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Voice of America, 23 May 1996

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] BOSNIA ELECTIONS (L) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)
  • [03] BOSNIA SITREP (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)
  • [04] BOSNIAN REFUGEE CENTER BY ROSANNE SKIRBLE (WASHINGTON)
  • [05] BRITAIN/E-U (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)
  • [06] EUROPE ECONOMIES (L ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)
  • [07] KARADZIC:THE BOSNIAN PEACE STUMBLING BLOCK BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [08] SENATE-BOSNIA (L) BY DAVID SWAN (SENATE)
  • [09] TURKEY / NATO (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (TURKEY)
  • [10] YUGO SITREP (S UPDATE) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)
  • [11] YUGO WAR CRIMES PROTEST (S ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [12] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

  • [01] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=05/23/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09589
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON THURSDAY, MAY 23RD //

    INTRO: A WIDE RANGE OF TOPICS COMES UNDER THE SCRUTINY OF U-S EDITORIAL WRITERS ON THIS THURSDAY. SEVERAL PAPERS FOCUS ON THE REPEAL OF A FEDERAL GASOLINE TAX. OTHER SUBJECTS INCLUDE THE WORK OF THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION; OBSTRUCTIONS TO THE PEACE PROCESS IN BOSNIA; A SUPREME COURT DECISION STRIKING DOWN "EXCESSIVE" DAMAGE AWARDS IN CIVIL CASES, AND MORE CONNENT ON THE SUPREME COURT DECISION ON PROTECTING THE RIGHTS OF HOMOSEXUALS. NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS ____________________ AND TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: TODAY'S MINNEAPOLIS STAR TRIBUNE IS CRITICAL OF HOUSE-PASSED LEGISLATION TO THE REPEAL A FEDERAL GASOLINE (PETROL) TAX OF JUST OVER ONE CENT PER LITER. SAYS THE STAR TRIBUNE:

    VOICE: "... CONGRESS CAN REWRITE THE LAWS OF THE LAND, BUT IT CANNOT REPEAL THE LAWS OF ACCOUNTING. GIVING MONEY AWAY WITH ONE HAND WHILE TAKING IT BACK WITH ANOTHER DOES NOT AMOUNT TO A TAX CUT... THE TAX REPEALERS ASSUME ... THAT THE GOVERNMENT SHOULD INTERVENE TO CUSHION MOTORISTS FROM THE UPWARD PRESSURE ON GASOLINE PRICES THAT HAS RESULTED FROM THE REASONABLE INTERPLAY OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND -- A CURIOUS ASSUMPTION FOR REPUBLICANS WHO PROFESS ALLEGIANCE TO FREE MARKET."

    TEXT: IN PENNSYLVANIA, THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER IS EQUALLY OFFENDED BY THE CONGRESSIONAL ACTION, CALLING IT "DALLYING ON THE DEFICIT," AND SUGGESTING: "WITH THE GAS-TAX REPEAL AND OTHER GIMMICKS, LAWMAKERS FIDDLE WHILE DEFICITS BURN THE FUTURE."

    THE INQUIRER ADDS:

    VOICE: "TAKING FOUR PENNIES [PER GALLON] OFF THE GAS TAX [1.136 CENTS-PER-LITER] AS THE HOUSE VOTED TO DO ON TUESDAY, IS THE PERFECT SYMBOL OF THIS YEAR'S BUDGET WARS. THIS TAX CUT INDULGES IN THE SHORT-TERM ITCH TO BUY VOTES, INSTEAD OF TAKING ON THE LONGTERM NEED TO END THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT'S DANGEROUS HABIT OF SPENDING MORE THAN IT HAS."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: TODAY'S MIAMI HERALD IS PLEASED THAT LOCAL POLITICIANS DEFEATED EFFORTS TO REPEAL A METRO DADE COUNTY'S GASOLINE TAX, NOTING THAT THE MONEY IS USED TO PAY FOR THE MIAMI AREA'S ROAD AND BRIDGE IMPROVEMENTS.

    VOICE: "NO ONE 'LIKES' [ITALICS FOR EMPHASIS] TAXES, MUCH LESS INCREASING THEM. BUT DADE COUNTY [FLORIDA] CANNOT LIVE UP TO ITS CLAIM TO BE THE GATEWAY TO THE AMERICAS IF IT REFUSES TO INVEST ADEQUATELY IN INFRASTRUCTURE."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO ANOTHER DOMESTIC CONCERN, AVIATION SAFETY, TODAY'S WASHINGTON POST SAYS THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, AGENCY THAT ENFORCES AIR SAFETY, SHOULD BE INSPECTING INSELF:

    VOICE: "WHATEVER THE SPECIFIC CAUSE OF THE HORRIBLE VALUJET CRASH INTO THE EVERGLADES, THE AIRLINE'S PLANES, TRAINING, PRACTICES AND PAST RECORDS ARE UNDER NEW AND NECESSARY SCRUTINY. WHATEVER THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION SAYS IT WAS DOING BEFORE THE CRASH TO MONITOR AND CORRECT ANY VIOLATIONS OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS BY THIS RAPID-GROWTH, LOW-FARE AIRLINE, PUBLIC CONFIDENCE IN THE GOVERNMENT'S AIR SAFETY INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES HAS BEEN SHAKEN... PROPOSALS IN CONGRESS TO CHANGE THE MANAGERIAL, PROCUREMENT AND TRAINING FUNCTIONS OF THE F-A-A SHOULD BE REEXAMINED WHILE THE SPOTLIGHT IS ON."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES SAYS PART OF THE PROBLEM IS THE F-A-A'S DUEL ROLE OF BOTH PROMOTING CIVIL AVIATION AND REGULATING IT, WHICH ARE OFTEN AT CROSS PURPOSES.

    VOICE: "WHEN THEY [THE DUAL ROLES] CONFLICT, AS CAN HAPPEN IN THE AFTERMATH OF AN AVIATION TRAGEDY, THE FLYING PUBLIC IS SHORTCHANGED... THE MOST IMPORTANT CORRECTIVE ACTION ... CONGRESS ... COULD TAKE WOULD BE TO RELIEVE THE F-A-A OF ANY PROMOTIONAL ROLE AND INSIST THAT IT CONCENTRATE SOLELY ON SAFETY."

    TEXT: TURNING TO EUROPEAN AFFAIRS, THE NEW YORK TIMES, IN ITS LEAD EDITORIAL THIS THURSDAY, CALLS FOR THE REMOVAL FROM POWER OF BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS RADOVAN KARADZIC AND GENERAL RATKO MLADIC, BOTH OF WHOM HAVE BEEN INDICTED ON WAR CRIMES CHARGES. SAYS THE POST:

    VOICE: "THEY PRESENT A CLEAR DANGER TO THE FUTURE OF THE BOSNIA PEACE. [OPT] ... THE DAYTON FORMULA CAN STILL WORK, PROVIDED ITS INTERNATIONAL SPONSORS, INCLUDING THE UNITED STATES, HOLD ITS BALKAN SIGNERS TO THEIR PLEDGES. THAT MEANS INSISTING THAT MR. MILOSEVIC HELP PUSH MR. KARADZIC AND GENERAL MLADIC FROM POWER. [END OPT]

    TEXT: TODAY'S BOSTON GLOBE APPLAUDS CONGRESSIONAL REPUBLICANS WHO DECIDED TO WITHDRAW PROPOSED LEGISLATION THAT WOULD HAVE SPENT BILLIONS OF DOLLARS ON A NEW ANTI-MISSILE DEFENSE PROGRAM.

    VOICE: "THE REPUBLICANS WERE WISE TO ACCEDE TO BUDGETARY REALITY. BUT THE CRUCIAL FLAW IN THE REPUBLICAN PLAN CENTERED NEITHER ON COST NOR ON THE DESIRABILITY OF A MISSILE DEFENSE, BUT ON THE CALENDAR FOR DEVELOPING AND DEPLOYING ONE."

    TEXT: A PAIR OF SUPREME COURT DECISIONS, RENDERED MONDAY, ARE STILL REVERBERATING ACROSS THE EDITORIAL PAGES OF MANY PAPERS. OF A DECISION STRIKING DOWN A COLORADO CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT THAT WOULD HAVE PERMITTED DISCRIMINATION AGAINST HOMOSEXUALS, THE NEW YORK POST SAYS THE CULTURAL STRUGGLE OVER HOMOSEXUALITY WILL NOT END WITH THE FAVORABLE DECISION.

    VOICE: "NOW ... THE GOALS OF THE GAY MOVEMENT HAVE SHIFTED: TODAY ACTIVISTS ARE PUSHING FOR THE LEGALIZATION OF HOMOSEXUAL MARRIAGE... IN OTHER WORDS, WITHOUT THE AMERICAN PEOPLE HAVING BEEN CONSULTED IN ANY MEANINGFUL WAY, THE COUNTRY MAY WELL WITNESS THE UTTER TRANSFORMATION OF ONE OF SOCIETY'S CORE INSTITUTIONS... HOMOSEXUALS WANT TO HAVE THEIR WEDDING CAKES, AS WELL AS WHATEVER FINANCIAL AND SOCIAL ADVANTAGES ACCRUE TO MARRIED COUPLES (... HEALTH BENEFITS ARE A BIG ITEM), WITHOUT SURRENDERING THEIR RIGHT TO CONTINUE THEIR GAY LIFESTYLES ... OFTEN ... CHARACTERIZED BY RAMPANT SEXUAL PROMISCUITY."

    TEXT: THE WASHINGTON POST LOOKS AT ANOTHER COURT DECISION -- THE STRIKING DOWN OF A TWO-MILLION-DOLLAR PUNITIVE (CIVIL) DAMAGE AWARD TO AN ALABAMA DOCTOR WHO SUED A B-M-W [BAVERIAN MOTOR WORKS] CAR DEALER FOR SELLING HIM A "NEW" CAR THAT HAD BEEN REPAINTED BECAUSE OF A FACTORY DEFECT. EXPERTS SAID IT LOWERED THE CAR'S VALUE BY FOUR- THOUSAND DOLLARS. THE POST CALLS THE DAMAGE AWARD WAS "AN ARBITRARY AND UNLIMITED PENALTY AT THE WHIM OF A JURY," AND SUGGESTS CONGRESS SHOULD PASS CORRECTIVE LEGISLATION USING THE COURT'S RULING AS A GUIDELINES:

    VOICE: "A CRIMINAL CODE THAT DID NOT PUT INDIVIDUALS ON NOTICE ABOUT WHAT KIND OF CONDUCT IS TO BE PENALIZED AND WHAT THE PENALTY WILL BE WOULD BE UNTHINKABLE. YET THIS KIND OF RISK IS IMPOSED IN CIVIL CASES ANY TIME A PLAINTIFF SEEKS PUNITIVE DAMAGES."

    TEXT: THE BOSTON GLOBE ALSO COMMENTS ON THE DECISION:

    VOICE: "A FEW LAWYERS WILL BE DISCOURAGED BY THE RULING, BUT MANY MORE WILL NO DOUBT SEEK HIGH DAMAGES AS LONG AS THEIR CLIENTS' GRIEVANCES ARE MORE SUBSTANTIAL THAN A BLEMISH ON A CAR."

    TEXT: THAT BRINGS US TO THE END OF THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF SOME TOPICS FROM TODAY'S U-S PRESS EDITORIALS.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    23-May-96 12:07 PM EDT (1607 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] BOSNIA ELECTIONS (L) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=5/23/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197638
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE FIRST FREE ELECTIONS IN POST-WAR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA ARE GOING TO BE DELAYED. BUT, THE AMERICAN ENVOY TO THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA SAYS HE BELIEVES NATIONWIDE ELECTIONS CAN STILL BE HELD IN SEPTEMBER AS PLANNED. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: EUROPEAN UNION MEDIATORS HAVE WORKED OUT A NEW TIMETABLE FOR LOCAL ELECTIONS IN THE TOWN OF MOSTAR IN SOUTHWESTERN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE ELECTIONS WERE SCHEDULED FOR MAY 31ST. THEY ARE NOW EXPECTED TO BE HELD SOME TIME IN JUNE.

    THE DELAY IS DUE TO A THREATENED ELECTION BOYCOTT BY MUSLIM PARTIES. THEY HAVE DEMANDED THAT MUSLIM RESIDENTS, FORCED OUT OF MOSTAR BY THE CROATS, BE ALLOWED TO PARTICIPATE IN THE VOTING.

    E-U OFFICIALS INITIALLY SAID THE BALLOTING WOULD GO AHEAD DESPITE THE BOYCOTT. AFTER RECONSIDERING THE SITUATION, IT HAS BEEN DECIDED THAT THE ELECTIONS WOULD BE MEANINGLESS UNLESS THE MUSLIMS ARE INVOLVED.

    MUSLIMS AND CROATS IN MOSTAR FOUGHT EACH OTHER IN BITTER CLASHES IN 1993 THAT LEFT THE MUSLIM EASTERN PORTION OF THE TOWN DEVASTATED. PROGRESS HAS BEEN MADE THIS YEAR IN PHYSICALLY REUNITING THE DIVIDED HALVES OF MOSTAR. E-U (EUROPEAN UNION) OFFICIALS HOPE REASONABLY FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS, ACCEPTED BY MUSLIMS AND CROATS, WILL SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE THE SITUATION IN MOSTAR AND STRENGTHEN THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    NATIONWIDE ELECTIONS IN THE COUNTRY ARE SUPPOSED TO BE HELD NO LATER THAN SEPTEMBER. THERE ARE WIDESPREAD DOUBTS AT THE MOMENT WHETHER THE NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR THEM EXIST.

    A PROMINENT HUMAN RIGHTS GROUP, THE INTERNATIONAL HELSINKI FEDERATION, HAS CALLED FOR THE ELECTIONS THROUGHOUT BOSNIA TO BE POSTPONED. BUT, AMERICAN ENVOY JOHN KORNBLUM TOLD REPORTERS IN SARAJEVO HE THINKS THEY CAN BE HELD IN SEPTEMBER AS PLANNED. HE SAYS THEY DO NOT HAVE TO BE PERFECTLY DEMOCRATIC AND THAT THE BASIC CONDITIONS FOR THEM TO TAKE PLACE WILL EXIST.

    IT IS NOT CLEAR IF MR. KORNBLUM WAS IMPLYING THAT HE EXPECTS THE HARDLINE BOSNIAN SERB LEADER, RADOVAN KARADZIC, TO GIVE UP POWER SOON. MR. KARADZIC IS WIDELY REGARDED AS THE MAIN OBSTACLE TO THE BOSNIAN PEACE PROCESS. INTERNATIONAL MEDIATORS REFUSE TO DIRECTLY DEAL WITH HIM BECAUSE HE FACES INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES CHARGES.

    THE MAJOR POWERS ARE TRYING TO ISOLATE HIM AND TO REDUCE HIS INFLUENCE BY COURTING SERB OFFICIALS BELIEVED MORE MODERATE AND MORE WILLING TO SUPPORT THE BOSNIAN PEACE PLAN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WC/JWH/CF
    23-May-96 11:24 AM EDT (1524 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] BOSNIA SITREP (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=5/23/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197637
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE SENIOR U-S ENVOY TO BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA SAYS BOSNIAN-SERB PRESIDENT RADOVAN KARADZIC MUST BE REMOVED FROM PUBLIC AUTHORITY. DIPLOMAT JOHN KORNBLUM SAID IN SARAJEVO -- AT THE END OF A VISIT TO BALKAN CAPITALS -- THE UNITED STATES IS WAITING FOR CLEAR SIGNS MR. KARADZIC IS NO LONGER CONTROLLING THE BOSNIAN-SERB LEADERSHIP. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO.

    TEXT: ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE JOHN KORNBLUM FINISHED HIS TWO-DAY VISIT TO THE CAPITALS OF SERBIA, CROATIA, AND BOSNIA BY AGAIN INSISTING ON COMPLETE BOSNIAN-SERB COMPLIANCE WITH THE DAYTON AGREEMENT.

    MR. KORNBLUM SAID HE MADE CLEAR TO SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IN BELGRADE WEDNESDAY THAT RADOVAN KARADZIC COULD NOT BE ALLOWED TO INTERFERE IN THE POLITICAL PROCESS IN BOSNIA.

    /// ACT - KORNBLUM ///

    I MADE CLEAR THAT THE UNITED STATES EXPECTS KARADZIC AND MLADIC NOT ONLY TO BE REMOVED FROM POWER, BUT ALSO TO BE PRESENTED TO THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE.

    /// END ACT ///

    SENIOR AMERICAN OFFICIALS SAY MR. MILOSEVIC HAS INSISTED MR. KARADZIC IS NO LONGER IN CHARGE OF THE BOSNIAN-SERB LEADERSHIP. BUT MR. KORNBLUM INSISTED HE WANTED TO SEE DEMONSTRABLE PROGRESS FROM THE BOSNIAN SERBS, AND STATEMENTS WOULD NOT BE ENOUGH.

    MR. KORNBLUM ALSO SAID OTHER BOSNIAN-SERB OFFICIALS MUST ACTIVELY FULFILL THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DAYTON AGREEMENT.

    /// ACT - KORNBLUM ///

    OBVIOUSLY, THE STATEMENTS, THE PERCEIVED INTENT, AND THE BEHAVIOR OF OFFICIALS IN SRPSKA IS STILL NOT ACCEPTABLE, AND WE WILL CONTINUE TO PUSH VERY HARD ON THIS.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. KORNBLUM ALSO SAID THERE HAD BEEN SOME RECENT IMPROVEMENT IN BOSNIAN-SERB COOPERATION WITH THE PEACE IMPLEMENTATION EFFORT. HE SAID THE RE-IMPOSITION OF ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST SERBIA AND THE BOSNIAN SERBS REMAINED AN OPTION, BUT HE SAID HE DID NOT EXPECT THAT TO HAPPEN ANYTIME SOON.

    MR. KORNBLUM SAID THE UNITED STATES HAS NUMEROUS OTHER ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL LEVERS THAT COULD BE APPLIED FIRST TO ENCOURAGE COOPERATION FROM THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT AND THE BOSNIAN SERBS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DF/JWH/RAE
    23-May-96 11:17 AM EDT (1517 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] BOSNIAN REFUGEE CENTER BY ROSANNE SKIRBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=5/23/96
    TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE
    NUMBER=3-25108
    TELEPHONE=619-3903
    EDITOR=NANCY SMART
    CONTENT= [INSERTS IN AUDIO SERVICES]
    //ED NOTE: THIS IS THE FOURTH IN A SERIES OF FEATURES ON CHICAGO'S MULTIETHNIC COMMUNITY WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON BOSNIAN REFUGEES. //

    INTRO: WHEN THE WAR BROKE OUT IN BOSNIA IN 1992, THE IMPACT WAS FELT 7,500 KILOMETERS AWAY IN CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. FIRST, MEDICAL EVACUEES ARRIVED, FOLLOWED BY HUNDREDS OF WAR VICTIMS IN A STEADY STREAM TO THIS MIDWESTERN CITY ON THE SHORES OF LAKE MICHIGAN. RESETTLEMENT AGENCIES IN CHICAGO ARE PROCESSING APPROXIMATELY 15-HUNDRED BOSNIAN REFUGEES A YEAR AND EXPECT THOSE LEVELS TO CONTINUE FOR

    SEVERAL MORE YEARS. IN THIS REPORT, VOA'S ROSANNE

    SKIRBLE TAKES US TO THE BOSNIAN REFUGEE CENTER IN DOWNTOWN CHICAGO, RUN BY BOSNIAN REFUGEES FOR THE BOSNIAN REFUGEE COMMUNITY.

    TEXT: WHEN THOUSANDS OF BOSNIANS FLED THEIR COUNTRY THEY LEFT BEHIND A COMMUNITY. ADNAN ARSLANAGIC (PRON:ARZ-LAN-AH-GICH), A PHYSICIAN FROM SARAJEVO, FELT THAT LOSS THE MOMENT HE STEPPED OFF THE AIRPLANE IN CHICAGO.

    TAPE CUT ONE: ADNAN ARSLANAGIC (:07) "I DIDN'T WANT TO COME TO THE UNITED STATES, BUT THE WAR PUSHED ME HERE."

    TEXT: THIRTY-FIVE HUNDRED BOSNIANS HAVE BEEN PUSHED BY WAR TO CHICAGO. LIKE ADNAN ARSLANAGIC, THEY MUST LEARN A NEW LANGUAGE, FIND A NEW JOB AND ADAPT TO LIFE IN A FOREIGN COUNTRY. AND TO DO THAT, HE SAYS, THEY NEED TO SUPPORT ONE ANOTHER -- WHICH IS WHY THE BOSNIAN REFUGEE CENTER OPENED ITS DOORS IN 1994 WITH ADNAN ARSLANAGIC AS ITS DIRECTOR.

    TAPE CUT TWO: ADNAN ARSLANAGIC (:28) "THE MAIN PURPOSE OF THE BOSNIAN REFUGEE CENTER IS TO HELP THE BOSNIAN REFUGEES TO ADJUST TO THE NEW LIFE IN THE UNITED STATES, TO HELP THEM CREATE ONE SINGLE FOCUS IN THE BOSNIAN COMMUNITY, AND ALSO TO OFFER THEM A PLACE THEY CAN COME TO HEAL AFTER SERIOUS EMOTIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAUMAS THAT HAD IN BOSNIA."

    TEXT: ADNAN ARSLANAGIC AND TWO OTHER REFUGEE STAFF WORKERS MAKE THIS HAPPEN. AS REFUGEES THEY SAY THEY BETTER UNDERSTAND THOSE THEY SERVE.

    TAPE CUT THREE: ADNAN ARSLANAGIC/SKIRBLE (:48) ARSLANAGIC: "I HAVE EXPERIENCE FROM THE WAR. I ARRIVED IN THE UNITED STATES FROM THE WAR ZONE. I ARRIVED FROM ONE OF THE SARAJEVO SUBURBS THAT WAS OCCUPIED BY SERBS, AND I WAS ONE OF THE PERSONS WHO WAS ETHNICALLY CLEANSED FROM THAT AREA, AND HERE THERE ARE A LOT OF BOSNIAN REFUGEES WHO ARRIVED FROM AREAS ETHNICALLY CLEANSED BY (THE) SERBS." SKIRBLE: "AND YOU ALSO HAVE EXPERIENCE IN THE AMERICAN SYSTEM AND KNOW HOW TO NEGOTIATE THAT SYSTEM." ARSLANAGIC: "I CAN NOT SAY THAT I HAVE (A LOT) OF EXPERIENCE WITH THE AMERICAN SYSTEM BECAUSE I ARRIVED ONLY 18 MONTHS AGO, BUT I CAN SAY THAT WE LEARN TOGETHER."

    TEXT: FROM ONE LARGE ROOM IN A DOWNTOWN OFFICE BUILDING ARSLANAGIC AND HIS CO-WORKERS ORGANIZE ENGLISH CLASSES, TRANSLATE DOCUMENTS, PLAN GET TOGETHERS FOR THE ELDERLY, RUN AFTER SCHOOL PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN AND EDIT A BOSNIAN COMMUNITY NEWSPAPER.

    THEY ALSO FIELD QUESTIONS ON THE PHONE, VISIT REFUGEES IN THEIR HOMES AND WELCOME ANYONE WHO WALKS THROUGH THE DOOR. TODAY MICHAEL SULLIVAN, FROM A LOCAL EMPLOYMENT AGENCY, STOPS BY TO INTERVIEW AND HIRE BOSNIANS FOR FACTORY JOBS.

    TAPE CUT FOUR: MICHAEL SULLIVAN/SKIRBLE (:28) MICHAEL SULLIVAN: "WE'VE BEEN WORKING TOGETHER IN PLACING THEIR CLIENTS OUT ON ASSIGNMENTS AND GETTING THEM WORK WITHIN IN THE CHICAGO AREA." SKIRBLE: "AND WHAT SUCCESS HAVE YOU HAD?" MICHAEL SULLIVAN: "A GREAT SUCCESS. THE PEOPLE THAT WE'VE PLACED OUT ON ASSIGNMENTS, OUR CUSTOMERS HAVE GROWN REALLY FOND OF. THEY HAVE A GREAT WORK ETHIC. THEY ARE VERY DEDICATED TO THE JOBS THAT THEY DO, AND THEY ARE VERY SAFETY AND QUALITY CONTROL CONSCIOUS."

    TEXT: ABOUT TEN BOSNIANS ARE FILLING OUT APPLICATIONS, OTHERS DROP IN FOR A CUP OF COFFEE AND CONVERSATION.

    TAPE CUT FIVE: ADNAN ARSLANAGIC (:09) "THIS IS ESAD AND SENA. THEY ARE OUR VOLUNTEERS FROM THE BEGINNING WHEN WE START WITH OUR ACTIVITY IN DECEMBER 1994. "

    TEXT: ESAD IS A CONCENTRATION CAMP SURVIVOR DISABLED BY THE TRAUMA OF WAR. HE VISITS THE CENTER REGULARLY FOLLOWING APPOINTMENTS NEXT DOOR AT THE BOSNIA MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM.

    TAPE CUT SIX: BOSNIAN REFUGEE IN BOSNIAN SEQUE WITH ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS/SKIRBLE (:42) ESAD: "I AM VERY HAPPY BECAUSE I FOUND THE PEOPLE HERE. THEY HELP ME A LOT AND I AM VERY HAPPY BECAUSE PEOPLE HERE IN MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM OFFERED ME HELP, AND I SEE NOW A LOT OF BENEFITS FROM THAT." SKIRBLE: "AND YOU ARE ABLE TO GO ON WITH YOUR LIFE." MAN: YES. WHEN I ARRIVED I ARRIVED IN THE UNITED STATES I CAN SAY I WAS ALMOST CRAZY. NOW VERY GOOD!"

    TEXT: ADNAN ARSLANAGIC SAYS THE BOSNIAN REFUGEE CENTER IS TRYING TO REACH OUT TO PEOPLE LIKE ESAD, PEOPLE VICTIMIZED BY WAR WHO NEED A PLACE WHERE THEY CAN BEGIN THE DIFFICULT PROCESS OF CREATING A NEW LIFE IN A NEW WORLD.
    RS/NES
    23-May-96 3:02 PM EDT (1902 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] BRITAIN/E-U (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=5/23/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197628
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITAIN HAS BEEN ACCUSED OF PARALYZING THE EUROPEAN UNION AFTER BRITISH DIPLOMATS STEPPED UP EFFORTS TO BLOCK E-U BUSINESS. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS THE CAMPAIGN WAS LAUNCHED TUESDAY BY PRIME MINISTER JOHN MAJOR, IN PROTEST AT A FAILURE BY THE EUROPEAN UNION TO BEGIN EASING THE WORLDWIDE EXPORT BAN ON BRITISH BEEF.

    TEXT: DEPUTY BRITISH AMBASSADOR IN BRUSSELS DAVID BOSTOCK MARCHED INTO AN E-U MINISTERIAL MEETING ON CIVIL PROTECTION THURSDAY, AND THREW THE PROCEEDINGS INTO CHAOS.

    HE RELAYED PRIME MINISTER JOHN MAJOR'S WARNING FROM TUESDAY BRITAIN WILL PREVENT NORMAL E-U BUSINESS UNTIL THERE IS PROGRESS TOWARDS ENDING THE EXPORT BAN ON BRITISH BEEF.

    MR. BOSTOCK PROCEEDED TO BLOCK ALL THREE ITEMS ON THE AGENDA, WHICH INCLUDED A NEW EUROPEAN UNION PROGRAM TO IMPROVE DISASTER RELIEF. HE STATED THAT BRITAIN OPPOSES ALL THREE ITEMS, AND THE MEETING COLLAPSED WITHIN AN HOUR.

    AS HE LEFT, MR BOSTOCK SAID THAT HE HAD EXPLAINED HIS GOVERNMENT'S POSITION, AS SET OUT BY HIS PRIME MINISTER. ITALIAN MINISTER FOR CIVIL PROTECTION FRANCO BARBERI, WHO HAD CHAIRED THE DISCUSSIONS, ATTACKED THE BRITISH STANCE. HE SAID HE WAS DISAPPOINTED THE EUROPEAN UNION COULD NOT REACH AGREEMENT, BUT SAID BECAUSE DECISIONS REQUIRED UNANIMITY FROM ALL DELEGATIONS, THERE WAS NO CHANCE OF A DEAL.

    HE STATED THE BRITISH HAD PUT THE EUROPEAN UNION IN A VERY DIFFICULT POSITION, BY PARALYZING SEVERAL DECISIONS.

    /// OPT ///

    THE BRITISH BLOCKING TACTICS WERE LAUNCHED BY MR. BOSTOCK AT A MEETING WEDNESDAY OF E-U DIPLOMATS, WHEN HE REFUSED TO AGREE A FEW MINOR POINTS ON RESEARCH AND A FRONTIER-FREE EUROPEAN UNION MARKET. BRITAIN ALSO REFUSED TO APPROVE A EUROPEAN CONVENTION FOR DEALING WITH FIRMS WHICH GO BANKRUPT, LEAVING CREDITORS IN MORE THAN ONE E-U STATE -- AND HAS ALSO STOPPED COOPERATING IN EFFORTS TO AGREE ON RULES FOR A NEW POLICE COORDINATION UNIT CALLED EUROPOL. /// END OPT /// MEANWHILE, THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION HAS FLATLY REJECTED PRIME MINISTER MAJOR'S PRINCIPLE DEMAND FOR A CLEAR TIMETABLE FOR THE LIFTING OF THE ENTIRE WORLDWIDE EXPORT BAN ON BRITISH BEEF.

    EUROPEAN FARM SPOKESMAN GERRY KIELY SAYS THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION HAS RULED OUT THE QUESTION OF A TIMETABLE.

    HE SAID IF PRIME MINISTER MAJOR IS SEEKING A FRAMEWORK FOR LIFTING THE BAN ON A STEP-BY-STEP BASIS, WITH DATES FOR ACTION, THAT IS NOT POSSIBLE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JF/MH/RAE
    23-May-96 10:48 AM EDT (1448 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] EUROPE ECONOMIES (L ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)

    DATE=5/23/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197629
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: LABOR UNION STRIKES IN GERMANY AND FRANCE TO PROTEST GOVERNMENT AUSTERITY PLANS REFLECT AN UNEASE WITH POLICIES IMPOSED BY EUROPEAN INTEGRATION AND FEARS THAT THE WELFARE STATE MAY SOON BELONG TO THE PAST. DETAILS FROM REPORTER JULIAN NUNDY IN PARIS.

    TEXT: A COMMON FEATURE OF THE STRIKES IN BOTH GERMANY AND FRANCE IS THAT THE MAIN PLAYERS ARE PUBLIC SERVANTS. IN BOTH COUNTRIES, THEY ARE BEING SUBJECTED TO SALARY FREEZES. THEY FEAR THAT THEIR TRADITIONALLY SECURE JOBS MAY SOON NO LONGER BE SAFE.

    AS GERMANY SUFFERS FROM AN ECONOMIC DOWNTURN, ITS WORKERS HAVE TAKEN CENTER-STAGE (PROMINENCE) BY PLANNING A SERIES OF STOPPAGES TO PROTEST AUSTERITY PLANS. AT THE SAME TIME, LABOR UNIONS IN FRANCE, WHICH BROUGHT THE COUNTRY TO A VIRTUAL STANDSTILL FOR THREE WEEKS LAST DECEMBER, ARE TRYING TO GET THEIR MOVEMENT STARTED AGAIN. IN GERMANY, UNIONS HAVE REJECTED A PAY OFFER OF HALF-A-PERCENTAGE POINT A YEAR OVER TWO YEARS AS A PROVOCATION. IN FRANCE, SEVERAL STRIKES IN SECTORS LIKE THE STATE-OWNED ARMS INDUSTRY AND A DEMONSTRATION TO PERSUADE THE GOVERNMENT TO GO FASTER TO REDUCE THE WORKING WEEK WHICH, HOPEFULLY, WOULD CREATE MORE JOB OPENINGS WILL BE FOLLOWED IN JUNE BY A SERIES OF OTHER PUBLIC SERVICE PROTESTS. THIS WILL INCLUDE STRIKES BY WORKERS FEARING DEREGULATION ORDERED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION IN AREAS SUCH AS TELECOMMUNICATIONS.

    THE PRINCIPAL CAUSE -- AND THE EMPLOYEES' SCAPEGOAT -- IS THE NEED FOR GOVERNMENTS ACROSS EUROPE TO CUT SPENDING AND REDUCE THEIR DEFICITS IF THEY WANT TO PARTICIPATE IN EUROPE'S NEW SINGLE CURRENCY. //OPT// THE EUROPEAN UNION CURRENTLY PLANS TO INTRODUCE THIS IN 1999.//END OPT// THE CONDITIONS FOR COUNTRIES TO QUALIFY FOR THE CURRENCY WERE LAID DOWN IN THE 1992 MAASTRICHT POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC UNION TREATY. IN FRANCE, THE WELFARE BUDGET ALONE IS A SOURCE OF HUGE DEBT, LEADING TO A PROPOSED REFORM OF THE HEALTH SERVICE AND CUTS IN BENEFITS. THIS PROMPTED THE FIRST BIG WAVE OF FRENCH STRIKES LAST DECEMBER.

    HAD EUROPE BEEN LIVING THROUGH YEARS OF PROSPERITY, AS IN THE 1980S, MANY OF THE MAASTRICHT MEASURES WOULD HAVE BEEN EASIER TO ACCOMMODATE.

    BUT EUROPE HAS SUFFERED SEVERAL YEARS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH THAT HAS BEEN SLUGGISH AT BEST. IN RECENT WEEKS THIS HAS BEEN WORSENED BY ALARMING ECONOMIC INDICATORS IN GERMANY.

    THE FRENCH CALL GERMANY EUROPE'S "LOCOMOTIVE" BECAUSE THE GERMAN ECONOMY IS TRADITIONALLY THE MOST DYNAMIC IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. GERMANY IS ALSO FRANCE'S BIGGEST TRADING PARTNER. SO, BAD NEWS IN GERMANY IS BAD NEWS BOTH ACROSS THE RHINE RIVER AND IN ALL OF EUROPE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JN/MH/PCF
    23-May-96 11:00 AM EDT (1500 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] KARADZIC:THE BOSNIAN PEACE STUMBLING BLOCK BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=05/23/96
    TYPE=WORLD OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-09591
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: THERE IS A GROWING FEAR AMONG INTERNATIONAL JOURNALISTS THAT THE LONG-TIME LEADER OF THE BOSNIAN SERBS, PSYCHIATRIST RADOVAN KARADZIC, WHO LED THEM INTO WAR AGAINST THEIR MUSLIM COUNTRYMEN FOUR YEARS AGO, IS THE PRINCIPAL STUMBLING BLOCK TO PEACE IN THAT WAR TORN LAND.

    BOTH MR. KARADZIC AND HIS MILITARY COMMANDER, GENERAL RATKO MLADIC, HAVE BEEN FORMALLY ACCUSED OF GENOCIDE BY THE UNITED NATIONS WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE. BUT BOTH MEN REMAIN VISIBLY AT LARGE IN OR NEAR PALE, THE BOSNIAN SERB STRONGHOLD INSIDE BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    AS THE DAYTON PEACE PROCESS APPEARS TO BE STALLING, THERE IS A GROWING SENTIMENT IN THE WORLD'S PRESS THAT MR. KARADZIC MUST BE TAKEN INTO CUSTODY BY SOMEONE, AND FORCED TO STAND TRIAL.

    FOR A SAMPLING OF CURRENT OPINION FROM THE INTERNATIONAL MEDIA, WE CALL ON ___________________TO BRING US THIS WEEK'S WORLD OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: FOR A WHILE, IT APPEARED TO FOREIGN JOURNALISTS COVERING BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA THAT THE POWER OF MR. KARADZIC WAS WANING. BUT THE RECENT DISMISSAL OF HIS PRIME MINISTER, RAJKO KASAGIC, AND THE APPOINTMENT OF A PAIR OF HARDLINERS AS PRIME MINISTER AND PROXY PRESIDENT ARE NOW SEEN BY SOME OF THE WORLD'S MAJOR PAPERS THAT, IF ANYTHING, HIS POWER IS GROWING.

    ONE GERMAN SUGGESTED THAT MR. KARADZIC HAS "MADE A FOOL OF THE WORLD .... IT HAS BECOME CLEAR ... THAT THE CLEVER CROOK HAS ONLY REDISTRIBUTED THE PLAYING CARDS IN PALE."

    SOME JOURNALISTS NOW SAY IT IS CLEAR THAT MODERATE BOSNIAN SERBS NO LONGER PLAY A ROLE IN PEACE NEGOTIATIONS AND THAT ULTRANATIONALISTS HAVE OCCUPIED THE IMPORTANT LEADERSHIP POSITIONS. SOME JOURNALISTS ARE ESPECIALLY CRITICAL OF THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION, SUGGESTING THAT WASHINGTON, IN THE WORDS OF ONE WRITER, "WANTS TO PREVENT ANY INCIDENT FROM OCCURRING IN BOSNIA PRIOR TO THE NOVEMBER PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION"

    WITH THAT AS BACKGROUND, WE TURN TO EDITORIALS AND COLUMNS FROM THE WORLD PRESS ON THE ISSUE, BEGINNING WITH THE SARAJEVO DAILY OSLOBODJENJE, WHICH SAYS IN PART:

    VOICE: "... WAS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY HOPING THAT [MR.] KARADZIC'S DEPARTURE [FROM THE POSITION OF PRESIDENT] WOULD TAKE CARE OF SERB EXTREMISTS? THIS INDECISIVENESS AND IMPRECISE CONDUCT HELPED [MR.] KARADZIC GAIN SOME MORE TIME. FINALLY, [MR.] KARADZIC REMAINS THE PRESIDENT OF THE SERB DEMOCRATIC PARTY WHICH HAS ABSOLUTE POWER AND THUS, THIS IS JUST ANOTHER TACTICAL MOVE."

    TEXT: TURNING TO CROATIA, AND THE DAILY SLOBODNA DALMACIJA IN SPLIT, WE READ IN THIS DIPLOMATIC DISPATCH:

    VOICE: "THIS PEACE PROCESS IS STILL FULL OF UNCERTAINTIES: IT IS NOT CERTAIN HOW THE BOSNIAN ELECTIONS WILL BE HELD, AND IFOR'S ROLE WILL DEPEND ON THAT, AND HOW THE FEDERATION WILL FUNCTION ALTOGETHER ..... THOSE HERE WHO ARE FAMILIAR WITH THE SITUATION SAY THAT AMERICA AT THIS MOMENT BADLY NEEDS CROATIA. IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA THEY CANNOT TRUST THE BOSNIAN SERBS, THE SITUATION WITH THE MUSLIMS IS NOT WELL DEFINED, AND SO THE ONLY ONES LEFT ARE THE CROATS IN BOSNIA, AND ESPECIALLY, THE CROATS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA."

    TEXT: ELSEWHERE IN EUROPE, A REGIONAL RADIO COMMENTATOR ON HESSISCHER RUNDFUNK, IN FRANKFURT, GERMANY PUT IT THIS WAY:

    VOICE: "A PLAY IF AGAIN GOING ON IN PALE - - IT IS A GRANDIOSE SHOW WITH PUPPETS. IT MAY BE TRUE THAT [MR.] KARADZIC GAVE UP SOME OF HIS AUTHORITY, BUT HE WILL CONTINUE, AS ALWAYS, TO PULL THE STRINGS BEHIND THE SCENES."

    TEXT: WHILE IN HAMELIN, THE TOWN WHERE LEGEND HAS IT, THE PIED PIPER ONCE LED ALL THE RATS FROM THE CITY, THE DAILY DEISTER-UND WESERZEITUNG ARGUED:

    VOICE: "THE DECEPTION GAME OF SERBIAN POLITICIANS IS NOT ONLY CONTINUING BUT WITH [MR.] KARADZIC'S RESIGNATION IT HAS EVEN REACHED A TRAGIC AND GROTESQUE CULMINATION. AND AGAIN NUMEROUS WESTERN POLITICIANS AND MEDIA LET THEMSELVES BE IMPRESSED BY THE FALSE PLAY. THE TRANSFER OF THE BOSNIAN SERB POWER FROM [MR.] KARADZIC TO THE NATIONALIST EXTREMIST [MR.] PLAVSIC IS A MOCKERY FOR ALL PEACE EFFORTS...."

    TEXT: IN BRITAIN, LONDON'S DAILY TELEGRAPH IS ALSO HIGHLY SKEPTICAL, NOTING:

    VOICE: "THE JUBILATION WITH WHICH DIPLOMATS ARE SAID TO HAVE GREETED RADOVAN KARADZIC'S DECLINE SPRINGS LARGELY FROM WISHFUL THINKING. THERE IS NO DOUBT THAT THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADER HAS BEEN WEAKENED. YET HE HAS SUFFERED SETBACKS BEFORE - - NOTABLY THE SURRENDER TO PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC OF NEGOTIATING AUTHORITY FOR THE PEACE TALKS - - AND CONTINUED TO EXERCISE A BALEFUL INFLUENCE. ..... OVER THE PAST SIX MONTHS THEY HAVE HAD AMPLE TIME TO REALIZE THE WEAKNESSES OF DAYTON AS THEY WATCHED ITS SNAIL-LIKE PROGRESS, BEYOND THE SEPARATION OF MILITARY FORCES, TOWARD THE GOAL OF A SINGLE, MULTI-ETHNIC, DEMOCRATIC STATE."

    TEXT: IN PARIS, THE FRENCH CATHOLIC DAILY LA CROIX SUGGESTED:

    VOICE: "IT SEEMS THAT WASHINGTON WANTS TO PREVENT ANY INCIDENT FROM OCCURRING IN BOSNIA PRIOR TO THE NOVEMBER PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION. RADOVAN KARADZIC KNOWS IT AND PROFITS FROM THIS."

    TEXT: WHILE IN ITALY, TURIN'S LA STAMPA, SUGGESTS THAT:

    VOICE: MR. KARADZIC'S 'RESIGNATION' SHOWS THAT HIDDEN PLOTS AND POLITICAL SUBTERFUGE AS ALTERNATIVES TO THE SETTLING OF ACCOUNTS AND BLOOD BATHS ARE NEVER OVER IN THE BALKANS."

    TEXT: ONE OF THE LARGEST DAILIES IN SPAIN, EL PAIS, PUBLISHED IN MADRID, IS ALSO NOT ACCEPTING DEVELOPMENTS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AT FACE VALUE, NOTING:

    VOICE: "BY CEDING PART OF HIS POWER TO [THE] RADICAL [MR.] PLAVSIC, [MR.] KARADZIC COULD POSSIBLY BE AIMING AT ACHIEVING A SUBORDINATE POSITION FROM WHICH TO CONTINUE PULLING THE STRINGS AS HE HAS ACTUALLY BEEN DOING SINCE THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD WAS SIGNED. HE COULD EVEN BE THINKING OF RUNNING IN THE ELECTIONS."

    TEXT: IN THE MIDDLE EAST, THE FRENCH-LANGUAGE LE TEMPS IN TUNIS, TUNISIA, IS EQUALLY FRUSTRATED, WRITING:

    VOICE: "THERE IS NO OTHER CHOICE THAN TO DO THAT WHICH SHOULD HAVE BEEN DONE A LONG TIME AGO: TURN [MR.] KARADZIC AND [GENERAL] MLADIC OVER TO THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL TO ANSWER FOR THEIR HORRIBLE CRIMES ... PEACE IN BOSNIA DEPENDS ON THE ABILITY .... TO SEE WHERE DANGER IS COMING FROM"

    TEXT: IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC, SYDNEY'S THE AUSTRALIAN NOTES:

    VOICE: "DRAMATIC MANEUVERING AT THE TOP OF THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADERSHIP OVER THE PAST WEEK HAS NOT RESOLVED TWO KEY AND CLOSELY RELATED ISSUES: DR. ... KARADZIC STILL APPEARS TO BE CALLING THE SHOTS, AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE BOSNIAN SERB REQUIREMENTS AGREED IN THE DAYTON ACCORDS REMAIN AT A VIRTUAL STANDSTILL...."

    TEXT: WHILE TO THE NORTH, IN SOUTH KOREA'S JOONG-ANG ILBO, PUBLISHED IN SEOUL, THERE IS THIS:

    VOICE: "WE ARE QUITE PUZZLED ABOUT THE REAL MOTIVATION OF HIS RESIGNATION. IT COULD BE A MERE COVER-UP. AS OTHERS PREDICT, IT MAY BE THAT [MR. KARADZIC WANTS TO BE OFF STAGE FOR A WHILE BUT WILL COME BACK FOR THE GENERAL ELECTION SCHEDULED FOR THIS SEPTEMBER."

    TEXT: WITH THAT WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF THE INTERNATIONAL MEDIA REGARDING THE PROBLEM OF TRYING TO MOVE THE PEACE PROCESS FORWARD IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.
    NEB/ANG/NL
    23-May-96 4:32 PM EDT (2032 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] SENATE-BOSNIA (L) BY DAVID SWAN (SENATE)

    DATE=5/23/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197650
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A SENIOR STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL SAYS THE UNITED STATES DID NOT ALLOW IRAN TO BROADEN ITS INFLUENCE IN THE BALKANS BY ALLOWING IRANIAN WEAPONS TO REACH BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. A SENATE COMMITTEE HELD ANOTHER HEARING ON THE ISSUE THURSDAY. V-O-A'S DAVID SWAN REPORTS.

    TEXT: DEPUTY SECRETARY OF STATE STROBE TALBOTT PLAYED A KEY ROLE IN THE DECISION NOT TO BLOCK THE IRANIAN ARMS PIPELINE THROUGH CROATIA TO BOSNIAN TROOPS. TESTIFYING BEFORE THE INTELLIGENCE COMMITTEE, HE REJECTED ONE OF THE REPUBLICANS' MAIN COMPLAINTS ABOUT THE POLICY -- THAT IT GAVE IRAN A POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS FOOTHOLD IN FORMER YUGOSLAVIA.

    // TALBOTT ACT //

    WE DID NOT ACT TO GIVE A GREEN LIGHT TO IRANIAN ARMS COMING INTO BOSNIA. IRANIAN ARMS HAD BEEN COMING INTO BOSNIA SINCE 1992. THE CONGRESS KNEW THAT. THIS COMMITTEE KNEW THAT.

    // END ACT //

    MR. TALBOTT AND THE LAWMAKERS ARGUED REPEATEDLY ABOUT THE IMPACT OF THE DECISION. TWO YEARS AGO, WHEN CROATIAN PRESIDENT (FRANJO) TUDJMAN ASKED IF HE SHOULD ALLOW THE SHIPMENTS, THE U-S AMBASSADOR IN ZAGREB (PETER GALBRAITH) REPLIED HE HAD NO INSTRUCTIONS ON THE MATTER, WHICH WAS SEEN AS TACIT CONSENT.

    THE ADMINISTRATION SAYS ANY OTHER CHOICE WOULD HAVE DOOMED THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION AND DISASTROUSLY WEAKENED THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT ARMY. WHILE MR. TALBOTT SOUGHT TO DOWNPLAY THE MOVE, SAYING IT WAS NOT A FUNDAMENAL SHIFT IN POLICY, HE CONCEDES THE UNITED STATES TOOK PAINS TO KEEP THE DISCUSSIONS QUIET.

    // TALBOTT ACT //

    WE DID NOT WANT THIS BACK-AND-FORTH BETWEEN US AND THE CROATIANS TO BECOME PUBLIC FOR ONE REASON ABOVE ALL: HAD IT BECOME PUBLIC, IT WOULD HAVE STIRRED UP FURTHER RELATIONS WITH OUR PRINCIPAL NATO ALLIES, WHICH WERE ALREADY QUITE TENSE AT THE TIME.

    // END ACT //

    THE ADMINISTRATION DID NOT BRIEF CONGRESS ON THE POLICY EITHER. MEMBERS OF BOTH PARTIES SAY THEY SHOULD HAVE BEEN TOLD, ESPECIALLY SINCE THE SENATE WAS THEN CONSIDERING WHETHER TO OPENLY LIFT THE U-N ARMS EMBARGO ON BOSNIA. INTELLIGENCE COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN ARLEN SPECTER SAYS THE UNITED STATES WAS IN EFFECT IGNORING THAT RESOLUTION BY TURNING A BLIND EYE TO THE IRANIAN WEAPONS.

    // SPECTER ACT //

    AND HERE WE HAVE A VIOLATION WHICH THE UNITED STATES KNOWS ABOUT AND A REQUIREMENT BY THE RESOLUTION TO REPORT THE VIOLATION. ISN'T IT PRETTY CLEAR ON ITS FACE THAT THERE'S NONCOMPLIANCE WITH THAT RESOLUTION?

    // END ACT //

    THE INTELLIGENCE PANEL IS TRYING TO DETERMINE IF THE DECISION NOT TO BLOCK THE SHIPMENTS FITS THE DEFINITION OF A COVERT OPERATION -- WHICH THE WHITE HOUSE IS REQUIRED BY LAW TO REPORT. ANOTHER COMMITTEE IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES IS LAUNCHING ITS OWN INVESTIGATION NEXT WEEK. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DS/CF
    23-May-96 1:45 PM EDT (1745 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [09] TURKEY / NATO (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (TURKEY)

    DATE=5/23/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197632
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA SAYS NATO WOULD BE PREPARED TO PLAY A MEDIATING ROLE IN HELPING SOLVE THE AEGEAN DISPUTE BETWEEN TWO OF THE GROUP'S MEMBERS, GREECE AND TURKEY. AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA.

    TEXT: MR. SOLANA SAID HE HAD PROPOSED A SET OF CONFIDENCE BUILDING MEASURES TO THE PRIME MINISTERS OF BOTH COUNTRIES IN THE HOPE THESE WOULD PAVE THE WAY FOR A LASTING PEACE IN THE AEGEAN SEA.

    THE NATO SECRETARY GENERAL DECLINED TO ELABORATE ON THE MEASURES. BUT HE SAID HE WAS CONFIDENT BOTH GREECE AND TURKEY WOULD ACCEPT THEM.

    /// SOLANA ACT ///

    I THINK THERE IS POTENTIAL ROOM FOR UNDERSTANDING. THE QUESTION IS THE POLITICAL WILL TO BE BEHIND THESE POTENTIALITIES. I LIKE TO THINK THAT INTELLIGENT POLITICIANS ALWAYS HAVE POLITICAL WILL TO SOLVE PROBLEMS.

    /// END SOLANA ACT ///

    THE TWO NEIGHBORS NEARLY WENT TO WAR EARLIER THIS YEAR OVER A DISPUTED ISLAND IN THE AGEAN KNOWN AS IMIA TO THE GREEKS AND KARDAK TO THE TURKS. LAST-MINUTE INTERVENTION BY THE UNITED STATES HELPED AVERT A CONFRONTATION, BUT TENSIONS CONTINUE TO RUN HIGH BETWEEN THE TWO NATO MEMBERS.

    TURKISH PRIME MINISTER MESUT YILMAZ RECENTLY OFFERED TO RESUME TALKS WITH GREECE TO DISCUSS THE TERRITORIAL DISPUTE OVER THE AEGEAN AS WELL AS THE CYPRUS ISSUE.

    IN A SURPRISE MOVE, MR YILMAZ SAID TURKEY WOULD BE WILLING TO ALLOW THIRD-PARTY MEDIATION IF NECESSARY TO HELP SOLVE THE LONG-STANDING PROBLEMS BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES -- AN OPTION TURKEY HAD BEEN RESISTING SO FAR.

    POLITICAL ANALYSTS BELIEVE A CRUCIAL STEP TOWARDS SECURING PEACE BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY IS TO WIN PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR ANY SUCH MOVES. OTHERWISE, THEY WARN, THE LONG-STANDING DISPUTE WILL REMAIN A CONVENIENT MEANS FOR POLITICIANS IN BOTH NATIONS TO DETRACT ATTENTION FROM THEIR OWN FAILURES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/JWH/RAE
    23-May-96 11:10 AM EDT (1510 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [10] YUGO SITREP (S UPDATE) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=5/23/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197641
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    ///// EDS: UPDATES, NEW INFO THROUGHOUT. /////

    INTRO: THE U-S ENVOY TO THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, JOHN KORNBLUM, SAYS THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT HAS TOLD HIM BOSNIAN-SERB LEADER, RADOVAN KARADZIC, IS NO LONGER IN POWER. BUT, THE ENVOY SAYS HE WANTS CLEAR PROOF OF THIS. V-O-A CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS MR. KORNBLUM ALSO SAYS MR. KARADZIC AND THE BOSNIAN-SERB ARMY COMMANDER MUST BE PROSECUTED ON INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES CHARGES.

    TEXT: MR. KORNBLUM ENDED HIS LATEST VISIT TO THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA BY SAYING SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TOLD HIM IN BELGRADE THAT RADOVAN KARADZIC IS NO LONGER THE BOSNIAN-SERB LEADER.

    SPEAKING IN SARAJEVO, MR. KORNBLUM SAID HE WANTS FIRM EVIDENCE NOT JUST STATEMENTS, THAT MR. KARADZIC IS NO LONGER IN A POSITION TO OBSTRUCT THE BOSNIAN PEACE PROCESS.

    THE U-S ENVOY SAID MR. KARADZIC AND THE SERB-ARMY COMMANDER, GENERAL RATKO MLADIC, MUST ALSO BE PRESENTED TO THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE.

    BOTH MEN DENY CHARGES THEY WERE RESPONSIBLE FOR WAR CRIMES IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. BOTH REFUSE TO VOLUNTARILY GO TO THE HAGUE TO FACE TRIAL.

    THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER COUNTRIES HAVE BEEN MAKING A CONCERTED EFFORT TO DRIVE MR. KARADZIC FROM POWER. THEY ARE COUNTING ON THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT TO PLAY A KEY ROLE IN THIS BECAUSE OF HIS STRONG INFLUENCE OVER THE BOSNIAN SERBS.

    MR. KARADZIC IS SEEN AS THE MAJOR OBSTACLE TO DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS THROUGHOUT POST-WAR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE ELECTIONS ARE DUE TO BE HELD IN SEPTEMBER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WC/JWH/RAE
    23-May-96 12:09 PM EDT (1609 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [11] YUGO WAR CRIMES PROTEST (S ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=5/23/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197653
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE PRESIDENT OF THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE -- ANTONIO CASSESSE -- FORMALLY COMPLAINED TO THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL THURSDAY THAT SERB-LED YUGOSLAVIA FAILED TO ARREST TWO INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS THIS WEEK, THUS VIOLATING ITS OBLIGATIONS UNDER THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT. THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAS ALREADY NOTED BELGRADE'S FAILURE TO COMPLY WITH ARREST WARRANTS IN A STATEMENT EARLIER THIS MONTH. VOA CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS.

    TEXT: PRESIDENT CASSESSE SAYS BOSNIAN SERB GENERAL RATKO MLADIC ATTENDING A FUNERAL IN BELGRADE THIS WEEK -- CLEARLY ENTERED AND LEFT THE CITY UNHINDERED. HE SAYS THIS IS FURTHER EVIDENCE OF A BLATANT FAILURE BY YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES TO COMPLY WITH THE ORDERS OF THE TRIBUNAL THAT SUSPECTS BE DETAINED AND TURNED OVER FOR PROSECUTION.

    GENERAL MLADIC -- AS WELL AS HIS POLITICAL BOSS RADOVAN KARADZIC ARE HELD RESPONSIBLE FOR MANY OF THE CRIMES PERPETRATED DURING THE BOSNIAN WAR.

    THE TRIBUNAL COMPLAINT ALSO NAMES A YUGOSLAV ARMY COLONEL -- ALSO SEEN AT TUESDAY'S FUNERAL -- WHO HAS BEEN INDICTED FOR HIS PARTICIPATION IN THE SIEGE OF VUKOVAR IN CROATIA.

    IT IS UNCLEAR HOW THE SECURITY COUNCIL WILL REACT. THE COUNCIL SUSPENDED ECONOMIC SANCTIONS ON YUGOSLAVIA LAST NOVEMBER AND, THEORETICALLY, COULD RE-IMPOSE THEM. THE MEASURES WERE PUT ON IN 1992 BECAUSE OF BELGRADE'S ROLE IN THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT. THEY WERE PULLED BACK WHEN SERBIA STARTED COOPERATING TOWARD A SETTLEMENT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EJ/JM
    23-May-96 2:44 PM EDT (1844 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [12] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=5/23/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197649
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// EDS: PLEASE NOTE CONTENT OF THE ACTUALITIES ///

    INTRO: A BOSNIAN MUSLIM JOURNALIST WHO SURVIVED THE OMARSKA PRISON IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA HAS BEEN GIVING EVIDENCE TO THE YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. OMARSKA IS ONE OF THE CAMPS WHERE DUSAN TADIC, THE ACCUSED AT THE TRIBUNAL'S FIRST TRIAL, IS ALLEGED TO HAVE MURDERED AND TORTURED. GILLIAN SHARPE AT THE HAGUE REPORTS TODAY'S WITNESS AT THE TRIAL, MUHAREM NEZEREVIC, WAS EDITOR IN CHIEF OF THE LOCAL RADIO STATION UNTIL THE START OF THE WAR.

    TEXT: MUHAREM NEZEREVIC USED ALL HIS SKILLS WITH WORDS TO BRING ALIVE IN AN ANTISEPTIC COURTROOM IN THE HAGUE, THE HORROR THAT WAS OMARSKA.

    HE SAID HE ARRIVED AT NIGHT TO A SCENE WHERE THE SHADOWS OF DRUNKEN SERB SOLDIERS WERE PICKED OUT BY FIRELIGHT AS THEY LAUGHED AND TAUNTED THE PRISONERS, WHERE DETAINEES WERE TOO SCARED TO GO TO THE TOILET OR TO EAT FOR FEAR OF BEATINGS.

    SPEAKING THROUGH A TRANSLATOR, MR. NEZEREVIC DESCRIBED HIS FIRST VIEW OF THE SO-CALLED WHITE HOUSE, WHERE THE PROSECUTION SAYS MANY OF THE KILLINGS TOOK PLACE.

    /// NEZEREVIC TRANSLATOR ACT ///

    ON THE FLOOR PEOPLE . . . SILHOUETTES WERE LYING -- FRIGHTENED PEOPLE, PILED UP ONE ON THE OTHER, DARK IN COLOR, STARVED, HUGE BEARDS. THEIR EYES WERE LIKE THEY WERE INSIDE THEIR HEADS.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. NEZEREVIC SAID NAMES WERE CALLED OUT, NIGHT AFTER NIGHT, AND PEOPLE RETURNED, BRUISED AND BLOODIED -- IF THEY RETURNED AT ALL. HE TOLD THE COURT THAT EVERY NIGHT PRISONERS WOULD PREPARE THEMSELVES FOR THE BEATINGS THEY KNEW WOULD FOLLOW. THEY WHISPERED TO EACH OTHER AND TRIED TO MAKE THEIR BODIES SMALLER -- TO BECOME INVISIBLE.

    IN ONE ROOM -- KNOWN AS THE DEATH HOUSE -- HE RECALLED ONE MAN WHO HE HAD KNOWN BEFORE THE WAR.

    /// NEZEREVIC ACT ///

    EVERYTHING WAS INFLAMED BECAUSE OF BLOWS AND HE WAS KNEELING NEAR THE WALL. I COULD SEE BLOODY STAINS ON THE WALLS THAT WERE DARK IN COLOR. ON THE TILES, I SAW PUDDLES OF BLOOD. I SAW SOMETHING THAT A MAN NEVER, EVER WANTS TO SEE AGAIN OR TO DESCRIBE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR NEZEREVIC CLEARLY FOUND HIS STORY DIFFICULT TO TELL -- OFTEN STOPPING TO TAKE DEEP BREATHS. HE SEEMED CLOSE TO BREAKING DOWN AS HE TOLD THE COURT HOW SERB GUARDS TRIED TO MAKE A MUSLIM MAN RAPE A YOUNG GIRL.

    /// NEZEREVIC ACT ///

    THEY STRIPPED HER NAKED, THAT GIRL. THEY STRIPPED HIM, FORCED HIM TO UNDRESS, BEAT HIM. THEY WANTED HIM TO RAPE HER. HE WAS BEGGING, IMPLORING, SAYING 'SHE COULD BE MY CHILD.'

    /// OPT ///

    I'M REALLY SORRY FOR THE COARSE LANGUAGE. BUT THEN THEY SAID TO TRY TO DO IT WITH A FINGER, AND IT HURT HER. SHE WAS SCREAMING. /// END OPT ///

    /// ENDS ACT ///

    THE WITNESS SAID THE MAN WAS LATER BEATEN TO DEATH.

    THE FIRST SUSPECT TO BE TRIED BY THE TRIBUNAL, BOSNIAN SERB DUSAN TADIC, IS FOR THE FIRST TIME WATCHING AND LISTENING VERY CLOSELY TO WHAT IS HAPPENING.

    HE IS NOT ACCUSED OF THESE SPECIFIC CRIMES. INSTEAD, PROSECUTORS WANT TO SHOW THE JUDGES WHAT KIND OF PLACE OMARSKA WAS. THE WITNESSES WHO SAY THEY SAW MR. TADIC THERE ARE EXPECTED TO APPEAR NEXT WEEK.

    /// REST OPT ///

    MEANWHILE, THE TRIBUNAL HAS MADE PUBLIC A LETTER SENT TO THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL, CONDEMNING SERB AUTHORITIES FOR THEIR LACK OF COOPERATION. THE BOSNIAN SERB MILITARY LEADER, GENERAL RATKO MLADIC IS SAID TO HAVE ATTENDED A FUNERAL IN BELGRADE ON TUESDAY. HE HAS BEEN INDICTED ON CHARGES OF GENOCIDE, AND TRIBUNAL OFFICIALS SAY THAT UNDER THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORDS, SERB AUTHORITIES SHOULD HAVE ARRESTED HIM AND HANDED HIM OVER TO THE COURT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/JWH/MMK
    23-May-96 1:50 PM EDT (1750 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
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