAILY OCCURRENCE IN THE DRAB DORMITORY TOWNS BUILT TO ACCOMMODATE IMMIGRANTS AND FRENCH SETTLERS RETURNING FROM THE FORMER NORTH AFRICAN COLONIES IN THE 1960S.

    OVER THE WEEKEND, IN THE CENTRAL CITY OF SAINT ETIENNE, 20 CARS WERE DESTROYED BY FIRE AND STORE WINDOWS WERE SMASHED IN. LAST MONTH, AFTER TWO YOUNG MEN WERE KILLED BY POLICE BULLETS, A DISTRICT IN THE CITY OF LYON AND A SOUTHERN PARIS SUBURB SUFFERED RIOTING EVERY NIGHT FOR A WEEK.

    IN MORE THAN 20 TOWNS ALL OVER FRANCE, BUS DRIVERS HAVE STAGED STRIKES OVER THE PAST TWO MONTHS BECAUSE THEY HAVE BEEN THE TARGETS OF MANY ATTACKS. YOUTHS HAVE TAKEN TO STONING BUSES OR EVEN THROWING MOLOTOV COCKTAILS AT THEM.

    //OPT//

    TEN DAYS AGO, A BUS DRIVER IN THE CITY OF DIJON HAD TO BE TAKEN TO A HOSPITAL AFTER A 15-YEAR-OLD PASSENGER HIT HIM WITH A BASEBALL BAT. IN ANOTHER CASE, A DRIVER WAS BEATEN BECAUSE HE BRAKED SHARPLY TO AVOID A DOG. //END OPT//

    IN RESPONSE, POLICE ARE NOW ESCORTING BUSES IN MANY OF THE MORE TROUBLED PARTS OF FRANCE TO ENSURE THAT THE DRIVERS AND PASSENGERS ARE NOT ASSAULTED.

    FRENCH JUSTICE MINISTER ELISABETH GUIGOU, DESCRIBING THE VIOLENCE AS "INTOLERABLE" AND "UNACCEPTABLE", IS NOW PROMISING TO CRACK DOWN ON THE TROUBLEMAKERS. SHE SAYS HER MINISTRY WILL BEGIN SYSTEMATIC CONTROLS ON REPEAT OFFENDERS. SHE SAYS THESE CONTROLS WILL LAST "FROM DAWN TO DUSK" TO INSTILL A SENSE OF "ORDER AND DISCIPLINE." (SIGNED)
    NEB/JN/PCF
    05-Jan-98 10:07 AM EST (1507 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] GERMANY / KURDS (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=1/5/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-224808
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: GERMAN AUTHORITIES ARE CALLING ON GREECE AND TURKEY TO TAKE STRONGER ACTION TO PREVENT KURDS FROM ILLEGALLY ENTERING EUROPE. VOA'S KYLE KING HAS MORE FROM BONN.

    TEXT: GERMAN CONCERNS ABOUT AN INFLUX OF KURDISH IMMIGRANTS COME AMID REPORTS THAT A ANOTHER BOATLOAD OF ASYLUM SEEKERS IS HEADED TO ITALY. LAST WEEK ABOUT 12-HUNDRED IMMIGRANTS LANDED ON ITALIAN SHORES -- MOSTLY KURDS FROM TURKEY AND IRAQ.

    THE LATEST WAVE OF ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS BEGAN ARRIVING AFTER ITALY EXPRESSED SYMPATHY FOR THE PLIGHT OF THE KURDS AND SAID IT WOULD GRANT ASYLUM TO ALL GENUINE REFUGEES. GERMANY, WHICH IS ALREADY HOME TO ABOUT A HALF MILLION KURDS, IS WORRIED THAT MORE WILL FIND THEIR WAY INTO THE COUNTRY ONCE THEY ENTER COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    GERMAN INTERIOR MINISTER MANFRED KANTHER SAYS ITALY AND GREECE MUST TAKE MUCH TOUGHER ACTION AGAINST ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION. IF THE ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION IS NOT HALTED NOW HE SAID, ALL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES WILL BE POTENTIAL DESTINATIONS.

    MR. KANTHER SAID EUROPEAN POLICE OFFICIALS SCHEDULED TO MEET IN ROME LATER THIS WEEK MUST COME UP WITH CONCRETE PROPOSALS AND HE URGED GREECE AND ITALY TO STEP UP IMMIGRATION CONTROLS. MEANWHILE, TURKISH OFFICIALS HAVE REJECTED EUROPEAN CALLS FOR A POLITICAL SOLUTION TO THE COUNTRY'S LONG RUNNING KURDISH PROBLEM.

    A SPOKESMAN FOR THE TURKISH FOREIGN MINISTRY SAID THE KURDISH MIGRANTS WHO ARRIVED IN ITALY LAST WEEK WERE FLEEING ECONOMIC HARDSHIP -- NOT POLITICAL REPRESSION.

    //REST OPT//

    TURKEY SAID ITALY WOULD ATTRACT MORE ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS IF IT WENT AHEAD AND GRANTED POLITICAL ASYLUM TO REFUGEES ON A LARGE SCALE.

    ITALIAN OFFICIALS HAVE CALLED ON TURKEY TO DO MORE TO HALT THE IMMIGRANTS FROM LEAVING, SAYING THE PROBLEM MUST BE TACKLED AT ITS ROOTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/PCF
    05-Jan-98 9:56 AM EST (1456 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=01/05/98
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10515
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// EDS: PERISHABLE MATERIAL, DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ! ! ////

    INTRO: AMERICANS ARE RETURNING TO WORK AFTER THE LONG NEW YEAR'S WEEKEND TO FIND A WIDE VARIETY OF EDITORIAL TOPICS IN THEIR MORNING PAPERS. AMONG THE SUBJECTS DISCUSSED, ONE OF THE MOST POPULAR IS THE HOLD-UP BY THE SENATE OF CONFIRMATION OF NEW FEDERAL JUDGES -- WHICH IS CAUSING CRITICISM FROM THE CHIEF JUSTICE OF THE UNITED STATES. ALSO ON THE NEW YEAR'S FIRST BUSINESS WEEK AGENDA ARE: THE DEATH OF MICHAEL KENNEDY; IMPROVED FOOD SAFETY LAWS; THE UNABOMBER TRIAL; AND THE SOUTH KOREAN ECONOMIC CRISIS. NOW, HERE WITH A FEW QUOTES AND A CLOSER LOOK IS __________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: SEVERAL PAPERS ARE REACTING TO SHARP CRITICISM OF THE SENATE BY CHIEF JUSTICE WILLIAM REHNQUIST IN HIS ANNUAL REPORT ON THE NATION'S JUDICIARY. AMONG THEM "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES," WHICH SAYS, IN PART:

    VOICE: CHIEF JUSTICE WILLIAM REHNQUIST HAS TABBED THE SENATE'S PETTY, PARTISAN GAME ON JUDICIAL APPOINTMENTS AS WHAT IT IS: POLITICAL, RETRIBUTION, PURE AND SIMPLE. THE CONSERVATIVE JURIST MADE THE CRITICISM LAST WEEK IN ISSUING HIS ANNUAL REPORT ON THE FEDERAL JUDICIARY. USING HIS MOST POINTED TERMS YET IN ASSAILING SENATE REPUBLICANS' STALLING ON PRESIDENT CLINTON'S JUDICIAL NOMINATIONS, HE SAID THE INACTION THREATENS THE DELIVERING OF JUSTICE. ONE OF EVERY 10 FEDERAL JUDGESHIPS IS NOW VACANT, 86 EMPTY SEATS NATIONWIDE. [JUSTICE] REHNQUIST, WHILE ACKNOWLEDGING THAT [MR.] CLINTON HAS BEEN SLOW TO NOMINATE PEOPLE TO FILL VACANT SEATS, LAID THE BLAME FOR THE DELAYS WHERE IT BELONGS, ON SENATE REPUBLICANS [OPT] WHO HAVE SAT ON THE NOMINATIONS OF WORTHY MEN AND WOMEN WHILE LAMELY [WEAKLY] COMPLAINING ABOUT THEIR 'ACTIVIST' TENDENCIES.

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES," NOTING THAT CHIEF JUSTICE REHNQUIST IS, HIMSELF, QUITE CONSERVATIVE, MARVELS AT THE SHARPNESS OF HIS ATTACK ON THE CONSERVATIVES IN THE SENATE HOLDING UP THE APPOINTMENTS.

    VOICE: POLITICS CAN NEVER BE SEPARATED FROM THE CONFIRMATION PROCESS, BUT CHIEF JUSTICE REHNQUIST WAS RIGHT TO DESCRIBE REPUBLICAN BEHAVIOR AS UNUSUAL. IT IS NOT SIMPLY THAT CONSERVATIVES ARE EAGER FOR REVENGE OVER WHAT THEY STILL FEEL WAS UNWARRANTED DEMOCRATIC HOSTILITY TO THE SUPREME COURT NOMINATIONS OF [CONSERVATIVES] ROBERT BORK AND CLARENCE THOMAS. MORE IMPORTANT, REPUBLICAN STRATEGISTS HAVE DECIDED THAT FULMINATING ABOUT LIBERAL JUDGES FIRES UP THE FAITHFUL AND RAISES MONEY. [OPT] THE CHARGE [THAT THE JUDGES NOMINATED ARE TOO LIBERAL] IS ABSURD, SINCE MR. CLINTON'S APPOINTMENTS HAVE BEEN DISTINGUISHED BY THEIR MODERATION. [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE NEW YEAR SKIING ACCIDENT DEATH OF MICHAEL KENNEDY, SON OF THE FORMER ATTORNEY GENERAL ROBERT KENNEDY, "THE PORTLAND [MAINE] PRESS HERALD" SAYS RECENT ALLEGATIONS OF A SEXUAL RELATIONSHIP WITH THE FAMILY BABYSITTER SHOULD NOT BE THE WAY HE IS MAINLY REMEMBERED.

    VOICE: MICHAEL KENNEDY ..... SHOULD NOT BE REMEMBERED FOR THE CIRCUMSTANCES THAT LED TO HIS DEATH OR HIS MOST NOTORIOUS HEADLINES. INSTEAD, HIS WHOLE LIFE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED, INCLUDING MANY GOOD WORKS. IN 1988 HE TOOK OVER CITIZENS ENERGY CORPORATION, WHICH WAS FOUNDED BY HIS BROTHER, REPRESENTATIVE JOSEPH KENNEDY, DEMOCRAT OF MASSACHUSETTS. HE USED THE NON-PROFIT COMPANY AS A PLATFORM FOR AID TO THE NEEDY NOT ONLY IN THE UNITED STATES, BUT IN AFRICA. ...... A LIFE IS ALWAYS MORE THAN MISTAKES THAT MAKE HEADLINES, HOWEVER, AND THAT IS TRUE OF MICHAEL KENNEDY.

    TEXT: TODAY'S "ORLANDO [FLORIDA] SENTINEL IS PLEASED ABOUT THE NATION'S NEW FOOD SAFETY LAWS.

    VOICE: [OPT] IT'S ENOUGH TO MAKE YOU SICK - - UNSAFE FOOD, THAT IS. EAT A PIECE OF TAINTED FRUIT OR A BACTERIA-INFESTED GROUND-BEEF PATTY AND YOU COULD REALLY REGRET IT. IN THE WORST-CASE SCENARIO, YOU COULD DIE. SO [END OPT] THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S RENEWED ATTENTION TO DEALING WITH THE ISSUE OF FOOD SAFETY IS WELCOME. ..... ALTHOUGH THE UNITED STATES IS SAID TO HAVE THE SAFEST FOOD SUPPLY IN THE WORLD, SAFE IS A RELATIVE TERM. IN SOME RESPECTS, THIS COUNTRY HAS A 19TH CENTURY SYSTEM FOR CHECKING FOOD. ...THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S RENEWED INTEREST IN FOOD SAFETY IS WELCOME, AND CRITICS SHOULD GIVE IT SOME TIME BEFORE PROPOSING FURTHER PROTECTIONS.

    TEXT: TURNING TO AFRICAN AFFAIRS, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" IS DISAPPOINTED IN THE RECENT, AND VERY TROUBLED ELECTION IN KENYA, CALLING THE RESULT "A STERILE STATUS QUO..." FOR THE EAST AFRICAN NATION.

    VOICE: DANIEL ARAP MOI WINS AND KENYA LOSES AGAIN. [MR.] MOI CAPTURED ENOUGH BALLOTS IN LAST WEEK'S MULTI-PARTY ELECTION TO REMAIN PRESIDENT. BUT AN ELECTION FRAUGHT WITH IRREGULARITIES DOES NOT A DEMOCRACY MAKE. THE 73-YEAR-OLD INCUMBENT'S CONTINUED GRIP ON POWER PROMISES TO PUSH THE MISERY INDEX EVEN HIGHER IN THE EAST AFRICAN NATION, FOR [MR.] MOI HAS GROWN RICHER DURING NEARLY 20 YEARS IN OFFICE WHILE HIS COUNTRYMEN HAVE SEEN ONE OF THE CONTINENT'S STRONGEST ECONOMIES TURN SOUR. ..... PERHAPS THIS WILL BE HIS LAST HURRAH.

    [OPT]

    PERHAPS HE WILL FINALLY MAKE GOOD ON HIS PROMISES OF 1978, WHEN HE SUCCEEDED HIS MENTOR, THE REVERED INDEPENDENCE LEADER JOMO KENYATTA. [PRESIDENT] MOI, [MR.] KENYATTA'S VICE PRESIDENT AND A FORMER SCHOOLTEACHER, PROMISED THEN TO END ILLITERACY WITHIN FIVE YEARS, ESTABLISH UNIVERSAL AND FREE EDUCATION AND INSTITUTE A 10 PERCENT INCREASE IN EMPLOYMENT IN THE PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTOR. KENYANS ARE STILL WAITING.

    TEXT: THE RECENT RELEASE FROM A TEXAS JAIL OF A RWANDAN MINISTER ACCUSED OF GENOCIDE IS DRAWING A REBUKE FROM "THE NEW YORK TIMES," WHICH SUGGESTS:

    VOICE: AN AMERICAN COURT SHOULD BE EXTRAORDINARILY CAREFUL BEFORE TURNING A SUSPECT OVER TO A FOREIGN TRIBUNAL FOR TRIAL. THAT SENSIBLE PRINCIPLE, HOWEVER, LED TO A MISTAKEN RULING .... BY A TEXAS JUDGE, WHO FREED ..... ELIZAPHAN NTAKIRUTIMANA .... A RWANDAN WANTED BY AN INTERNATIONAL COURT FOR GENOCIDE AND CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY. .... HIS RELEASE WAS BASED ON FAULTY REASONING. .... GIVEN THE POSSIBILITY THAT MR. NTAKIRUTIMANA MAY FLEE, THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION SHOULD APPEAL THE CASE QUICKLY. [OPT] IT WOULD BE TRAGIC IF THE UNITED STATES, WHICH HAS PLAYED SUCH A CRUCIAL ROLE IN THE CREATION AND SUPPORT OF THE TRIBUNALS FOR RWANDA AND BOSNIA, DOES NOT HONOR THE OBLIGATIONS TO TURN OVER FUGITIVES THAT IT HAS URGED ON OTHERS.

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TODAY'S NEW YORK DAILY NEWS IS UPSET THAT ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO HAS REJECTED A GUILTY PLEA BY THE MAN ACCUSED OF BEING THE UNABOMBER, IN RETURN FOR A LIFE PRISON SENTENCE. THE PAPER SAYS:

    VOICE: .... ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO'S APPARENT DETERMINATION TO MAKE HIM FACE CAPITAL PUNISHMENT [THE DEATH PENALTY] DEFIES COMMON SENSE - - AND DECENCY. .... [TED] KACZYNSKI'S BROTHER, DAVID, GAVE HIM UP TO THE F-B-I WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT TED WOULD BE SPARED THE DEATH PENALTY. THE UNABROTHER EVEN HIRED A LAWYER TO TRY TO GUARANTEE TED'S SAFETY BEFORE TURNING HIM IN. WITHOUT DAVID KACZYNSKI, THE F-B-I WOULD NOT HAVE CAUGHT THE UNABOMBER. .... ALL OF WHICH EXPLAINS WHY [MS.] RENO SHOULD HAVE ACCEPTED THE REPORTED DEAL WHEREBY [MR.] KACZYNSKI WOULD PLEAD GUILTY AND TAKE LIFE IN PRISON WITHOUT PAROLE.

    TEXT: LASTLY, SOME THOUGHTS ABOUT SOUTH KOREA'S ECONOMIC CRISIS FROM THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, WHICH SAYS THE ACTION BY THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND AND THE WORLD FINANCIAL COMMUNITY IS BASED ON TWO REALIZATIONS.

    VOICE: FIRST, TODAY'S GLOBALIZED ECONOMY NEEDS EFFECTIVE, GLOBALIZED MEANS OF ADJUSTING COURSE AND AVOIDING DISASTER. SOUTH KOREA OFFERS THE BEST OPPORTUNITY TO DATE OF DEMONSTRATING THAT SUCH MEANS CAN BE MUSTERED [GATHERED TOGETHER]. SECOND, SOUTH KOREA REPRESENTS A FIREWALL, OF SORTS, BETWEEN THE REGIONAL TURMOIL SWEEPING THROUGH ASIA'S RAPIDLY DEVELOPING BUT STILL LARGELY THIRD WORLD ECONOMIES, AND FIRST WORLD INDUSTRIAL ECONOMIES LIKE JAPAN'S. THE [UNDERSTOOD HERE: "FINANCIAL"] FIRE BRIGADE HAD TO RESPOND, IN FORCE, IN KOREA.

    TEXT: ON THAT FINANCIAL NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/RRM
    05-Jan-98 10:41 AM EST (1541 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=1/5/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-224834
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP TODAY (MONDAY) AFTER A VOLATILE SESSION. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 79 HUNDRED 78, UP 14 POINTS. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 976, UP TWO POINTS.

    TRADING WAS ERRATIC, WITH THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE GAINING MORE THAN 50 POINTS EARLY IN THE DAY, THEN LOSING MORE THAN 50 POINTS AND FINALLY RECOVERING.

    THE INTEREST RATE ON THE 30-YEAR U-S GOVERNMENT BOND DROPPED TO ITS LOWEST LEVEL IN HISTORY. THE YIELD OF FIVE POINT SEVEN PERCENT WAS THE LOWEST SINCE THE U-S TREASURY DEPARTMENT BEGAN REGULAR SALE OF THE 30-YEAR BOND IN 1977.

    ANALYSTS SAY THE DROP IN THE BOND'S INTEREST RATE WAS A DIRECT RESULT OF A WEEKEND SPEECH BY ALAN GREENSPAN, HEAD OF THE U-S CENTRAL BANK. HE RAISED THE POSSIBILITY THAT THE U-S ECONOMY MAY GO THROUGH A DEFLATIONARY PHASE. MR. GREENSPAN'S COMMENT SEEMED TO INDICATE HE WILL NOT BE PRESSING FOR AN INCREASE IN SHORT-TERM INTEREST RATES ANYTIME SOON.

    THE GOVERNMENT REPORTED OVERALL CONSTRUCTION SPENDING IN THE UNITED STATES DROPPED IN NOVEMBER BY ALMOST A FULL PERCENTAGE POINT. HOWEVER, THE RATE OF NEW HOME CONSTRUCTION CONTINUED TO GROW. S-B-C, A REGIONAL TELEPHONE COMPANY, WILL PAY FOUR POINT THREE BILLION DOLLARS TO ACQUIRE THE SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANY.

    THE FORD MOTOR COMPANY WILL REPORT A RECORD PROFIT FOR 1997. ACCORDING TO FORD CHAIRMAN ALEX TROTMAN, A THREE BILLION DOLLAR COST REDUCTION PROGRAM IS THE MAIN REASON FOR THE PROFIT INCREASE.

    THE NETSCAPE COMMUNICATIONS COMPANY SAYS IT WILL REPORT A LOSS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER OF LAST YEAR. NETSCAPE BLAMES INCREASING COMPETITION FROM THE MICROSOFT COMPANY WHICH DISTRIBUTES ITS INTERNET BROWSER SOFTWARE FOR FREE. THE U-S JUSTICE DEPARTMENT IS CURRENTLY PURSUING A CASE AGAINST MICROSOFT FOR ALLEGED UNFAIR COMPETITION IN CONNECTION WITH ITS INTERNET BROWSER PRODUCT.(SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/PT
    05-Jan-98 4:43 PM EST (2143 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] NORTHERN IRELAND (L-ONLY) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

    DATE=1/5/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-224819
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SENIOR OFFICIALS ARE TRYING TO SALVAGE THE PEACE PROCESS IN NORTHERN IRELAND AS FEARS GROW THE BRITISH PROVINCE MAY BE HEADING TOWARDS MORE VIOLENCE. V-O-A'S ANDRE DE NESNERA REPORTS FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: BRITISH GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS WERE ENGAGED IN A DAMAGE LIMITATION EXERCISE MONDAY AS THEY MET POLITICIANS FROM NORTHERN IRELAND IN AN EFFORT TO BREATHE NEW LIFE INTO THE PEACE PROCESS.

    IN BELFAST, THE SENIOR MINISTER IN CHARGE OF NORTHERN IRELAND -- MO MOWLAM -- HELD TALKS WITH VARIOUS PRO-BRITISH AND NATIONALIST PARTIES. THE MEETINGS CAME A DAY AFTER ONE OF NORTHERN IRELAND'S MAIN LOYALIST -- OR PRO-BRITISH -- PARAMILITARY GROUPS WITHDREW ITS SUPPORT FOR THE PEACE PROCESS.

    THE PARAMILITARY "ULSTER DEFENSE ASSOCIATION," OR U-D-A, SAID A MAJORITY OF ITS 130 PRISONERS HELD IN BELFAST'S "MAZE" PRISON BELIEVE THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT IS MAKING TOO MANY CONCESSIONS TO THE NATIONALIST PARTIES SUCH AS SINN FEIN -- THE POLITICAL WING OF THE IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY. THE U-D-A SAID UNDER THOSE CONDITIONS, IT CAN NO LONGER SUPPORT WHAT IT CALLED THE LOPSIDED PEACE PROCESS.

    DESCRIBING THE SITUATION TO REPORTERS AS "GRAVE," THE HEAD OF THE HARDLINE PRO-BRITISH "DEMOCRATIC UNIONIST PARTY" -- IAN PAISLEY PLACED MUCH OF THE BLAME ON SECRETARY MOWLAM.

    // PAISLEY ACT //

    THE SITUATION IS VERY DANGEROUS. BUT THE SITUATION IS VERY DANGEROUS FOR THE ORDINARY, LAW-ABIDING PEOPLE BECAUSE THE SECRETARY OF STATE (MO MOWLAM) IS BOWING TO BLACKMAIL FROM THOSE THAT ARE REPRESENTING ORGANIZATIONS THAT HAVE GUNS AND WILL USE THOSE GUNS.

    // END ACT //

    THE DECISION BY ONE OF THE MAIN PARAMILITARY GROUPS TO TURN ITS BACK ON THE PEACE PROCESS HAS BROUGHT FEARS THE LOYALIST CEASEFIRE -- IN PLACE FOR MORE THAN THREE YEARS NOW -- MAY BE IN JEOPARDY. TENSIONS HAVE ALSO HEIGHTENED FOLLOWING THREE TERRORIST KILLINGS IN A WEEK, PROMPTING SEVERAL OBSERVERS TO SAY NORTHERN IRELAND IS SLIPPING INTO A NEW CYCLE OF VIOLENCE.

    //REST OPT//

    AFTER MEETING SECRETARY MOWLAM, THE LEADER OF NORTHERN IRELAND'S "ALLIANCE" PARTY -- JOHN ALDERDICE -- TOLD REPORTERS THE PEACE PROCESS MUST BE GIVEN A BOOST.

    // ALDERDICE ACT //

    WE ALSO EXPRESSED THE VIEW THAT IT IS TIME FOR THE PRIME MINISTER TO BECOME DIRECTLY INVOLVED. WE THINK THAT IT IS NECESSARY FOR (PRIME MINISTER) TONY BLAIR HIMSELF TO MAKE A FURTHER INPUT TO THE TALKS AND IN OUR VIEW, AT A RELATIVELY EARLY STAGE.

    // END ACT //

    MEANWHILE IN LONDON, PRIME MINISTER BLAIR MET A DELEGATION FROM NORTHERN IRELAND'S LARGEST PARTY -- THE PRO-BRITISH "ULSTER UNIONISTS." THEY HAVE ALSO BEEN VERY CRITICAL OF HIS NORTHERN IRELAND POLICY -- EVEN GOING SO FAR AS TO CALL FOR THE RESIGNATION OF MO MOWLAM.

    A SPOKESMAN FOR MR. BLAIR SAID THE MEETING WAS "ROUTINE," SINCE HE MEETS REGULARLY WITH THE LEADERS OF ALL THE PARTIES FROM NORTHERN IRELAND. BUT EXPERTS SAY WITH THE TENSIONS HIGH IN THE BRITISH PROVINCE AND THE FULL-SCALE POLITICAL TALKS TO RESUME NEXT MONDAY, THIS MEETING WAS FAR FROM "ROUTINE." (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/PCF
    05-Jan-98 1:11 PM EST (1811 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L-ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=1/5/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-224804
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN THE HAGUE TUESDAY (TOMORROW), JUDGES AT THE UNITED NATIONS WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL BEGIN HEARINGS IN THEIR FIFTH TRIAL SINCE THE END OF THE BOSNIAN CIVIL WAR. A FORMER BOSNIAN CROAT, PRISON CAMP COMMANDER ZLATKO ALEKSOVSKI, IS ACCUSED OF ALLOWING BOTH THE MISTREATMENT AND KILLING OF MUSLIM PRISONERS. FROM THE HAGUE, GILLIAN SHARPE REPORTS.

    TEXT: AFTER EIGHT MONTHS WAITING IN A UNITED NATIONS CELL BLOCK, 38-YEAR-OLD ZLATKO ALEKSOVSKI IS ABOUT TO HEAR PROSECUTORS PRESENT THE EVIDENCE WHICH THEY SAY PROVES HE IS A WAR CRIMINAL. HE WAS, THEY ALLEGE, COMMANDER OF THE KAONIK DETENTION CAMP, 65 KILOMETERS NORTHWEST OF SARAJEVO. HUNDREDS OF MUSLIM PRISONERS PASSED THROUGH THE GATES THERE; SOME WERE MURDERED, OTHERS, TORTURED, SOME FORCED TO DIG TRENCHES UNDER FIRE OR USED AS HUMAN SHIELDS.

    AT AN INITIAL COURT APPEARANCE MR. ALEKSOVSKI GAVE THE SAME ANSWER TO ALL THE CHARGES AGAINST HIM.

    ///ALEKSOVSKI ACT///

    AS I SAID A FEW MOMENTS AGO, I PLEAD NOT GUILTY TO ALL THE COUNTS. I CONSIDER MYSELF COMPLETELY INNOCENT.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. ALEKSOVSKI WAS FIRST ARRESTED BY THE CROATIAN AUTHORITIES IN 1996. BUT THEY REFUSED TO HAND HIM OVER, SAYING HE WAS IN POOR HEALTH. THE CASE TOOK ON A WIDER SIGNIFICANCE, AND WHEN THE UNITED STATES THREATENED TO BLOCK CROATIA'S INTERNATIONAL LOANS, MR. ALEKSOVSKI WAS FINALLY PUT ON A PLANE FOR THE HAGUE.

    //OPT//

    OF THE 19 PEOPLE IN CUSTODY ON WAR CRIMES CHARGES, 13 ARE ETHNIC CROATS. CRITICS IN THE REGION SAY THIS IS PROOF THE COURT IS BIASED. THAT'S NOT THE OPINION OF ZARKO PUHOVSKI, WHO BELONGS TO A MONITORING GROUP CALLED THE HELSINKI COMMITTEE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS IN CROATIA. BUT MR. PUHOVSKI DOES THINK THE COURT IS WHAT HE CALLS SLOPPY AND UNPROFESSIONAL AT TIMES.

    ///PUHOVSKI ACT///

    WHAT WE NEEDED WAS FOR THE COURT TO BE SOME KIND OF SUPER-EGO, TO SHOW THE COURTS IN YUGOSLAVIA, IN BOSNIA AND IN CROATIA HOW THEY HAVE TO DEAL WITH THE LOCAL CRIMINALS -- CRIMINALS OF WAR. A TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE, ACTING IN A WAY THAT I COULD USE TO COME TO SOMEONE IN ZAGREB OR KARLOVAC AND SAY, "LOOK, THIS IS THE WAY YOU DEAL WITH CRIMINALS OF WAR AND I DON'T EVEN SEE THIS TO BE VERY HONEST."

    ///END ACT/////END OPT//

    BUT FOR MOST PEOPLE IN WHAT WAS YUGOSLAVIA AND BEYOND, THE ALEKSOVSKI TRIAL WILL BARELY BE NOTICED. THE NUMBER OF JOURNALISTS ATTENDING COURT PROCEEDINGS HAS DIPPED DRAMATICALLY AS INTEREST IN THE DAY-TO-DAY OPERATION OF THE TRIBUNAL WANES.

    THE BUSINESS OF PUTTING ON TRIAL THOSE INDICTED ON CHARGES OF WAR CRIMES MAY HAVE BECOME ROUTINE, BUT IT SHOULD NOT BE, SAYS TRIBUNAL PRESIDENT, GABRIELLE KIRK MC DONALD.

    ///MC DONALD ACT///

    THIS TRIBUNAL IS FOCUSED ON THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, BUT IT REALLY GOES BEYOND THAT BECAUSE WE HOPE TO DETER OTHER STATES FROM GETTING IN THE SITUATION THAT THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA WAS IN. SO PART OF THE JOB IS TELLING OTHER STATES, "LOOK WHAT HAPPENED IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. WE DON'T WANT THAT, YOU DON'T WANT THAT, DO YOU?"

    ///END ACT///

    DETERRENCE IS, OF COURSE, BASED ON A REALISTIC CHANCE OF BEING BROUGHT TO ACCOUNT FOR ONE'S MISDEEDS. ON THAT SCORE, 1997 WAS A GOOD YEAR FOR THE TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE. FOR THE FIRST TIME, NATO TROOPS ARRESTED WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS AND 10 BOSNIAN CROATS SURRENDERED, ALTHOUGH THREE WERE LATER RELEASED FOR LACK OF EVIDENCE. 1998 PRESENTS THE TASK OF BRINGING THESE PEOPLE TO TRIAL, QUICKLY AND FAIRLY. BUT THE BIGGEST CHALLENGE OF ALL IS THE ONE WHICH HAS FACED THE TRIBUNAL FROM THE VERY BEGINNING. FIFTY WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS -- INCLUDING FORMER BOSNIAN SERB LEADER, RADOVAN KARADZIC AND HIS MILITARY CHIEF, RATKO MLADIC -- REMAIN FREE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/PCF
    05-Jan-98 9:18 AM EST (1418 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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