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Voice of America, 5 February 1996

From: "Ioannis V. Bousnakis" <ivb19@nfi.com>

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BOSNIA / RETURNING REFUGEES (L ONLY) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (GENEVA)

  • [03] BOSNIA AID BY BARRY WOOD (DAVOS, SWITZERLAND)

  • [04] BOSNIA / U-S DEATH (S-ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON )

  • [05] BOSNIA / U-S DEATH (S ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

  • [06] DAVOS / HOLBROOKE (L) BY BARRY WOOD (DAVOS, SWITZERLAND)

  • [07] GERMANY / FOREIGNERS (S ONLY) BY DAGMAR BREITENBACH (BONN)

  • [08] NATO EXPANSION BY KYLE KING (BONN)

  • [09] U-S/GREECE HOLBROOKE (L-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (STATE DEPARTMENT)


  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=02/05/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09413
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON MONDAY, FEBRUARY 5TH //

    INTRO: AMERICA'S DAILY PAPERS ARE TACKLING A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES IN THEIR EDITORIAL PAGES THIS FRIGID MONDAY IN MUCH OF THE U-S EAST AND SOUTH. VOTING-BY-MAIL AND THE NEWLY-REVISED TELECOMMUNICATIONS LAW ARE AMONG THE MORE POPULAR TOPICS. [OPT] OTHER SUBJECTS INCLUDE: NEW COST-CUTTING AT NASA; CENSORING THE INTERNET; PROGRESS ON REFORM IN GUATEMALA; AND A POLITICAL DISSIDENT EXILED FROM SAUDI ARABIA. [END OPT] NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS _______________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: VOTERS IN OREGON RECENTLY PARTICIPATED IN A MAIL-IN ELECTION TO ELECT A REPLACEMENT FOR U-S SENATOR BOB PACKWOOD, WHO RESIGNED AS THE RESULT OF A SEXUAL HARASSMENT SCANDAL. IT WAS THE NATION'S FIRST-EVER VOTE-BY-MAIL FOR A U-S SENATOR AND IT IS DRAWING REACTION FROM MANY QUARTERS. TODAY'S "USA TODAY" EDITORIALIZES:

    VOICE: "IT'S AN IDEA WHOSE TIME MAY BE HERE. REPRESENTATIVE RON WYDEN, DEMOCRAT OF OREGON, IS TO BE SWORN IN TUESDAY AS THE NATION'S FIRST MAILORDER U-S SENATOR... VOTING, NORMALLY ANEMIC [VERY LOW] IN SPECIAL ELECTIONS, EQUALED THAT OF THE LAST GENERAL ELECTION. AND OREGON SAVED AT LEAST ONE-MILLION DOLLARS BY NOT HAVING TO STAFF HUNDREDS OF POLLING PLACES... IF WE BELIEVE IN DEMOCRACY, WE SHOULDN'T BE AFRAID OF ENCOURAGING MAXIMUM PARTICIPATION IN ELECTIONS. UNTIL THE CRITICS CAN COME UP WITH MORE SUBSTANTIVE ARGUMENTS, VOTE-BY-MAIL LOOKS LIKE A WINNER."

    TEXT: HOWEVER, IN OREGON, PHILLIP WALKER, A COLUMNIST FOR THE "SALEM STATESMAN JOURNAL" IN THE STATE CAPITOL, DISSENTS:

    VOICE: "CONTRARY TO NATIONAL MISCONCEPTION, THERE STILL ARE PLENTY OF OREGONIANS OPPOSED TO VOTE-BY-MAIL... LONG-TERM OPPOSITION ... IS MORE BIPARTISAN... THE BIG WEAKNESS IN VOTE-BY-MAIL AND OTHER VOTING CONVENIENCE MEASURES LIKE MOTOR-VOTER REGISTRATION LIES IN THE MAJOR JUSTIFICATION ADVANCED BY THEIR SUPPORTERS: THAT COERCING LAZY, RELUCTANT OR IGNORANT CITIZENS TO VOTE SOMEHOW IMPROVES DEMOCRACY."

    TEXT: IN THE NATION'S CAPITOL, "THE WASHINGTON POST" ADDS:

    VOICE: "THERE'S A LOT TO BE LEARNED FROM THE OREGON EXPERIENCE, AND WE HOPE THAT THOSE WHO STUDY THESE MATTERS WILL EXAMINE THIS EXPERIMENT CLOSELY. WHAT'S CLEARLY GOOD ABOUT THE OREGON METHOD -- AND SOMETHING ALL STATES COULD DUPLICATE IN ONE WAY OR ANOTHER -- IS EXPANDING THE TIME DURING WHICH VOTERS CAN CAST THEIR BALLOTS... MOSTLY ... THE OREGON EXPERIMENT WORKED."

    TEXT: ANOTHER MAJOR DOMESTIC TOPIC IS THE SWEEPING COMMUNICATIONS REFORM BILL PASSED BY BOTH THE HOUSE AND SENATE LATE LAST WEEK. THE NEW LAW SWEEPS AWAY MUCH REGULATION OF THE TELEPHONE AND CABLE TELEVISION INDUSTRIES, AND OTHER AREAS OF COMMUNICATIONS, PAVING THE WAY FOR INCREASED COMPETITION AND -- IT IS HOPDS -- LOWER RATES FOR CONSUMERS. TODAY'S "SUN" IN BALTIMORE LEADS ITS EDITORIAL COLUMN WITH THIS ASSESSMENT:

    VOICE: "THIS FIRST THOROUGH OVERHAUL OF COMMUNICATIONS LAW SINCE DEPRESSION DAYS IS TOUTED TO PUT THE U-S AHEAD OF THE REST OF THE WORLD, CREATE THOUSANDS OF JOBS, FOSTER FREE-FOR-ALL COMPETITION AND LOWER PRICES FOR PHONE, TELEVISION, CABLE AND INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES. CONSUMER ADVOCATES ARE HIGHLY SUSPICIOUS, FEARING HIGHER PHONE AND CABLE BILLS... IN OUR VIEW THE NEW TELECOM BILL CHARTS A JOURNEY THAT HAS TO BE TAKEN. IT WILL REQUIRE CAREFUL MONITORING AND INTELLECTUAL FLEXIBILITY ON THE PART OF GOVERNMENT, INDUSTRY AND CONSUMERS FOR AS LONG AS WE CAN FORESEE."

    TEXT: IN CALIFORNIA, MEANWHILE, TODAY'S "LOS ANGELES TIMES" LIKES MUCH OF WHAT IT SEES IN THE NEW LAW:

    VOICE: "... CONGRESS IS UNSHACKLING THE 500-BILLION TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY. THE COMPETITION SPURRED BY THE CHANGE SHOULD LEAD TO GREATER CHOICES AND LOWER CONSUMER PRICES FOR PHONE, ENTERTAINMENT AND NEW MEDIA SERVICES. BUT THERE WILL BE PAINFUL ADJUSTMENTS. EVENTUALLY, THERE MAY BE MORE JOBS, BUT INITIALLY THERE MAY BE FEWER."

    TEXT: IN ANOTHER EDITORIAL, "THE L-A TIMES" OFFERS SOME THOUGHTS ON COST SAVINGS AND DOWNSIZING AT THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION (NASA).

    VOICE: "... THE IDEA BEHIND NASA'S 'NEW MILLENNIUM PROGRAM' SEEMS TO MAKE EMINENT GOOD SENSE: MORE FREQUENT MISSIONS WITH SMALLER AND CHEAPER AND DISPOSABLE SPACECRAFT THAT ARE STILL ON THE LEADING EDGE OF TECHNOLOGY. ALSO, THEY WOULD BE SENT UP IN SUFFICIENT NUMBERS (AT THE SAME TIME) TO ALLOW FOR THE LOSS OF SOME WITHOUT JEOPARDIZING AN ENTIRE MISSION."

    TEXT: IN PENNSYLVANIA, "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" IS CONCERNED WITH THE KIND OF DANGEROUS INFORMATION -- INCLUDING BOMB BUILDING INSTRUCTIONS -- THAT CAN BE FOUND ON THE INTERNET.

    VOICE: "MISCHIEF-MAKERS ARE FINDING THE INTERNET IS LIKE A BOOKSHOP WITH A LARGE 'HOW-TO' SECTION -- FULL OF NAUGHTY, MAD-SCIENTIST, DO-IT-YOURSELF STUFF ... THREE 13-YEAR-OLD BOYS WERE ARRESTED IN THE SYRACUSE (NEW YORK) AREA... CHARGED WITH PLOTTING TO BOMB THEIR JUNIOR HIGH (SCHOOL) WITH AN EXPLOSIVE DEVICE CRAFTED UPON A ... DESIGN (DOWNLOADED FROM THE INTERNET)... THE VALUES AND MOTIVES OF THOSE WHO POST ELECTRONIC MUSINGS ON BOMB-MAKING AND OTHER DANGEROUS PURSUITS ARE CLEARLY SUSPECT. BUT JUST AS CLEARLY, SUCH SPEECH COMES UNDER THE FIRST AMENDMENT PROTECTIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION."

    TEXT: TODAY'S "MIAMI HERALD" WELCOMES THE SHUFFLING OF POSITIONS IN GUATEMALA'S ARMY CARRIED OUT RECENTLY BY THE NEW PRESIDENT ALVARO ARZU, WHO PROMISED TO HOLD HIS COUNTRY'S POWERFUL ARMY ACCOUNTABLE FOR ITS ACTIONS. THE APPARENT ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT ON PRESIDENT ARZU AND HIS WIFE, WHICH OCCURRED SUNDAY, HAPPENED AFTER THIS EDITORIAL WAS WRITTEN, BUT BEFORE THE MONDAY PAPERS WERE ON THE STANDS.

    VOICE: "MR. ARZU DESERVES PRAISE FOR TRYING TO FULFILL THIS CAMPAIGN PROMISE AS QUICKLY AS HE HAS. SINCE HIS ELECTION, MR. ARZU ... HAS PARTED WAYS WITH MOST OF HIS COUNTRY'S PREVIOUS CIVILIAN PRESIDENTS. HE HAS SWIFTLY TAKEN ON THE RETROGRADE FACTIONS OF A MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT THAT HAS ENJOYED UNLIMITED POWER IN GUATEMALA FOR DECADES AS A RESULT OF ITS ROLE FIGHTING A PROTRACTED COUNTER-INSURGENCY WAR AGAINST GUERRILLAS."

    TEXT: LASTLY, "THE NEW YORK TIMES" IS CRITICAL OF THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT'S DEPORTATION ORDER AGAINST SAUDI ARABIAN DISSIDENT MOHAMMED AL-MASARI, WHO HAS BEEN OPERATING AN OPPOSITION NEWSLETTER FROM LONDON. MR. MASARI FACES DEPORTATION TO THE CARIBBEAN ISLAND OF DOMINICA.

    VOICE: "PRIME MINISTER JOHN MAJOR'S GOVERNMENT ISSUED THE DEPORTATION ORDER AFTER PRESSURE FROM THE SAUDI REGIME AND LOBBYING BY BRITISH COMPANIES SEEKING LUCRATIVE ARMS CONTRACTS WITH THE KINGDOM. BRITAIN SAYS IT ACTED TO MAINTAIN THE STABILITY OF THE SAUDI REGIME. BY BOWING TO THESE COMMERCIAL AND DIPLOMATIC CONCERNS, MR. MAJOR DISHONORS BRITAIN'S HISTORIC COMMITMENTS TO FREE SPEECH AND ASYLUM. "

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF SOME OF MONDAY'S EDITORIALS IN THE U-S PRESS.

    NEB/ANG/PCH
    05-Feb-96 11:29 AM EST (1629 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] BOSNIA / RETURNING REFUGEES (L ONLY) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (GENEVA)

    DATE=2/5/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-192268
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE RIVAL FACTIONS IN BOSNIA HAVE COMPLETED PREPARATIONS FOR TERRITORIAL TRANSFERS ENVISAGED IN THE DAYTON PEACE PLAN. THE MOVE PAVES THE WAY FOR THE RETURN OF THOUSANDS OF REFUGEES. V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS IN GENEVA REPORTS THE U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES EXPECTS THE FIRST MAJOR GROUP OF RETURNEES LATER THIS MONTH.

    TEXT: ONE OF THE LARGEST CHUNKS OF TERRITORY DESIGNATED TO CHANGE HANDS IS AN AREA AROUND THE NORTHWESTERN TOWNS OF MRKONJIC GRAD AND SIPOVO. THE AREA WAS SEIZED BY CROAT FORCES FROM SERB MILITIAMEN DURING THE FINAL STAGES OF THE BOSNIAN WAR LATE LAST YEAR.

    SERB-OWNED HOMES IN THE TWO TOWNS AND SURROUNDING VILLAGES WERE LOOTED AND BURNED BY CROAT TROOPS, AFTER IT WAS ANNOUNCED AT THE DAYTON PEACE CONFERENCE THE AREA WOULD REVERT TO SERB CONTROL. BUT U-N-H-C-R SPOKESMAN RON REDMOND SAYS NEARLY 45-THOUSAND SERB CIVILIANS ARE NONETHELESS ANXIOUS TO RETURN.

    THOUSANDS PAID BRIEF VISITS TO THE AREA SUNDAY. BUT MR. REDMOND SAYS AN ORGANIZED REPATRIATION PROGRAM WILL NOT BEGIN FOR ANOTHER 10-DAYS.

    /// REDMOND ACT ///

    U-N-H-C-R WILL BE PROVIDING THE RETURNEES WITH EMERGENCY AID INCLUDING BLANKETS, MATTRESSES, FOOD AND SO ON, AND WE ARE ALSO LOOKING AT THE POSSIBILITY OF SETTING UP A PUBLIC KITCHEN IN MRKONJIC GRAD, AT LEAST UNTIL PEOPLE CAN GET COOKING FACILITIES IN THEIR OWN KITCHENS.

    /// END ACT ///

    MORE THAN TWO-MILLION BOSNIANS WERE FORCED INTO EXILE OR DISPLACED INSIDE THE COUNTRY DURING THREE-AND-ONE-HALF YEARS OF CONFLICT.

    A LARGE-SCALE, COUNTRY-WIDE REPATRIATION PROGRAM IS NOT LIKELY TO BEGIN FOR SEVERAL MONTHS. BUT U-N-H-C-R OFFICIALS SAY THERE IS AN URGENT NEED TO LAUNCH LIMITED RECONSTRUCTION PROJECTS SO THE RETURNING REFUGEES CAN BE ASSURED OF SOME SHELTER.

    MR. REDMOND SAYS U-N-H-C-R THIS WEEK IS APPEALING TO DONOR NATIONS FOR 30-MILLION DOLLARS TO FINANCE THE PURCHASE OF SHELTER MATERIALS FOR THE RETURNEES.

    /// REDMOND ACT ///

    WE HOPE THAT WE WILL GET THAT MONEY VERY QUICKLY BECAUSE I THINK GOVERNMENTS ALSO RECOGNIZE THAT THE REFUGEES IN THEIR COUNTRIES AS WELL AS THE INTERNALLY DISPLACED ON THE GROUND RIGHT NOW ARE NOT GOING TO GO BACK UNTIL AND UNLESS THERE IS SOMETHING TO GO BACK TO.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. REDMOND SAYS THE FUNDS WILL BE USED TO PURCHASE ROOFING TILES, BRICKS, CEMENT, AND TIMBER. THE CONTRACTS, FOR THE MOST PART, WILL GO TO BOSNIAN COMPANIES, IN A BID TO SPUR THE LOCAL ECONOMY.

    MR. REDMOND SAYS THE RECONSTRUCTION OF SEVERELY-DAMAGED HOMES WILL COST ON AVERAGE BETWEEN SEVEN TO 10-THOUSAND DOLLARS, WELL BEYOND U-N-H-C-R'S CAPACITY. BUT HE SAYS THE NEW PROGRAM WILL HOPEFULLY ALLOW RETURNING REFUGEES TO REPAIR ONE OR TWO ROOMS, ENOUGH TO ALLOW THEM INTO THEIR HOMES WHILE THEY AWAIT MAJOR RECONSTRUCTION AID EXPECTED FROM THE WORLD BANK AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS.

    MR. REDMOND SAYS U-N-H-C-R IS ALSO ALLOCATING ABOUT FIVE-MILLION DOLLLARS TO PURCHASE GLASS FOR SARAJEVO. IT IS TO REPLACE THE PLASTIC SHEETING EMBLAZONED WITH THE U-N-H-C-R LOGO THAT HAS COVERED WINDOWS THROUGHOUT THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL SINCE THE WAR BEGAN.

    MR. REDMOND SAYS THE NEW PROJECT SHOULD BENEFIT ABOUT 50-THOUSAND FAMILIES IN SARAJEVO, AS WELL AS ABOUT 200 PUBLIC BUILDINGS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DBR/JWH/RAE
    05-Feb-96 10:07 AM EST (1507 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] BOSNIA AID BY BARRY WOOD (DAVOS, SWITZERLAND)

    DATE=2/5/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-32365
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: OFFICIALS MEETING AT THE WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM IN SWITZERLAND THIS WEEK ARE DISCUSSING THE INTERNATIONAL AID AND RECONSTRUCTION EFFORT IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS THERE IS A SENSE OF URGENCY ABOUT GETTING THE PROGRAM UNDERWAY.

    TEXT: OFFICIALS INVOLVED IN THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD SAY PEACE WILL _NOT_ HOLD IN BOSNIA UNLESS THE ECONOMY IS ACTIVATED AND PEOPLE PUT BACK TO WORK. EIGHTY-PERCENT OF BOSNIA'S PEOPLE ARE NOW REPORTED TO DEPEND ON FOOD AID. ONLY FIVE PERCENT OF PRE-WAR INDUSTRIAL CAPACITY IS SAID TO BE CURRENTLY IN USE. AND ELECTRICITY GENERATION IS ONLY AN ESTIMATED TEN PERCENT OF WHAT IT WAS IN 1991.

    CARL BILDT, THE FORMER SWEDISH PRIME MINISTER, IS THE EUROPEAN UNION HIGH REPRESENTATIVE IN SARAJEVO.

    // BILDT ACTUALITY //

    I THINK IT CAN BE SAID ON THE ECONOMIC SIDE THAT IT IS A DAUNTING TASK THAT IS NOW FACING THE POLITICIANS OF BOSNIA FIRST AND FOREMOST, AND SECONDLY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY. THE WORLD BANK, THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION, (THE E-B-R-D --) THE EUROPEAN BANK, AND OTHERS ARE NOW PROGRESSING WITH PLANNING AND TO SOME EXTENT WITH EXECUTION OF THE FIRST PROJECT.

    // END ACTUALITY //

    THE WORLD BANK IS COORDINATING THE AID EFFORT. IT ESTIMATES THAT UP TO FIVE BILLION DOLLARS IS NEEDED FOR BOSNIA OVER THE NEXT THREE YEARS TO REPAIR WAR DAMAGE AND REVIVE THE ECONOMY. THE WORLD BANK HAS RECEIVED PLEDGES FOR ONE-TENTH OF THAT -- 500 MILLION DOLLARS. A PLEDGING CONFERENCE IS PLANNED FOR BRUSSELS IN EARLY APRIL. CHRISTINE WALLICH IS A WORLD BANK OFFICIAL WORKING ON THE BOSNIAN AID PACKAGE.

    // WALLICH ACTUALITY //

    THE WORLD BANK TOGETHER WITH THE E-U AND OTHER EXPERT ORGANIZATIONS PREPARED AN OVERALL PROGRAM FOR RECONSTRUCTION AMOUNTING TO SOME FIVE BILLION DOLLARS ACROSS A RANGE OF INFRASTRUCTURE SECTORS AND SOCIAL SECTORS AND INCLUDING SUPPORT FOR DEMOBILIZATION AND DE-MINING. THAT PROGRAM WILL BE PRESENTED IN THE APRIL CONFERENCE AND WE WILL HAVE A CONCRETE FOCUS ON THE NEEDS IN BOSNIA FOR THE FIRST YEAR, FOR 1996 AS A WHOLE.

    // END ACTUALITY //

    THERE HAVE BEEN DISPUTES INVOLVING HOW MUCH THE AMERICANS AND THE EUROPEANS EACH SHOULD CONTRIBUTE TO THE AID PROGRAM. MR. BILDT AND U-S NEGOTIATOR RICHARD HOLBROOKE SAY _NOT_ TOO MUCH SHOULD BE MADE OF THAT PROBLEM SINCE MONEY IS SCARCE ON BOTH SIDES OF THE ATLANTIC. THEY SAY THAT THE PROBLEM WILL BE RESOLVED AND THEY ARE OPTIMISTIC THAT OTHER DONORS -- INCLUDING THE WEALTHY ARAB OIL PRODUCING NATIONS AND JAPAN -- WILL STEP FORWARD.

    THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT IS ALREADY COMPLAINING THAT THE AID PROGRAM IS TOO SMALL. THEY SAY MUCH MORE MONEY IS NEEDED TO ASSIST THE 90-PERCENT OF THE BOSNIAN POPULATION WHO ARE WITHOUT JOBS. NATIONS BORDERING BOSNIA ALSO WANT AID AND PARTICULARLY WANT RECONSTRUCTION MONEY TO BE SPENT IN THEIR COUNTRIES. (SIGNED)

    NEB/BW/LTJ/ART
    05-Feb-96 3:21 PM EST (2021 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] BOSNIA / U-S DEATH (S-ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON )

    DATE=2/4/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-192251
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE BODY OF THE FIRST U-S SOLDIER TO DIE IN NATO'S PEACEKEEPING MISSION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA HAS BEEN FLOWN TO RAMSTEIN AIR FORCE BASE IN GERMANY. V-O-A'S VICTOR BEATTIE REPORTS AN INVESTIGATION IS UNDERWAY INTO THE EXPLOSION SATURDAY THAT KILLED ARMY SERGEANT FIRST CLASS DONALD DUGAN NORTH OF THE U-S MILITARY HEADQUARTERS IN TUZLA:

    TEXT: U-S MILITARY AUTHORITIES ARE TRYING TO DETERMINE WHAT KILLED SERGEANT DUGAN AS HE PATROLLED A ROAD NEAR GRADACAC, 40 KILOMETERS NORTH OF TUZLA.

    NEWS REPORTS QUOTE U-S MILITARY OFFICIALS AS SAYING SERGEANT DUGAN DID NOT STEP ON A LANDMINE OR TRIP THE WIRE OF AN ANTI-PERSONNEL DEVICE. AT THE SAME TIME, A U-S OFFICER IN TUZLA IS QUOTED AS SAYING SERGEANT DUGAN WAS NOT THE OBJECT OF ANY HOSTILE ACTION. AN AUTOPSY WILL BE PERFORMED AT RAMSTEIN. 38-YEAR-OLD DUGAN WAS BASED IN GERMANY AND WAS AN 18-YEAR ARMY VETERAN. HIS HOMETOWN WAS BELLE CENTER, OHIO, A SMALL COMMUNITY NOT FAR FROM DAYTON, WHERE THE BOSNIA PEACE ACCORDS WERE INITIALLED LAST NOVEMBER. HIS AUNT, MARY FAYE, SAYS THE FAMILY HOPES HIS DEATH WAS NOT IN VAIN:

    ///FAYE ACTUALITY///

    I HOPE THAT IT WILL MAKE OTHER SOLDIERS THERE BE A LITTLE MORE AWARE OF THE DANGERS. I'M SURE THEY'RE ALERT, BUT I'M SURE THIS WILL BRING IT HOME (CLOSER) TO THEM A LOT MORE THAN ANYTHING ELSE.

    ///END ACTUALITY///

    PRESIDENT CLINTON AND OTHER U-S OFFICIALS HAVE OFFERED THEIR CONDOLENCES TO THE SOLDIER'S FAMILY. HOWEVER, THE PRESIDENT SAYS HIS DEATH WILL NOT CHANGE U-S POLICY IN BOSNIA. (SIGNED)

    NEB/VB/SKH
    04-Feb-96 8:19 PM EST (0119 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] BOSNIA / U-S DEATH (S ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=2/5/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-192269
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: DOCTORS SAY FIRST U-S SERVICEMAN TO BE KILLED IN BOSNIA DIED OF HEAD INJURIES CAUSED BY AN EXPLOSION. BUT AS WE HEAR FROM V-O-A'S KYLE KING, DETAILS OF THE INCIDENT REMAIN SKETCHY.

    TEXT: THE AUTOPSY CONDUCTED AT THE ARMY-RUN HOSPITAL IN LANDSTUHL, GERMANY, INDICATE SERGEANT DONALD DUGAN DIED OF MASSIVE PENETRATING HEAD INJURIES.

    ALTHOUGH THE REPORT INDICATES HIS WOUNDS WERE THE RESULT OF AN EXPLOSION, IT IS STILL _NOT_ CLEAR WHAT KIND OF A DEVICE MAY HAVE KILLED HIM.

    SOME NEWS REPORTS SAY THE 38-YEAR-OLD ARMY SERGEANT MAY HAVE PICKED UP A PIECE OF UNEXPLODED ORDNANCE. BUT THERE HAS BEEN _NO_ OFFICIAL CONFIRMATION OF THAT.

    IN A REPORT FROM BOSNIA, THE UNOFFICIAL U-S MILITARY NEWSPAPER, "STARS AND STRIPES," SAYS THE SERGEANT WAS KILLED WHEN HE BENT DOWN TO GET A CLOSER LOOK AT SOMETHING ALONG THE EDGE OF THE ROAD, POSSIBLY A TRIP WIRE FOR A BOOBY TRAP. SUNDAY, PRESIDENT CLINTON TELEPHONED SERGEANT DUGAN'S WIFE TO EXPRESS HIS CONDOLENCES.

    THE U-S ARMY SOLDIER IS THE FIRST AMERICAN TO BE KILLED WHILE SERVING WITH THE NATO-LED PEACEKEEPING MISSION IN BOSNIA, WHERE A TOTAL OF NINE ALLIANCE SOLDIERS HAVE NOW GIVEN THEIR LIVES. (SIGNED)

    NEB/KBK/JWH/ART
    05-Feb-96 10:10 AM EST (1510 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] DAVOS / HOLBROOKE (L) BY BARRY WOOD (DAVOS, SWITZERLAND)

    DATE=2/5/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-192283
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE RICHARD HOLBROOKE SAYS THE BOSNIAN PEACE ACCORD IS BEING EFFECTIVELY IMPLEMENTED. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS THE U-S OFFICIAL IS IN DAVOS, SWITZERLAND WHERE THE WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM IS DISCUSSING THE INTERNATIONAL AID AND RECONSTRUCTION PROGRAM FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    TEXT: MR. HOLBROOKE WAS UPBEAT AS HE MET REPORTERS FRESH FROM VISITS TO ZAGREB, SARAJEVO, AND BELGRADE. HE SAID THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD IS ON TRACK WITH THE MILITARY COMPONENT GOING PARTICULARLY WELL.

    THE U-S NEGOTIATOR COMMENDED CARL BILDT, THE EUROPEAN UNION OFFICIAL WHO IS IN CHARGE OF IMPLEMENTING KEY NON-MILITARY ELEMENTS OF THE ACCORD. MR. HOLBROOKE SAID MR. BILDT IS DOING A FINE JOB, DESPITE OBSTACLES WHICH HAVE PUT THE RE-CONSTRUCTION PROGRAM BEHIND SCHEDULE.

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAID THE BOSNIAN OPERATION HAS IMPORTANCE FAR BEYOND THE IMMEDIATE REGION OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. HE SAID ITS OUTCOME HAS FAR REACHING IMPLICATIONS.

    /// HOLBROOKE ACT ///

    WHAT HAPPENS IN BOSNIA IN THE NEXT YEAR WILL FUNDAMENTALLY SHAPE THE FUTURE OF NATO. NATO HAS NEVER DONE ANYTHING LIKE THIS BEFORE. IT WILL FUNDAMENTALLY SHAPE RUSSIAN RELATIONSHIPS WITH THE UNITED STATES AND NATO. RUSSIA HAS NEVER PUT ITS TROOPS UNDER AN AMERICAN COMMANDER IN THE LAST 51-YEARS. IT WILL FUNDAMENTALLY AFFECT FRANCE'S RELATIONSHIP TO NATO AS THEY MOVE BACK INTO THE INTEGRATED STRUCTURE. IT WILL PROFOUNDLY AFFECT GERMANY AND ITS VIEW OF ITS OWN FOREIGN POLICY AND ITS FUTURE ROLE. BECAUSE THEY FOR THE FIRST TIME HAVE PUT FOUR-THOUSAND TROOPS INTO THIS FORCE. THEY ARE BASED IN CROATIA BUT THEY MOVE IN AND OUT OF BOSNIA. IT WILL HAVE A FUNDAMENTAL EFFECT ON AMERICAN ATTITUDES TOWARDS OUR OWN ROLE IN THE WORLD.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. HOLBROOKE, WHO RETURNS TO HIS CAREER AS AN INVESTMENT BANKER LATER THIS MONTH, SAID DIFFICULTIES WITHIN THE BOSNIA MUSLIM AND CROAT FEDERATION REMAIN THE GREATEST CURRENT THREAT TO STABILITY IN BOSNIA. BUT MR. HOLBROOKE SAID THERE HAS BEEN PROGRESS IN RECENT DAYS.

    MR. HOLBROOKE HAD KIND WORDS FOR SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, WITH WHOM HE AND MR. CHRISTOPHER HELD TALKS IN BELGRADE. HE SAID THE SERBS HAVE PLEDGED TO COOPERATE WITH THE WAR CRIME TRIBUNAL AND WERE FORTHCOMING ON THE ISSUE OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE SOUTHERN REGION OF KOSOVO. (SIGNED)

    NEB/BDW/JWH/RAE
    05-Feb-96 2:21 PM EST (1921 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] GERMANY / FOREIGNERS (S ONLY) BY DAGMAR BREITENBACH (BONN)

    DATE=2/5/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-192264
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE HUMAN RIGHTS GROUP AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL HAS PUBLISHED A REPORT ON ABUSE OF FOREIGNERS IN GERMANY BY POLICE OFFICERS AND JUSTICE OFFICIALS. V-O-A'S DAGMAR BREITENBACH REPORTS FROM BONN.

    TEXT: AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL SAYS IT HAS -- DURING THE PAST 10 MONTHS -- GATHERED A LARGE NUMBER OF REPORTS THAT GERMAN POLICE AND JUSTICE OFFICIALS ARE MISTREATING PEOPLE -- MOST OF THEM FOREIGNERS.

    THE HUMAN RIGHTS GROUP SAYS THE INCIDENTS TOOK PLACE IN FIVE OF THE 16 GERMAN STATES. THE GROUP SAYS IT DEMANDED EXPLANATIONS BY AUTHORITIES IN ALL THE CASES OF ALLEGED "INHUMANE AND ABUSIVE TREATMENT."

    IN A REPORT PUBLISHED MONDAY, AMNESTY CITES THE CASE OF A TURKISH MAN WHO WAS TAKEN INTO POLICE CUSTODY IN FRANKFURT. IT ALLEGED HE HAD BEEN PUNCHED, KICKED, AND HIS HEAD SLAMMED AGAINST THE WALL BY ONE OFFICER. THE MAN WAS TREATED AT A LOCAL HOSPITAL FOR A BROKEN RIB AND A FRACTURED CHEEKBONE.

    THE GROUP SAYS IT REGARDS THESE INJURIES AS INTENTIONAL, AND ADDS THAT SUCH MALTREATMENT COMES CLOSE TO TORTURE.

    AT THE SAME TIME, AMNESTY IS CHARGING GERMAN AUTHORITIES WITH NOT TAKING THE PROBLEM SERIOUSLY ENOUGH. THE GROUP CRITICIZES THE RESPONSE BY GERMAN AUTHORITIES TO A SIMILAR AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL REPORT PUBLISHED LAST MAY, REFLECTING THREE YEARS OF WHAT THE GROUP CALLED A WORRYING PATTERN OF POLICE ABUSE OF FOREIGNERS.

    GERMAN POLITICIANS AND THE POLICE OFFICERS' UNION HAD DISMISSED THAT REPORT AS EXAGGERATED. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DB/JWH/CF
    05-Feb-96 8:02 AM EST (1302 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [08] NATO EXPANSION BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=2/5/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-32355
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: GERMAN FOREIGN MINISTER KLAUS KINKEL SAYS NATO PLANS TO ADMIT NEW MEMBERS FROM EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE WILL TAKE TIME. HE SAYS HE DOES NOT EXPECT THE ALLIANCE TO MAKE MUCH PROGRESS THIS YEAR TOWARD PERSUADING RUSSIA TO ACCEPT THE IDEA. V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS ALLIANCE OFFICIALS ARE PUSHING AHEAD WITH EXPANSION PLANS -- DESPITE RUSSIAN OPPOSITION.

    TEXT: GERMAN FOREIGN MINISTER KLAUS KINKEL SAYS THE UPCOMING ELECTIONS IN RUSSIA WILL PROBABLY PREVENT THE ALLIANCE FROM PERSUADING MOSCOW TO ACCEPT NATO EXPANSION. BUT, IN REMARKS THAT ECHO THOSE OF TOP NATO OFFICIALS WHO MET IN MUNICH DURING THE WEEKEND, MR. KINKEL TOLD GERMAN RADIO THAT THE ALLIANCE MUST MOVE CAUTIOUSLY AHEAD WITH ITS PLANS.

    MR. KINKEL'S COMMENTS COME ONE DAY AFTER U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY SAID THE ENLARGEMENT OF THE 16 MEMBER NATO ALLIANCE IS INEVITABLE.

    ALLIANCE OFFICIALS HAVE MADE IT CLEAR THAT NATO WILL OPEN ITS DOORS TO EMERGING DEMOCRACIES IN CENTRAL EUROPE THAT WANT TO BECOME MEMBERS. POLAND, HUNGARY, AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC ARE CONSIDERED LEADING CANDIDATES. BUT THE ALLIANCE HAS NOT YET SAID WHICH COUNTRIES WILL BE ADMITTED OR WHEN.

    ALTHOUGH NATO OFFICIALS SAY THE EASTWARD EXPANSION OF THE ALLIANCE DOES NOT POSE A THREAT TO RUSSIA, OFFICIALS THERE HAVE EXPRESSED OPPOSITION TO THE IDEA.

    DURING THE WEEKEND EUROPEAN SECURITY CONFERENCE IN MUNICH, A TOP RUSSIAN OFFICIAL SAID NATO EXPANSION COULD SPARK A BACKLASH AGAINST REFORMS IN RUSSIA BY INCREASING SUSPICIONS ABOUT WESTERN INTENTIONS.

    DESPITE RUSSIAN CONCERNS, U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY SAYS HE HAS BEEN ENCOURAGED BY RECENT COOPERATION BETWEEN RUSSIA AND NATO IN BOSNIA. MR. PERRY SAYS SUCH JOINT EFFORTS COULD SERVE AS A MODEL FOR OTHER VENTURES. BUT, RUSSIAN APPREHENSION ABOUT NATO EXPANSION IS NOT THE ONLY ROADBLOCK FACED BY THE ALLIANCE. PUBLIC OPINION POLLS FROM POLAND AND HUNGARY SHOW A DECLINE IN THE BROAD PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR NATO MEMBERSHIP THAT HAD EXISTED AS THE COLD WAR WAS COMING TO AN END.

    IN HUNGARY, A RECENT POLL INDICATED AN INCREASE IN OPPOSITION TO NATO EXPANSION FROM 11 TO 30 PERCENT FOLLOWING PUBLICATION OF THE CONDITIONS FOR JOINING. IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC, SOME POLITICAL LEADERS ARE CALLING FOR A POPULAR REFERENDUM ON THE IDEA AND HAVE EXPRESSED OPPOSITION TO THE STATIONING OF FOREIGN TROOPS OR NUCLEAR WEAPONS ON CZECH SOIL.

    WHATEVER THE OUTCOME OF DEBATE WITHIN THOSE COUNTRIES THAT SEEK NATO MEMBERSHIP, WESTERN LEADERS SAY THEY REMAIN SENSITIVE TO RUSSIAN CONCERNS. GERMAN CHANCELLOR HELMUT KOHL SAID JUST LAST WEEK, THAT HE DID NOT EXPECT ANY MAJOR DECISIONS TO BE MADE IN THE NEXT FEW MONTHS.

    MR. KOHL AND OTHER WESTERN OFFICIALS SAY THEY DO NOT WANT THE IDEA TO BECOME A MAJOR CAMPAIGN ISSUE DURING THE RUSSIAN ELECTIONS. BUT THEY SAY NATO WILL PRESS ON WITH ITS PLANS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/KBK/JWH/CF
    05-Feb-96 8:51 AM EST (1351 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [09] U-S/GREECE HOLBROOKE (L-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=2/5/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-192290
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE RICHARD HOLBROOKE HAS CANCELLED PLANNED VISITS TO GREECE AND TURKEY AIMED AT FURTHER DEFUSING TENSIONS IN THE AEGEAN AFTER LAST MONTH'S CRISIS. A U-S MEDIATED COMPROMISE IN THE CRISIS OVER CONTROL A TINY CONTESTED ISLAND IS NOW THE CENTER OF A POLITICAL ROW IN GREECE. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: MR. HOLBROOKE HAS SCRAPPED PLANS FOR A FINAL MISSION ON THE AEGEAN DISPUTE AFTER GREECE MADE CLEAR THE SENIOR OFFICIAL WOULD NOT BE WELCOME IN ATHENS.

    THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY WAS THE CHIEF ARCHITECT OF THE DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION THAT HEADED OFF A POSSIBLE OUTBREAK OF HOSTILITIES BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY LATE LAST MONTH OVER POSSESSION OF A TINY ISLAND OFF THE TURKISH COAST.

    THE U-S MEDIATED COMPROMISE, UNDER WHICH GREEK FORCES WITHDREW FROM THE ROCKY ISLAND THEY HAD OCCUPIED A DAY EARLIER, HAS BECOME AN ISSUE OF DISPUTE IN GREECE -- WITH MR. HOLBROOKE COMING UNDER ATTACK THERE FOR ALLEGEDLY COMPROMISING GREEK RIGHTS IN ARRANGING THE PULLBACK.

    THE NEW GREEK PRIME MINISTER -- COSTAS SIMITIS -- EFFECTIVELY CLOSED THE DOOR ON MR. HOLBROOKE MONDAY BY SAYING THE U-S DIPLOMAT'S VISIT DID NOT FIT IN WITH THE GREEK GOVERNMENT'S SCHEDULE.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN GLYN DAVIES SUGGESTED THERE WAS SOME IRONY TO THE TURN OF EVENTS -- AFTER WHAT HE SAID HAD BEEN AN ALL-OUT U-S DIPLOMATIC EFFORT TO PREVENT HOSTILITIES:

    /// DAVIES ACTUALITY ///

    THE PRESIDENT, THE SECRETARY OF STATE AND MANY OTHERS IN THE GOVERNMENT -- NOTABLY ASSISTANT SECRETARY HOLBROOKE -- PULLED OUT ALL THE STOPS DIPLOMATICALLY TO PREVENT A CONFRONTATION OVER IMIA SLASH KARDAK. AND WE BELIEVE WE WERE SUCCESSFUL BECAUSE THERE WASN'T ANY KIND OF CONFRONTATION. TENSIONS DID NOT ESCALATE IN THE AEGEAN AT THAT TIME. SO OUR CONCERN, I SUPPOSE, IS WITH THE FACT THAT WE ARE NOW IN SOME FASHION BEING LABELED AS PART OF THE PROBLEM HERE, RATHER THAN PART OF THE SOLUTION SINCE WE THOUGHT WE WERE PART OF THE SOLUTION.

    /// END ACT ///

    SPOKESMAN DAVIES STRESSED THAT THE UNITED STATES TOOK NO POSITION ON THE CENTRAL ISSUE IN THE RECENT CRISIS -- THAT OF SOVEREIGNTY OVER THE ISLAND, KNOWN AS IMIA IN GREECE AND KARDAK TO THE TURKS.

    MR. HOLBROOKE HAS SAID GREECE AND TURKEY WENT TO THE BRINK OF WAR BEFORE HIS MEDIATION, AND THAT UNTIL THE TWO COUNTRIES NORMALIZE THEIR RELATIONSHIP, A SIMILAR INCIDENT COULD ERUPT AGAIN.

    THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY WAS ALSO TO HAVE VISITED CYPRUS, ANOTHER FOCUS OF GREEK-TURKISH TENSIONS ON THE NOW-CANCELLED MISSION. SPOKESMAN DAVIES SAID THE CANCELLATION REFLECTS NO LESSENING OF THE U-S COMMITMENT TO FIND A SOLUTION FOR CYPRUS, WHICH HAS BEEN DIVIDED SINCE TURKEY'S OCCUPATION OF THE NORTHERN THIRD OF THE ISLAND IN 1974. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DAG/CB/LWM
    05-Feb-96 6:08 PM EST (2308 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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