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Voice of America, 99-07-05

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] KOSOVO / O-E-C-D BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)
  • [02] KOSOVO / WORK PLACE (L-ONLY) BY TIM BELAY (PRISTINA)
  • [03] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] RUSSIA / NATO (S) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (MOSCOW)
  • [05] RUSSIA / NATO (S) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (MOSCOW)

  • [01] KOSOVO / O-E-C-D BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)

    DATE=7/5/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43800
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IF THINGS GO AS PLANNED, THE JULY WILL SEE A FLURRY OF ACTIVITY WITHIN THE SO-CALLED "STABILITY PACT" FOR THE BALKANS. THE AGREEMENT HAS BEEN SIGNED BY NATO COUNTRIES, THE BALKAN NATIONS, AND INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. AS JULIAN NUNDY REPORTS FROM PARIS, THE PACT AIMS AT FINDING PERMANENT SOLUTIONS TO THE REGION'S PROBLEMS TO HELP ENSURE WAR AND ETHNIC HATRED BECOME THINGS OF THE PAST.

    TEXT: INTERNATIONAL EXPERTS AGREE SEVERAL STAGES OF RECONSTRUCTION ARE NEEDED IN KOSOVO, THE REST OF SERBIA, AND IN ALL THE BALKANS REGION.

    THESE ARE AIMED AT OVERCOMING BOTH THE EFFECTS OF NATO'S TWO-AND-ONE-HALF MONTHS OF AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA AND OF THE ETHNIC CLEANSING THAT PROMPTED THE ALLIANCE TO ACT.

    NATO COUNTRIES, YUGOSLAVIA'S NEIGHBORS, AND INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS HAVE AGREED ON A LONG-TERM "STABILITY PACT" TO ENABLE THE BALKANS TO SETTLE DOWN AND PROSPER AS THE KEY TO LASTING PEACE.

    FOR THE MOMENT, THE PRIORITIES ARE DEALING WITH REFUGEES AND REPAIRING HOMES, ROADS, AND BRIDGES. LATER, THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY HOPES TO HELP KOSOVO AND COUNTRIES IN THE REGION TO CREATE INSTITUTIONS TO STRENGTHEN DEMOCRACY. IN KOSOVO, THE NEEDED INSTITUTIONS RANGE FROM A JUSTICE APPARATUS TO A COMPLETELY NEW BANKING SYSTEM.

    ONE OF THE ORGANIZATIONS CLOSELY INVOLVED IN THE PLANNING OF LONG-TERM RECONSTRUCTION IS THE PARIS-BASED ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT. THE HEAD OF THE 29-NATION O-E-C-D'S CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE UNIT, NIKOLAI MALYSHEV, IS STUDYING WAYS TO HELP THE BALKANS BUILD REAL PEACE.

    /// MALYSHEV ACT ONE ///

    WHAT WE LIKE TO TRY TO DO IS TRY TO GET TOGETHER POLICY-MAKERS FROM SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE ALONGSIDE POLICY-MAKERS IN O-E-C-D COUNTRIES FOR AN EXCHANGE OF VIEWS. AND HOPEFULLY WE CAN CONVEY TO THE AUTHORITIES IN WAR-TORN EUROPE, IN THIS PART OF EUROPE AT LEAST, WHAT WE THINK ARE THE BEST ECONOMIC POLICIES, ONES THAT MIGHT PROVE TO BE MOST FRUITFUL.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE STABILITY PACT IS TO BE THE SUBJECT OF TWO INTERNATIONAL MEETINGS THIS MONTH, ONE OF THEM IN THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL, SARAJEVO. MR. MALYSHEV SAYS THE PACT IS STILL VERY MUCH IN ITS EARLY DAYS AND HE STRESSES IT IS INTENDED FOR ALL THE BALKANS -- NOT JUST KOSOVO.

    /// MALYSHEV ACT TWO ///

    WHAT OFTEN ARE REFERRED TO AS "FRONT-LINE COUNTRIES," ONES THAT WERE NOT DIRECTLY AFFECTED BY HOSTILITIES BUT WHO SORT OF SUFFERED THE ANCILLARY EFFECTS -- I AM TALKING HERE ABOUT THE ALBANIAS, THE MACEDONIAS, BULGARIA, ROMANIA -- I THINK THERE IS A REAL INTEREST ON THOSE COUNTRIES' PART TO BENEFIT FROM INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS WHICH WILL BE PUT INTO PLACE IN THE STABILITY PACT. .

    /// END ACT ///

    IN ADDITION, MR. MALYSHEV SAYS, THE O-E-C-D WILL HELP BALKAN COUNTRIES REVAMP THEIR ECONOMIC STRUCTURES, PARTICULARLY TO PREPARE THEM FOR MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND MAKE THEM PART OF THE CONTINENT'S MAINSTREAM.

    MR. MALYSHEV SAYS ONE OF THE LESSONS OF THE KOSOVO CONFLICT IS THE NEED FOR RUSSIA TO BE A PART OF INTERNATIONAL DECISION-MAKING. AFTER HELPING NEGOTIATE A PEACE AGREEMENT WITH BELGRADE, RUSSIA SURPRISED NATO BY SENDING IN ITS OWN TROOPS TO KOSOVO JUST AHEAD OF THE FIRST NATO UNITS OF THE K-FOR PEACEKEEPING FORCE. NOW ITS TROOPS HAVE BEEN GIVEN A SPECIFIC ROLE IN K-FOR.

    /// MALYSHEV ACT THREE ///

    I THINK RUSSIA NEEDS TO FACTOR IN, INTO ALL OUR DISCUSSIONS ABOUT SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE. THEY WERE FAIRLY IMPORTANT IN BROKERING THE PEACE. THEY HELPED BROKER THE PEACE. THEY HAVE TAKEN A FAIRLY ACTIVE INTEREST IN BEING PART OF THE SECURITY ARRANGEMENT IN KOSOVO. BUT I THINK WE NEED TO THINK MORE BROADLY, MORE GEOPOLITICALLY, ABOUT RUSSIA'S ROLE IN THE REGION.

    /// END ACT ///

    ONE OF THE POTENTIAL PROBLEMS FACING INSTITUTION-BUILDING IN KOSOVO IS THAT THE PROVINCE IS LEGALLY A PART OF SERBIA AND YUGOSLAVIA -- A PROVINCE OF A SOVEREIGN NATION. BUT MR. MALYSHEV SAYS THIS HAS LITTLE IMPACT ON O-E-C-D WORK SINCE EVEN LOCAL AUTHORITIES CAN MAKE ECONOMIC DECISIONS.

    /// MALYSHEV ACT FOUR ///

    YOU DO NOT NEED TO BE A SOVEREIGN STATE TO HAVE SOME SORT OF AUTHORITY WHICH COLLECTS MONEY AND DISTRIBUTES MONEY. EDUCATION POLICIES, SOCIAL POLICIES ARE OFTEN IMPLEMENTED AT A REGIONAL LEVEL.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. MALYSHEV SAYS REFORMS COULD GO AS HIGH AS SETTING UP A CENTRAL BANK, ADDING THAT SOME EXPERTS EVEN ADVOCATE THE INTRODUCTION OF THE EURO, THE SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY, IN KOSOVO. BUT, HE SAYS, FIRST THE PROVINCE NEEDS TO RESETTLE ITS REFUGEES BEFORE WINTER, SET UP AN EFFICIENT SECURITY FORCE AND A JUSTICE SYSTEM TO HELP KEEP THE PEACE IF AMBITIOUS AND FAR-REACHING INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS ARE TO HAVE A CHANCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JWN/JWH/RAE
    05-Jul-99 11:12 AM EDT (1512 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] KOSOVO / WORK PLACE (L-ONLY) BY TIM BELAY (PRISTINA)

    DATE=7/5/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-251439
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS WORKING TO HELP REBUILD KOSOVO AGREE THAT WORK-PLACE ISSUES ACCOUNT FOR MANY OF THE BIGGEST IMMEDIATE CHALLENGES. TIM BELAY HAS THIS REPORT FROM PRISTINA.

    TEXT: SINCE THE WITHDRAWAL OF YUGOSLAV ARMED FORCES, ETHNIC ALBANIANS AND KOSOVAR SERBS HAVE CLASHED OVER CONTROL OF LOCAL BROADCASTING OUTLETS, THE BIGGEST HOTEL IN PRISTINA, HOSPITALS, THE BANKING SYSTEM, AND A NUMBER OF SMALLER BUSINESSES AND INSTITUTIONS.

    MANY OF THE ALBANIANS LOST MANAGEMENT AND OTHER POSITIONS AT THESE PLACES NINE-YEARS AGO, AND NOW IN MOST CASES HAVE BEEN ABLE TO GET THEM BACK. 1990 WAS A TIME OF GREAT UPHEAVAL IN THE PROVINCE. KOSOVAR SERBS CLOSED ALBANIAN SCHOOLS AND TOOK OVER THE RUNNING OF ALL LOCAL INSTITUTIONS.

    KEVIN KENNEDY OF THE U-N MISSION IN KOSOVO, SAYS THE UNITED NATIONS WANTS TO SEE JOINT CONTROL IN ALL AREAS.

    /// ACT KENNEDY ///

    THIS HAS NOT BEEN A PROCESS THAT HAS BEEN WITHOUT HICCUPS (PROBLEMS). WE NEED TO GET TO THE RIGHT REPRESENTATIVES OF THE DIFFERENT COMMUNITIES, TO SIT DOWN AND GET DOWN TO WORK ON A PRACTICAL LEVEL ON THE CONCRETE PROBLEMS OF RE-INTEGRATING PEOPLE INTO THE WORK FORCE AND KEEPING ESSENTIAL SERVICES GOING. IN THE HEALTH SECTOR, COMMUNICATIONS AND THE MEDIA, IN EDUCATION, FINANCE, (AND) ECONOMY.

    /// END ACT ///

    SOME KOSOVAR SERBS WHO WERE HIRED AFTER 1990 -- THE TIME WHEN ETHNIC ALBANIANS LOST POSITIONS OF POWER -- ARE BEING TOLD BY THE RETURNING ETHNIC-ALBANIAN MANAGEMENT THAT THEY WERE HIRED ILLEGALLY AND MUST LEAVE. MR. KENNEDY SAYS IT MAY EVENTUALLY BE POSSIBLE TO RESOLVE THESE DISPUTES IN A NEW YUGOSLAVIAN COURT OF LAW. (SIGNED)
    NEB/TB/GE/RAE
    05-Jul-99 8:49 AM EDT (1249 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=07/05/99
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11365
    TELEPHONE=619-2702
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    ///// ED'S: MATERIAL DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-T. /////

    INTRO: THE APPARENT SUICIDE OF A SUSPECTED SERIAL KILLER IN THE UNITED STATES AND THE DECISION BY THE U-S FEDERAL RESERVE TO RAISE INTEREST RATES A QUARTER OF A POINT ARE JUST TWO OF THE ISSUES MAKING THE EDITORIAL PAGES OF AMERICA'S NEWSPAPERS MONDAY. NOW, HERE IS ______________WITH A CLOSER LOOK AND SOME EXCERPTS IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: A 21-YEAR-OLD MAN WHO AUTHORITIES SAY MAY HAVE BEEN DRIVEN BY ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS HATRED TO KILL TWO PEOPLE APPARENTLY TURNED HIS GUN ON HIMSELF. BENJAMIN NATHANIEL SMITH, A MEMBER OF A WHITE SUPREMACIST GROUP, SHOT HIMSELF AS THE F-B-I AND POLICE IN THE CHICAGO AREA CLOSED IN ON HIM AFTER A DEADLY STRING OF SHOOTINGS. "THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE" OFFERS THIS COMMENT ABOUT THE JULY 4TH WEEKEND SHOOTING SPREE.

    VOICE: HOW SENSELESS THAT SO MANY LIVES AND SO MANY FAMILIES COULD BE RIPPED APART BY ONE PERSON'S HATRED. THE GUNMAN WHO STARTED HIS ASSAULT IN CHICAGO AND THE NORTH SUBURBS FRIDAY NIGHT, AND CONTINUED THROUGH ILLINOIS AND INDIANA SATURDAY AND SUNDAY, OBVIOUSLY PICKED HIS TARGETS WITH CAREFUL INTENT. SIX ORTHODOX JEWS INJURED IN CHICAGO. AN ASIAN AMERICAN MAN SHOT TO DEATH IN INDIANA. A STUDENT OF TAIWANESE DESCENT SERIOUSLY WOUNDED IN A DRIVE BY SHOOTING IN URBANA. AND ON AND ON.

    TEXT: ON ANOTHER MATTER, THE FINANCIAL MARKETS WERE THRILLED LAST WEEK BY THE U-S FEDERAL RESERVE'S DECISION TO RAISE INTEREST RATES A QUARTER POINT, READING THE MOVE TO MEAN THE NATION'S CENTRAL BANK IS NOT LIKELY TO RAISE RATES AGAIN IN THE SHORT TERM. "U-S-A TODAY" WRITES THE REACTION AMOUNTED TO ANOTHER VOTE OF CONFIDENCE FOR FED CHAIRMAN ALAN GREENSPAN AND THE OVERALL AMERICAN ECONOMY.

    VOICE: THE MARKETS, IT SEEMS, STILL BELIEVE INFLATION IS DEAD, BUT THEY ARE HAPPY TO HAVE FED CHAIRMAN ALAN GREENSPAN GUARD AGAINST ITS REVIVAL, NEVERTHELESS. AND WELL THEY SHOULD BE, FOR DESPITE THE CONVENTIONAL WISDOM, THERE ARE SIGNS GREENSPAN'S CAUTION IS WELL FOUNDED.

    TEXT: THE PAPER, LIKE MANY ECONOMISTS, ALSO WARNS THE RED-HOT AMERICAN ECONOMY IS IN DANGER OF OVERHEATING. THE INTEREST RATE HIKE COULD BE KEY TO KEEPING A LID ON ALREADY HISTORICALLY LOW INFLATION.

    VOICE: MOST INTEREST RATE HIKES, TO LEVELS THAT REMAIN BELOW LAST YEAR'S, ARE A WAY TO DISCOURAGE EXCESSIVE BORROWING, EASE PRICE PRESSURES. THIS IS DEMONSTRATED BY THE RISE IN MORTGAGE RATES IN THE PAST TWO-MONTHS AND THE DROP IN HOUSING STARTS DURING THAT PERIOD.

    TEXT: NATO'S INTERVENTION TO PROTECT ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO IS PROVOKING DEBATE ABOUT WHERE AND UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES THE UNITED STATES OR ANY OTHER OUTSIDE POWER SHOULD INTERVENE FOR HUMANITARIAN -- NOT STRATEGIC REASONS. SOME, LIKE FORMER SECRETARY OF STATE HENRY KISSINGER SET A VERY HIGH STANDARD -- MUCH HIGHER THAN THAT SET BY THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION -- FOR INTERVENTION IN THE CASE OF KOSOVO. "THE BOSTON GLOBE" OFFERS THESE THOUGHTS.

    VOICE: THERE ARE HUNDREDS OF MINORITIES IN THE WORLD WHO WOULD LOVE TO HAVE NATO INTERVENE ON THEIR BEHALF. AND, AS HAS BEEN SHOWN IN THE BALKANS, NATO'S RIGHTEOUS SWORD IS NOT UNSHEATHED AGAINST ALL ETHNIC CLEANSING. CROATIA HAS BECOME ARGUABLY THE MOST ETHNICALLY CLEANSED STATE IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, BUT NO U-S PRESIDENT THREATENED A JUST WAR TO DEFEND MORE THAN 200-THOUSAND SERBS WHO WERE EXPELLED FROM THEIR ANCESTRAL LANDS BY THE U-S TRAINED CROATIAN ARMY.

    TEXT: THAT IS A LOOK AT WHAT SOME OF AMERICA'S MAJOR NEWSPAPERS ARE SAYING ABOUT EVENTS OVER THE PAST WEEK.
    NEB/NJS/RAE
    NEB/JLT/RAE
    05-Jul-99 11:39 AM EDT (1539 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] RUSSIA / NATO (S) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (MOSCOW)

    DATE=7/5/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-251443
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO AND RUSSIAN OFFICIALS HAVE RESOLVED DIFFERENCES ABOUT MOSCOW'S ROLE IN NATO'S PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN KOSOVO. V-O-A'S ANDRE DE NESNERA REPORTS FROM MOSCOW.

    TEXT: RUSSIAN OFFICIALS SAY THERE ARE NO OBSTACLES TO SENDING RUSSIAN SOLDIERS TO KOSOVO TO PARTICIPATE IN NATO'S PEACEKEEPING FORCE. THE OFFICIALS MADE THOSE COMMENTS AT THE END OF TALKS IN MOSCOW BETWEEN A NATO MILITARY DELEGATION AND SENIOR RUSSIAN DEFENSE OFFICIALS.

    RUSSIAN OFFICIALS DID NOT PROVIDE DETAILS ON THE OUTCOME OF THE MEETING. NATO OFFICIALS HAVE SAID THE DIFFERENCES INVOLVED TECHNICAL MATTERS -- BUT THEY ALSO DID NOT ELABORATE.

    RUSSIA WAS FORCED TO POSTPONE TWO MILITARY FLIGHTS SUNDAY TO KOSOVO'S PRISTINA AIRPORT AFTER HUNGARY, BULGARIA, AND ROMANIA CLOSED THEIR AIR SPACE TO RUSSIAN PLANES. THE REQUEST WAS MADE BY U-S OFFICIALS WHO SAID NO RUSSIAN PLANE WOULD BE ALLOWED INTO KOSOVO UNTIL OUTSTANDING ISSUES ARE RESOLVED BETWEEN NATO AND RUSSIA.

    FOLLOWING THE SUCCESSFUL CONCLUSION OF THE TALKS, A RUSSIAN OFFICIAL SAID RUSSIAN TROOPS CAN LEAVE FOR KOSOVO BY AIR AT ANY MOMENT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/JWH/RAE
    05-Jul-99 9:18 AM EDT (1318 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] RUSSIA / NATO (S) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (MOSCOW)

    DATE=7/5/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-251443
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO AND RUSSIAN OFFICIALS HAVE RESOLVED DIFFERENCES ABOUT MOSCOW'S ROLE IN NATO'S PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN KOSOVO. V-O-A'S ANDRE DE NESNERA REPORTS FROM MOSCOW.

    TEXT: RUSSIAN OFFICIALS SAY THERE ARE NO OBSTACLES TO SENDING RUSSIAN SOLDIERS TO KOSOVO TO PARTICIPATE IN NATO'S PEACEKEEPING FORCE. THE OFFICIALS MADE THOSE COMMENTS AT THE END OF TALKS IN MOSCOW BETWEEN A NATO MILITARY DELEGATION AND SENIOR RUSSIAN DEFENSE OFFICIALS.

    RUSSIAN OFFICIALS DID NOT PROVIDE DETAILS ON THE OUTCOME OF THE MEETING. NATO OFFICIALS HAVE SAID THE DIFFERENCES INVOLVED TECHNICAL MATTERS -- BUT THEY ALSO DID NOT ELABORATE.

    RUSSIA WAS FORCED TO POSTPONE TWO MILITARY FLIGHTS SUNDAY TO KOSOVO'S PRISTINA AIRPORT AFTER HUNGARY, BULGARIA, AND ROMANIA CLOSED THEIR AIR SPACE TO RUSSIAN PLANES. THE REQUEST WAS MADE BY U-S OFFICIALS WHO SAID NO RUSSIAN PLANE WOULD BE ALLOWED INTO KOSOVO UNTIL OUTSTANDING ISSUES ARE RESOLVED BETWEEN NATO AND RUSSIA.

    FOLLOWING THE SUCCESSFUL CONCLUSION OF THE TALKS, A RUSSIAN OFFICIAL SAID RUSSIAN TROOPS CAN LEAVE FOR KOSOVO BY AIR AT ANY MOMENT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/JWH/RAE
    05-Jul-99 9:18 AM EDT (1318 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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