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Voice of America, 96-07-25

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ADAM PHILLIPS (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] BOSNIA/BLIND BY EVANS HAYS (SARAJEVO)
  • [03] BOSNIA: AN ELECTION ASSESSMENT BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] NATO / EXPANSION COSTS BY MAXIM KNIAZKOV (WASHINGTON)
  • [05] TURKEY / PRISONS (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [06] U-S/BOSNIA FORCE (L-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WASHINGTON)
  • [07] UNITED NATIONS: POWER AT THE TOP? BY ELAINE JOHANSON (NEW YORK)
  • [08] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L-ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

  • [01] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ADAM PHILLIPS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=07/25/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09696
    TELEPHONE=619-1102
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=_
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON THURSDAY, JULY 25TH //

    INTRO: THERE APPEARS TO BE A GENERAL CONSENSUS TODAY AMONG AMERICAN NEWSPAPER EDITORS ABOUT SOME ISSUES THAT MERITED EDITORIAL COMMENT. THE EXPLOSION OF TWA FLIGHT 800 THAT KILLED OVER 200 PASSENGERS IS FEATURED PROMINENTLY TODAY'S EDITORIAL COLUMNS, AS IS EVALUATIONS OF THE NEW WELFARE REFORM BILLS PASSED BY THE CONGRESS ON TUESDAY (7/23). SEVERAL EDITORIALS EXPRESS RENEWED CONCERN ABOUT THE POTENTIAL FOR GENOCIDE IN BURUNDI. HUMAN INTEREST AT THE SUMMER OLYMPICS UNDERWAY IN ATLANTA IS ANOTHER FAVORED TOPIC. NOW, FOR SOME SELECTED QUOTES ON THESE MATTERS, HERE IS _________________ WITH THE "U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST."

    TEXT: THE NATION CONTINUES TO GRIEVE TODAY AS THE SEARCH CONTINUES FOR HUMAN BODIES AND AIRPLANE WRECKAGE IN THE WAKE OF THE SECOND WORST AVIATION DISASTER IN AMERICAN HISTORY. THE RECOVERY LAST NIGHT, OFF LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK, OF THE JET'S SO-CALLED "BLACK BOX" THAT RECORDS CONVERSATIONS AMONG THE FLIGHT CREW MAY SHED SOME LIGHT ON WHETHER OR NOT IT WAS A TERRORIST ACT -- OR A TECHNICAL PROBLEM -- THAT CAUSED FLIGHT 800 TO EXPLODE. OFFICIALS AND THE MEDIA ARE EAGER TO KEEP THE PUBLIC INFORMED OF DEVELOPMENTS, BUT CONFLICTING REPORTS HAVE ANGERED SOME FAMILIES.

    LONG ISLAND'S "NEWSDAY" NEWSPAPER SYMPATHIZES WITH THE OFFICIALS WHO WANT TO PROVIDE CLARITY FOR THOSE WHO MOURN AND WITH THE JOURNALISTS WHO WANT TO "GET THE STORY OUT," BUT IT COUNSELS PATIENCE DURING THE TEDIOUS AND TENSE PROCESS OF UNCOVERING THE FACTS.

    VOICE: "... GIVEN THE INTENSE INTEREST IN THE SEARCH, RADIO AND T-V NEWS OPERATIONS EAGER TO RESPOND SEE LITTLE CHOICE BUT TO BROADCAST PROMPTLY WHATEVER THEY FIND OUT. THAT MEANS ORDINARY FOLKS ARE SWEPT INTO THE MESSY NEWS-GATHERING PROCESS ALONG WITH REPORTERS AND EDITORS. THEY ARE LEFT HANGING WHILE BAD LEADS ARE EXPOSED AND SOLID ONES [ARE] CONFIRMED. FOR FAMILIES WITH LOVED ONES IN THE WRECKAGE, THIS PROCESS MUST BE AWFUL. FOR EVERYONE, IT'S CONFUSING. BUT FOR MANY QUESTIONS, THERE SIMPLY AREN'T YET ANY ANSWERS."

    TEXT: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS ALREADY VETOED TWO WELFARE REFORM BILLS SENT TO HIM BY CONGRESS DURING HIS TERM. NOW, THE U-S HOUSE AND SENATE HAVE COME UP WITH NEW VERSIONS THAT THEY HOPE WILL CHANGE THE WAY THAT AMERICA HELPS -- OR ATTEMPTS TO LIMIT ASSISTANCE TO -- AMERICA'S POOR. NEW YORKERS THIS MORNING OPENED TO THE EDITORIAL PAGE OF THE NEW YORK POST TO FIND THESE WORDS OF SOLID SUPPORT FOR THE CURRENT REPUBLICAN-BACKED WELFARE LEGISLATION.

    VOICE: "... CLEARLY, THE CURRENT SYSTEM HAS FAILED. THE ARCHITECTS OF THE GREAT SOCIETY WERE ANIMATED BY NOBLE INTENTIONS. BUT HANDING OVER CASH -- NO QUESTIONS ASKED -- TO YOUNG WOMEN WHO BEAR CHILDREN OUT OF WEDLOCK HAS CAUSED THE NATIONAL ILLEGITIMACY RATE TO SOAR... MEANWHILE, THE CONDITION OF KIDS BORN INTO WELFARE -- AS MEASURED BY ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE, TENDENCY TO COMMIT VIOLENT CRIMES AND EVEN LIFE EXPECTANCY -- CONTINUES TO DECLINE..."

    TEXT: THE PROPOSED LEGISLATION WOULD CUT 600 DOLLARS IN FOOD ASSISTANCE FROM FAMILIES THAT ALREADY EARN LESS THAN 63-HUNDRED DOLLARS A YEAR, AND WOULD DENY HEALTH INSURANCE TO MANY IMMIGRANTS -- MANY OF THEM LEGAL -- AND SOME ELDERLY AMERICANS. FOR THIS REASON, THE NEW YORK TIMES BELIEVES PRESIDENT CLINTON SHOULD ALSO REJECT THIS LATEST WELFARE REFORM PACKAGE.

    VOICE: "PRESIDENT CLINTON SAYS HE MIGHT SIGN WELFARE LEGISLATION IF CONGRESSIONAL NEGOTIATORS IMPROVE THE HOUSE AND SENATE-PASSED BILLS IN A CONFERENCE COMMITTEE. HE SHOULD STOP SHADOWBOXING. THE HOUSE'S BILL IS ODIOUS. THE SENATE'S IS ONLY SLIGHTLY LESS SO. THE CONFEREES WILL PRODUCE A COMPROMISE SOMEWHERE IN BETWEEN. THAT IS NOT A PLACE A DEMOCRATIC PRESIDENT SHOULD STAND... THE CONFEREES WILL HAND THE PRESIDENT A BILL THAT, LIKE THE BILLS THEY WILL WORK FROM, WILL HURL MORE THAN A MILLION CHILDREN INTO POVERTY... PRESIDENT CLINTON WILL FIND NO HONORABLE REASON, IN HIS OWN PROMISES OF WELFARE REFORM OR THE HISTORY OF HIS PARTY, TO SIGN SUCH A BILL."

    TEXT: ANOTHER NEW YORK TIMES EDITORIAL EXPRESSES ALARM OVER THE APPARENT DETERIORATION OF ETHNIC RELATIONS IN BURUNDI, THE CENTRAL AFRICAN NATION THAT SHARES WITH NEIGHBORING RWANDA A RECENT HISTORY OF GENOCIDAL CONFLICT. THE SITUATION REACHED CRISIS PROPORTIONS ON WEDNESDAY AS BURUNDI'S HUTU PRESIDENT, FLEEING THE TUTSI-DOMINATED MILITARY, TOOK REFUGE AT THE U-S EMBASSY IN, BUJUMBURA, THE CAPITAL. THE TIMES CALLS FOR IMMEDIATE INTERNATIONAL ATTENTION TO THE CRISIS WITH THESE WORDS:

    VOICE: "BURUNDI IS BANKRUPT AFTER YEARS OF CIVIL STRIFE, AND WESTERN DONORS HAVE CUT OFF AID. MODERATES WITHIN BURUNDI HOPE THAT EVEN A MINIMUM OF STABILITY WILL LEAD TO AN ECONOMIC REVIVAL AND RENEWAL OF FOREIGN HELP. THAT HOPE HAS NOT YET VANISHED. BURUNDI'S NEIGHBORS AND ITS WESTERN PARTNERS CAN UNDERSCORE THEIR OPPOSITION TO ANY COUP LED BY TUTSI HARDLINERS. FOR THE MOMENT, WITH THE PRESIDENT IN LIMBO, THE POLICY CHOICES ARE STILL UNCLEAR. BUT WITH ONE-POINT-SEVEN MILLION RWANDAN REFUGEES ALREADY LANGUISHING IN NEARBY CAMPS, OTHER NATIONS CAN MAKE PLAIN THEIR DETERMINATION TO PREVENT ANOTHER RWANDA FROM BLEEDING CENTRAL AFRICA AND SHAMING THE WORLD."

    TEXT: SPEAKING OF THE WORLD, NOT ALL NEWS AND OPINION FOCUSED ON WHAT DIVIDES OR THEATENS. THE PHILADELPHIA ENQUIRER HAS AN EDITORIAL THAT CONTRASTS WHAT SOME VIEW AS CRASS COMMERCIALIZATION OF THE CENTENNIAL OLYMPICS IN ATLANTA, GEORGIA, WITH THE RAW HUMAN EXCELLENCE DISPLAYED BY THE U-S OLYMPIC GYMNAST KERRI STRUG, WHO MANAGED TO CLINCH A GOLD MEDAL IN SPITE OF A SERIOUS INJURY.

    VOICE: "THERE IT WAS, AMID THE GLOSSY HUCKSTERING, THE SAPPY SET PIECES... A MOMENT WITH THE AUTHENTIC DRAMA, THE DO-IT-OR-DON'T CLARITY THAT STILL DRAWS US TO ATHLETICS -- DESPITE THE HYPE AND THE GREED. THERE WAS TINY KERRI STRUG, SUPPORTING PLAYER ON THE AMERICAN GYMNASTICS TEAM, HER ANKLE THROBBING AND HER SPIRIT REELING, STARING AT A RUNWAY, SPRINGBOARD AND VAULT, KNOWING HER DREAMS AND THOSE OF HER SIX OLYMPIC TEAMMATES DEPENDED ON HER DOING SOMETHING DIFFICULT, FOOLISH AND BRAVE. AND SHE DID IT. A FINE AND PURE MOMENT IT WAS: MS. STRUG PERCHED FOR AN INSTANT OF WONDERMENT ON HER WOBBLY LEG BEFORE THRUSTING HER ARMS INTO THE AIR TO COMPLETE HER VAULT, THEN COLLAPSING IN PAIN... SO, DESPITE THE IRKSOME (COMMERCIAL) PACKAGING ... WE'RE SURE TO KEEP WATCHING THESE CENTENNIAL GAMES. BECAUSE KIDS LIKE KERRI STRUG KEEP DOING THE MOST AMAZING THINGS.'

    TEXT: AND THAT'S TODAY'S "EDITORIAL DIGEST" ON THE VOICE OF AMERICA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AP/PCH
    25-Jul-96 12:28 PM EDT (1628 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] BOSNIA/BLIND BY EVANS HAYS (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=7/25/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-33913
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    ///// FOR DATELINE BOSNIA FIRST -- THEN GENERAL HOUSE USE. /////

    INTRO: BEING CAUGHT IN THE SIEGE OF SARAJEVO WAS A HORROR FOR EVERYONE TRAPPED IN THE CITY DURING THE WAR YEARS. NEARLY EVERYONE WHO SURVIVED HAS A STORY TO TELL -- ENDURING HARSH WINTERS WITH NO HEAT, WALKING KILOMETERS UNDER SNIPER FIRE TO GET WATER, NEEDING A DOCTOR WHEN THERE ARE NONE TO BE FOUND. BUT AS CORRESPONDENT EVANS HAYS IN SARAJEVO REPORTS, THERE IS A SPECIAL GROUP OF SURVIVORS FOR WHOM THE DARKNESS OF WAR WILL NEVER GO AWAY.

    TEXT: FIKRET ZUKO IS ABOUT MEDIUM HEIGHT AND SOMEWHAT THIN. HE APPEARS TO BE ABOUT 40-YEARS OLD, BUT AGE IS DECEIVING IN A WAR ZONE. HIS HAIR IS DARK AND CLOSELY CUT. AT OUR FIRST MEETING, HE WAS DRESSED IN A WHITE SHIRT WITH A STRIPED TIE, DARK SLACKS, POLISHED SHOES, AND NO JACKET.

    HIS WELCOMING SMILE -- A FULL, RADIANT, NO-HESITATION SMILE -- DREW ATTENTION AWAY FROM THE SPARSE SURROUNDINGS OF HIS OFFICE. THERE WAS ONE DESK WITH AN ODD-LOOKING TYPEWRITER AND A SLIGHTLY LARGER TABLE THAT WAS CLEARLY INTENDED FOR MEETINGS. THE CONFERENCE TABLE, WHERE WE SAT FOR THE INTERVIEW, WAS THREE PACES FROM THE OFFICE DOOR.

    IF THIS DESCRIPTION SOUNDS TOO DETAILED, UNDERSTAND THAT FIKRET ZUKO IS BLIND AND HIS AWARENESS OF SOMETHING AS COMMONPLACE AS AN INTERVIEW COMES FROM SOUND -- NOT SIGHT. HIS IMAGE OF THE PERSON NEXT TO HIM COMES FROM VERBAL DESCRIPTION, NOT VISION. HIS INITIAL REMARKS EXPLAINED HE WAS FIKRET ZUKO, DIRECTOR OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR THE BLIND IN SARAJEVO.

    SPEAKING THROUGH AN INTERPRETER, HE WENT ON TO TALK ABOUT THE EXPERIENCE OF BLIND PEOPLE WHO UNDERWENT THE SIEGE WITHOUT BEING ABLE TO SEE.

    /// BOSNIAN ACT OF ZUKO, AND FADE ///

    HE SAYS THE BLIND PEOPLE OF SARAJEVO, SURVIVED THE FOUR-YEARS OF WAR. THE WAR WAS DIFFICULT AND DANGEROUS FOR ALL PEOPLE OF SARAJEVO, BUT BLIND PEOPLE HAD A SPECIAL PROBLEM TO SURVIVE THE WAR AND TO KEEP SOMETHING OF A NORMAL LIFE. IT WAS AN EFFORT JUST TO KEEP FUNCTIONING. HE SAYS IN SARAJEVO, WE HAD NO UTILITIES, NO HEATING, THERE WAS SHELLING, SNIPER FIRE.

    MR. ZUKO SAYS THOSE WERE CONDITIONS FACED BY EVERYONE, BUT FOR THE BLIND IT WAS EVEN WORSE.

    /// SECOND BOSNIAN ACT OF ZUKO, AND FADE. ///

    HE SAYS FOR BLIND PEOPLE, ORGANIZING ONE'S LIFE IS DIFFICULT EVEN UNDER NORMAL CIRCUMSTANCES. IN WAR TIME IT IS IMPOSSIBLE. WE WENT THROUGH THE WAR WITH WHAT LITTLE FOOD WE COULD GET. IT WAS OFTEN JUST BOILED RICE. THE ASSOCIATION FOR THE BLIND TRIED TO HELP BY GETTING RICE, FROM HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS, TO BLIND PEOPLE STRANDED AT HOME. MR. ZUKO SAYS THERE WAS NOTHING ELSE WE COULD OFFER. WE DID NOT STOP OUR WORK THROUGHOUT THE WAR. FORTUNATELY, THE PEACE ARRIVED.

    HE SAYS THE WAR HAS DESTROYED THE BOSNIAN ECONOMY AND THAT IS BAD FOR EVERYONE. FOR THE BLIND IT IS WORSE, BECAUSE IT MEANS THEY WILL REMAIN DEPENDENT ON OTHERS RATHER THAN BEING ABLE TO SUPPORT THEMSELVES. HE SAYS THE BLIND OF SARAJEVO AND ELSEWHERE IN THE WAR REGION WANT TO LIVE FROM THEIR WORK. BUT THAT MEANS OUTSIDE HELP TO GET STARTED: LANGUAGE COURSES IN ENGLISH, COMPUTERS, AND OTHER EQUIPMENT.

    THE REFERENCE TO EQUIPMENT IS A REMINDER OF THE INITIAL VIEW OF THE OFFICE, AND THE TYPEWRITER THAT LOOKS ODD TO A PERSON WITH FULL VISION. IT IS MADE TO TYPE IN BRAILLE AND IT COSTS SEVERAL-HUNDRED DOLLARS. THE TYPEWRITER IN FIKRET ZUKO'S OFFICE IS ONE OF THE FEW IN BOSNIA.

    HE SAYS HIS GREATEST FEAR IS WITH THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE BOSNIAN ECONOMY, THE BLIND WILL FALL BY THE WAYSIDE AND BECOME VICTIMS, YET AGAIN, OF THE WAR. ROADS AND BUILDINGS MUST BE RECONSTRUCTED, THE ENTIRE INFRASTRUCTURE OF A COUNTRY IS IN NEED OF REPAIR.

    /// THIRD BOSNIAN ACT OF ZUKO, AND FADE ///

    MR. ZUKO SAYS OUR STATE, BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, DOES NOT HAVE TIME TO HELP US AND HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS, LITTLE-BY-LITTLE, ARE WITHDRAWING FROM SARAJEVO. I HOPE THAT THANKS TO OUR FRIENDS IN THE UNITED STATES AND ALL OVER THE WORLD, WE WILL SOLVE THIS PROBLEM AND PROVIDE THE BLIND WITH A NORMAL LIFE.

    AT THE END OF OUR INTERVIEW, MR. ZUKO'S ASSISTANT CAME THREE PACES INTO THE ROOM TO TAKE AWAY OUR COFFEE CUPS. THE DIRECTOR ESCORTED US AWAY FROM THE TABLE TO THE DOOR AND EXTENDED HIS HAND. HE SAID THANK YOU. HE EXPLAINED THAT IT WAS A THANK YOU FOR LISTENING. NOT MANY PEOPLE, HE SAID, LISTEN TO THE BLIND. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EH/PCF/RAE
    25-Jul-96 3:03 PM EDT (1903 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] BOSNIA: AN ELECTION ASSESSMENT BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=7/25/96
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-09299
    TELEPHONE=619-1101
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // TAPE INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES //

    INTRO: THE AGREEMENT REACHED BETWEEN U-S ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE AND SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC (JULY 19) REQUIRING BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC TO STEP DOWN AS HEAD OF THE S-D-S PARTY HAS OPENED THE WAY FOR ELECTIONS TO PROCEED. THE ORGANIZATION CHARGED WITH ADMINISTERING BOSNIA'S SEPTEMBER 14TH ELECTIONS UNDER THE TERMS OF THE DAYTON AGREEMENT, IS THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE -- OR OSCE. THE HEAD OF THE U-S MISSION TO THE (VIENNA-BASED) O-S-C-E IS AMBASSADOR SAM BROWN. DURING A VISIT TO THE VOICE OF AMERICA IN WASHINGTON RECENTLY, THE AMBASSADOR TALKED

    ABOUT THE ELECTIONS WITH VOA'S PAMELA TAYLOR AND THREE

    LANGUAGE SERVICE COLLEAGUES: MAJA DRUCKER, THE CHIEF OF THE SERBIAN SERVICE, GEORGES CRMARIC OF THE CROATIAN SERVICE AND ILIR IKNOMI OF THE ALBANIAN SERVICE. PT: AMBASSADOR BROWN, COULD YOU TELL US IF THE O-S-C-E IS SATISFIED WITH THIS HOLBROOKE DEAL? SB: I THINK HOLBROOKE IN FACT GOT QUITE A GOOD DEAL OUT OF IT AND HASN'T GOTTEN ALL THE CREDIT HE SHOULD HAVE. I ALSO THINK, HOWEVER, THAT AMBASSADOR FROWICK AND THE O-S-C-E, FOR PUSHING IT, ALSO DESERVE A GOOD DEAL OF CREDIT HERE FOR SAYING CLEARLY THAT THIS ELECTION COULD NOT GO FORWARD AS LONG AS YOU HAD A MAN INDICTED FOR WAR CRIMES AS THE HEAD OF THE LARGEST PART IN REPUBLIKA SRPSKA. MD: AS FAR AS THE POLITICAL STANCE OF REPUBLIKA SRPSKA GOES, DOES IT REALLY MATTER THAT KARADZIC IS OUT? WE HEAR FROM THAT PART OF THE WORLD THAT IT DOESN'T, THAT WHOEVER COMES TO HIS POSITION, THINGS WILL JUST CONTINUE THE SAME AS BEFORE. SB: THE PEOPLE WHO FOLLOW HIM MAY HAVE THE SAME VIEWS AND CLEARLY MANY OF THEM DO. BUT ITS VERY IMPORTANT, BOTH SYMBOLICALLY AND REALLY NOT TO HAVE A MAN INDICTED FOR WAR CRIMES AS THE HEAD OF THE LARGEST PARTY AND ABLE TO RUN THE PARTY. THAT'S THE SYMBOLIC VALUE. THE REAL VALUE IS THAT EVEN THOUGH THOSE PEOPLE HOLD MUCH THE SAME VIEWS, THEY HAVE MUCH LESS AUTHORITY IN THE COUNTRY AND WITH THE PARTY. IT'S QUITE CLEAR THAT MR. KARADZIC HAD ESTABLISHED A KIND OF PERSONAL LEVEL OF AUTHORITY THAT WITH HIS DEPARTURE WILL BE SUBSTANTIALLY DIMINISHED. GS: WHEN IT COMES TO THE ELECTIONS, LET'S TAKE THE EXAMPLE OF SREBRENICA, YOU HAVE PEOPLE LIVING IN ALL DIFFERENT PARTS OF BOSNIA ELECTING THEIR REPRESENTATIVES IN A CITY WHERE THERE ARE NO MUSLIMS. HOW DOES A PERSON ELECTED IN THAT WAY APPEAR AS THE MAYOR OF SREBRENICA AMONG ALL THOSE SERBS? SB: WELL, THE INTERESTING THING ABOUT THAT IS A FUNDAMENTAL PHILOSOPHICAL QUESTION -- CAN YOU REVERSE THE RESULTS OF MILITARY ACTION BY DEMOCRATIC MEANS? AND I HOPE THE ANSWER TO THAT IS 'YES'. AND CLEARLY THAT'S THE INTENT OF THE ELECTION LAWS, TO ALLOW PEOPLE TO VOTE WHERE THEY WERE REGISTERED IN THE 1991 CENSUS AND BY THAT TO SAY, 'EVEN IF YOU WERE DRIVEN FROM THERE, YOU NONETHELESS HAVE THE MORAL RIGHT, THE POLITICAL RIGHT TO VOTE IN THE PLACE FROM WHICH YOU CAME. AND THE CHANGE THAT CAN COME FROM THAT, IF ELECTIONS BROUGHT TO SREBRENICA, BY WAY OF EXAMPLE, A MUSLIM GOVERNMENT, IT WOULD ALLOW MUSLIMS TO RETURN THERE AND AT THAT POINT YOU HAVE TO FIND A MODUS VIVENDI, IF YOU WILL, A WAY TO LIVE IN A SYSTEM ESTABLISHED BY DEMOCRATIC MEANS, NOT ENFORCED BY MILITARY MEANS. II: DO YOU THINK NATO (IFOR) IS GOING TO WAIT UNTIL THE ELECTIONS AND THEN JUMP IN AND ARREST KARADZIC, OR MAYBE THEY WILL TAKE ACTION BEFORE THE ELECTIONS TO PUT SOME KIND OF PRESSURE ON THE BOSNIAN SERBS AND THE S-D-S (PARTY) IN ORDER THAT THEIR VIEWS DO NOT PREVAIL. SB: A FAMOUS U-S PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE ONCE SAID, WHEN ASKED A HYPOTHETICAL QUESTION, HE SAID 'WHEN WE GET TO THAT BRIDGE, WE'LL JUMP OFF OF IT.' AND I GUESS THAT'S MY REACTION TO YOUR QUESTION. I DON'T KNOW HYPOTHETICALLY WHAT IFOR MAY OR MAY NOT DO BEFORE THE ELECTION OR AFTER THE ELECTION AND I HEAR LOTS OF SPECULATION ABOUT WHAT SHOULD BE DONE OR WHAT MIGHT BE DONE. II: BUT YOU'RE SORT OF THE INSIDER; YOU MIGHT HAVE MORE CONTACTS WITH NATO OFFICIALS THAN ANYONE ELSE. SB: YES, AND IF I KNEW MORE ABOUT IT, I'D BE THE LAST PERSON TO SAY ANYTHING ABOUT IT. (LAUGHTER) PT: WELL, WHAT WOULD THE O-S-C-E DO IF BETWEEN NOW AND SEPTEMBER 14TH, WE FIND THAT MR. KARADZIC HAS NOT OBEYED THE DEAL HE HAS AGREED TO WITH MR. HOLBROOKE AND DOES IN FACT APPEAR ON TELEVISION AND DOES IN FACT CAMPAIGN AND CERTAINLY GIVES THE APPEARANCE TO THE PEOPLE IN HIS COUNTRY AND CERTAINLY TO THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY THAT HE'S STILL VERY MUCH THE LEADER OF THE PARTY AND IN CHARGE? SB: WELL, I THINK IT WAS QUITE CLEAR IN THE AGREEMENT THAT WAS REACHED THAT THE EXPECTATION IS THAT THIS WILL BE IMPLEMENTED AND THAT THE EXPECTATION IS PLACED NOT ONLY ON MR. KARADZIC BUT ON MR.(SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN) MILOSEVIC, WHO ALSO SIGNED THE AGREEMENT. SO THERE IS A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PRICE OF NON-COMPLIANCE IS A PRICE THAT CAN BOTH BE EXTRACTED BY THE O-S-C-E IN TERMS OF THE PARTICIPATION IN THE ELECTIONS BUT CAN ALSO BE EXTRACTED BY THE U-N AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS IF IT IS NOT ENFORCED BY THE F-R-Y (FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA), PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE F-R-Y. PT: SO YOU DEFINITELY EXPECT THESE ELECTIONS TO GO FORWARD ON SEPTEMBER 14TH? SB: YES. I THINK PEOPLE CAN COUNT ON VOTING ON SEPTEMBER 14. (NO SIGNOFF)
    NEB/PAM/PCH
    25-Jul-96 11:40 AM EDT (1540 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] NATO / EXPANSION COSTS BY MAXIM KNIAZKOV (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=7/25/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-33912
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WITH SENSITIVE RUSSIAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS OVER, PRACTICAL MOVES ARE EXPECTED LATER THIS YEAR IN THE PROCESS OF EXPANDING NATO. IN DECEMBER, THE WESTERN ALLIANCE IS LIKELY TO MOVE TOWARD ESTABLISHING A FORMAL TIMETABLE FOR BRINGING IN SOME OF THE FORMER SOVIET-BLOC COUNTRIES. BUT MANY ANALYSTS WONDER HOW MUCH THIS MAJOR RESHAPING OF EUROPE'S SECURITY STRUCTURE WILL COST. V-O-A'S MAXIM KNIAZKOV LOOKS AT SOME OF THE ANSWERS.

    TEXT: EXPERTS SAY, POLITICAL SYMBOLISM ASIDE, JOINING THE FAMILY OF WESTERN DEMOCRACIES HAS A VERY SPECIFIC TECHNICAL SIDE TO IT. WITH NATO REMAINING A POLITICAL-MILITARY ALLIANCE, ANY NEW MEMBER WILL HAVE TO MAKE ITS ARMED FORCES COMPATIBLE WITH THE GROUP'S EXISTING SECURITY STRUCTURES AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS.

    EXPERTS SAY THAT IS NO SMALL MATTER IN FINANCIAL TERMS. GREGORY TREVERTON, WHO HEADS RAND CORPORATION'S CENTER FOR INTERNATIONAL SECURITY AND DEFENSE POLICY, SAYS RAND SPENT MONTHS TRYING TO CALCULATE THE COST OF BRINGING INTO NATO POLAND, HUNGARY, THE CZECH REPUBLIC, AND SLOVAKIA. THESE FOUR EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ARE SEEN AS THE LEADING CANDIDATES FOR ALLIANCE MEMBERSHIP.

    MR. TREVERTON SAYS THE AMOUNT RAND RESEARCHERS WERE ABLE TO COME UP WITH WAS QUITE SIGNIFICANT.

    /// ACT ONE TREVERTON ///

    WE SAID IF NATO WERE REASONABLY SERIOUS ABOUT THE MILITARY ARRANGEMENTS THAT WERE PART OF INCORPORATING NEW MEMBERS, WE HAVE PREPARED AN ILLUSTRATIVE PACKAGE, WHICH WOULD GIVE EXISTING NATO MEMBERS THE ABILITY TO REINFORCE, BOTH WITH AIR AND GROUND FORCES, NEW NATO MEMBERS IN CASE OF NEED. WE RECKONED THAT WOULD COST IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD OF 40 TO 50-BILLION DOLLARS OVER 10-YEARS.

    /// END ACT ///

    THIS AMOUNT IS WHAT RAND RESEARCHERS BELIEVE WILL BE NEEDED TO MAKE NEW MEMBERS FULL PARTICIPANTS IN THE COLLECTIVE DEFENSE SYSTEM ENVISAGED BY THE NATO TREATY.

    SINCE AN ATTACK ON A NATO MEMBER IS CONSIDERED AN ATTACK ON THE ALLIANCE AS A WHOLE, NEW MEMBERS, EXPERTS SAY, WILL BE REQUIRED TO TRANSCEND THEIR TERRITORIAL DEFENSE STRATEGIES AND BE PREPARED TO PROJECT POWER IN ACCORDANCE WITH ALLIANCE NEEDS. LIKEWISE, OLD NATO MEMBERS WILL HAVE TO MAKE ARRANGEMENTS ENABLING THEM TO HELP DEFEND NEW FRAGILE EUROPEAN DEMOCRACIES, IF SUCH NEED ARISES.

    IN PRACTICAL TERMS, SAYS MR. TREVERTON, IT WILL MEAN BUILDING NEW BASES, UPGRADING MILITARY TRANSPORT AND AIR DEFENSE CAPABILITIES, CREATING MOBILE TROOP UNITS, AND REVAMPING NAVIES AND AIR FORCES.

    /// ACT TWO TREVERTON ///

    THE FIRST (TASK) WE THINK OF IS AIR POWER PROJECTION. THAT IS GIVING THE EXISTING NATO MEMBERS THE ABILITY TO PROJECT AIR FORCES INTO THE NEW MEMBERS. THUS, WE END UP SPENDING MONEY ON PREPARING OPERATING BASES, ON HAVING SOME COMMON LOGISTICS, COMMON COMMUNICATIONS. THE NEXT STEP WE CALL GROUND-POWER PROJECTION. THAT WOULD ADD TO TERRITORIAL DEFENSE AND SOME AIR POWER PROJECTION THE ABILITY FOR THE EXISTING NATO MEMBERS TO ACTUALLY MOVE SOME GROUND FORCES INTO THE NEW NATO MEMBERS.

    /// END ACT ///

    EXPERTS SAY THE BIG, AND STILL UNANSWERED, QUESTION IS HOW TO RECONCILE NATO EXPANSION PLANS WITH ECONOMIC AUSTERITY MEASURES PROMOTED IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE BY THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND.

    FOR EXAMPLE, THE CZECH REPUBLIC IS REPORTED TO HAVE A MILITARY PROCUREMENT BUDGET OF ONLY 30-MILLION DOLLARS THIS YEAR -- AN AMOUNT THAT WOULD HARDLY BUY ONE MODERN FIGHTER JET

    THE OTHER THREE PROSPECTIVE NATO MEMBERS ARE SAID TO BE IN ABOUT THE SAME FINANCIAL STRAITS. SO, MR. TREVERTON OF RAND CORPORATION ANTICIPATES LONG AND TEDIOUS BARGAINING, ONCE NATO ENLARGEMENT PLANS MOVE INTO A PRACTICAL STAGE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MAX/RAE
    25-Jul-96 1:14 PM EDT (1714 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] TURKEY / PRISONS (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=7/25/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-200715
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE DEATH TOLL IN TURKEY'S PRISON HUNGER STRIKE HAS RISEN TO SIX. AMBERIN ZAMAN IN ANKARA REPORTS CRITICS HAVE CALLED FOR THE RESIGNATION OF TURKEY'S JUSTICE MINISTER SEVKET KAZAN. BUT THERE ARE NO SIGNS THE GOVERNMENT WILL YIELD TO THE STRIKERS DEMANDS.

    TEXT: THE HUNGER STRIKERS ARE PROTESTING CONDITIONS IN TURKISH PRISONS. AND LAWYERS REPORT SEVERAL OF THE STRIKERS ARE IN CRITICAL CONDITION. BUT THERE ARE FEW SIGNS THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT WILL YIELD TO THE PRISONERS DEMANDS. ABOUT 300 MAINLY LEFT WING MILITANT PRISONERS ARE CALLING FOR IMPROVED LIVING CONDITIONS AND AN END TO ALLEGED ILL-TREATMENT BY AUTHORITIES. JUSTICE MINISTER SEVKET KAZAN HAS RULED OUT ANY CONCESSIONS TO END THE 67-DAY STRIKE AND SAID THE GOVERNMENT WILL NOT FORCE FASTING PRISONERS TO EITHER DRINK OR EAT.

    MR. KAZAN ALSO SAID THAT IF PRISONERS CONTINUE THEIR HUNGER STRIKE, HE WILL REVOKE EARLIER CONCESSIONS MADE TO POLITICAL PRISONERS, INCLUDING VISITATION RIGHTS.

    MEMBERS OF THE TURKISH OPPOSITION AS WELL AS CIVIL RIGHTS GROUPS HAVE STRONGLY CRITICIZED THE GOVERNMENT'S STAND. MEMBERS OF THE SOCIAL DEMOCRAT PEOPLE'S REPUBLICAN PARTY HAVE CALLED ON MR KAZAN TO RESIGN.

    TWO PRISONERS TRIED TO BURN THEMSELVES TO DEATH WEDNESDAY AT A PRISON IN THE EASTERN CITY OF ERZURUM -- ALSO TO PROTEST THE GOVERNMENT'S STANCE.

    IN ISTANBUL, ALMOST TWO-THOUSAND DEMONSTRATORS GATHERED (THURSDAY) IN FRONT OF THE MAIN COURTHOUSE TO DISPLAY THEIR SUPPORT FOR THE STRIKERS. HUMAN RIGHTS OFFICIALS SAY HUNDREDS OF OTHER DEMONSTRATORS HAVE BEEN ARRESTED IN RECENT DAYS AND MANY OF THEM BEATEN BY POLICE.

    ANALYSTS SAY THE HUNGER STRIKE CRISIS HAS BECOME THE GREATEST DOMESTIC PROBLEM FACING TURKEY'S NEW ISLAMIST-LED GOVERNMENT SINCE IT TOOK POWER THREE WEEKS AGO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/JWH/CF
    25-Jul-96 10:15 AM EDT (1415 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] U-S/BOSNIA FORCE (L-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=7/25/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-200753
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT: *INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION INSISTED THURSDAY IT DOES NOT BELIEVE A FOLLOW-ON MILITARY FORCE WILL BE REQUIRED IN BOSNIA AFTER NATO'S PEACE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE, I-FOR, LEAVES AT THE END OF THE YEAR. SENIOR U-S INTELLIGENCE OFFICIALS HAD WARNED CONGRESS WEDNESDAY THAT FIGHTING IS LIKELY TO RESUME IF THE NATO-LED FORCE DEPARTS ON SCHEDULE. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS IT DOES NOT EXPECT THE ELECTIONS TO BE HELD IN BOSNIA IN SEPTEMBER TO BRING PERFECT HARMONY TO THE WAR-TORN COUNTRY. BUT IT SAYS IT DOES EXPECT THAT THE ELECTORAL PROCESS -- AND THE NEW POLITICAL LEADERSHIP THAT EMERGES FROM IT WILL BRING THE COUNTRY ENOUGH STABILITY TO ALLOW I-FOR TO WITHDRAW ON SCHEDULE WITHOUT A RESUMPTION OF BLOODSHED.

    IN CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS WEDNESDAY, SENIOR OFFICIALS OF BOTH THE C-I-A AND THE DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY SAID A MULTI-NATIONAL FORCE WILL HAVE TO REMAIN IN BOSNIA BEYOND YEAR'S END -- IF MUSLIM, SERB AND CROAT FORCES ARE TO BE PREVENTED FROM TAKING UP ARMS AGAIN. HOWEVER, STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICOLAS BURNS SAID THE INSTITUTIONS BEING CREATED BY THE ELECTIONS -- A NEW THREE-MEMBER BOSNIAN PRESIDENCY AND A NATIONAL ASSEMBLY -- WILL BEGIN TO BRIDGE THE PARTITION THAT NOW DIVIDES THE ETHNIC COMMUNITIES. HE INSISTED THE ADMINISTRATION DOES NOT SEE A NEED FOR A FOLLOW-ON FORCE:

    ///BURNS ACT///

    WE ANTICIPATE AND ARE PLANNING FOR A COMPLETE WITHDRAWAL OF AMERICAN FORCES FROM BOSNIA AND FROM THE REGION WHERE THEY ARE NOW DEPLOYED AND STAGED AT THE END OF DECEMBER. WE HAVE NOT ENGAGED IN ANY SPECIFIC PLANNING WITH OUR ALLIES IN NATO TO EXTEND THE LIFE OF THE I-FOR MISSION OR TO CONTEMPLATE A NEW MILITARY MISSION THAT MIGHT SUCCEED I-FOR.

    ///END ACT///

    SPOKESMAN BURNS REJECTED SUGGESTIONS THAT THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION MIGHT CHANGE ITS VIEW AFTER THE NOVEMBER 5TH U-S PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION.

    HE SAID A PHASED REDUCTION OF THE 60-THOUSAND MEMBER FORCE WILL ACTUALLY HAVE TO BEGIN BY LATE SEPTEMBER IF THE TIMETABLE IS TO BE MET. NATO HAS SAID IT WILL KEEP A CAPABLE RESIDUAL FORCE IN BOSNIA UP UNTIL THE DECEMBER 20TH EXPIRATION OF ITS PEACEKEEPING MANDATE, WITH ALL TROOPS TO BE GONE WITHIN A FEW WEEKS AFTER THAT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/KL
    25-Jul-96 6:08 PM EDT (2208 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] UNITED NATIONS: POWER AT THE TOP? BY ELAINE JOHANSON (NEW YORK)

    DATE=7/25/96
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-09300
    TELEPHONE=212-826-4529
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // INSERTS AND VOICED VERSION IN AUDIO SERVICES //

    INTRO: THE SECRETARY-GENERAL OF THE UNITED NATIONS -- BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI OF EGYPT -- WANTS ANOTHER FIVE YEARS IN OFFICE WHEN HIS FIRST TERM EXPIRES AT THE END OF THIS YEAR. NOT INCLUDED AMONG HIS SUPPORTERS IS THE UNITED STATES, WHICH HAS THREATENED TO VETO HIS REAPPOINTMENT ON THE GROUNDS THAT HE IS NOT SUFFICIENTLY COMMITTED TO U-N REFORMS. A GREAT DEAL OF PRESTIGE IS ATTACHED TO THE U-N'S TOP POST. BUT HOW MUCH POWER DOES A SECRETARY-GENERAL ACTUALLY HAVE? IS IT REAL OR

    ILLUSION? VOA CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON OFFERS AN

    HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE:

    TEXT: THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER SAYS LITTLE ABOUT THE ROLE OF THE WORLD'S TOP DIPLOMAT. IT CHARACTERIZES THE SECRETARY-GENERAL AS THE U-N'S CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER. IT ALSO ALLOWS HIM TO BRING TO THE ATTENTION OF THE WORLD COMMUNITY ANY PROBLEM HE CONSIDERS A THREAT TO PEACE AND SECURITY. A SECRETARY-GENERAL CAN SERVE AS MEDIATOR OR ADVISOR.

    HOW THIS ALL PLAYS OUT IN REALITY IS BEST SEEN, PERHAPS, THROUGH A POLITICAL KALEIDOSCOPE. THE PIECES KEEP SHIFTING. THE SIX MEN WHO OCCUPIED THE OFFICE SINCE 1945 HAVE HELPED SHAPE THE JOB. BUT GOVERNMENTS ARE THE REAL FORCE BEHIND THE UNITED NATIONS. IT IS THEY WHO HAVE DETERMINED THE SECRETARY-GENERAL'S POWER.

    BRIAN URQUHART -- A HIGH U-N OFFICIAL FROM 1945 UNTIL HIS RETIREMENT IN 1987 -- SAYS THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER AT THE U-N IS A BASIC ONE:

    TAPE: CUT ONE - URQUHART (:20) "THIS IS NOT AN EASY SUBJECT. IT HINGES ON AN ABSOLUTELY BASIC POLITICAL ISSUE, WHICH IS NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY, INTERNATIONAL RESPONSIBLITY AND EVENTUALLY, PRESUMABLY IN SOME AREAS, SOME KIND OF SUPRA-NATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS. THIS IS THE DRAMA OF THE POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE U-N."

    TEXT: UNITED STATES AMBASSADOR MADELEINE ALBRIGHT -- ABOUT ONE YEAR INTO THE TERM OF MR. BOUTROS-GHALI -- REVEALED SOME OF THE NORMAL TENSIONS BETWEEN A SECRETARY-GENERAL AND GOVERNMENTS:

    TAPE: CUT TWO - ALBRIGHT (:20) "COUNTRIES ARE TRYING TO SORT OUT WHAT IS THEIR SOVEREIGN RIGHT AND WHAT IS THEIR RESPONSIBLITY TO AN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION. WE'RE ALL TRYING TO WORK OUT OUR ROLES. AND I THINK THAT PEOPLE ARE CONCERNED WHEN BOUTROS-GHALI SEEMS TO OVER-STEP AND BELIEVES THAT HE'S IN CHARGE OF EVERYTHING."

    TEXT: THAT WAS, OF COURSE, A TIME WHEN THE UNITED NATIONS WAS STEPPING INTO A POWER VACUUM LEFT BY THE END OF THE COLD WAR. THE MAJOR GOVERNMENTS HAD MET IN NEW YORK AND ENCOURAGED THE SECRETARY-GENERAL TO BE AN ACTIVE PARTNER IN PUTTING THE WORLD BACK INTO BALANCE.

    FORMER U-N OFFICIAL BRIAN URQUHART DOUBTS THEY REALLY MEANT IT. HE RECALLS THE SECOND U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL -- DAG HAMMARSKJOLD OF SWEDEN -- WHO ENGINEERED THROUGH THE SECURITY COUNCIL IN THE EARLY 1960'S A MAJOR MILITARY INTERVENTION IN WHAT WAS THEN THE BELGIAN CONGO. HE WAS KILLED IN A PLANE CRASH WHILE ON MISSION:

    TAPE: CUT THREE - URQUHART (:28) "GOVERNMENTS HAVE ALWAYS SAID THEY WANT A STRONG SECRETARY-GENERAL. BUT IN PRIVATE THEY VERY OFTEN SAY THEY DON'T. DAG HAMMARSKJOLD, ONCE HE WAS DEAD, WAS CONSIDERED TO BE THE GREAT MODEL OF A STRONG SECRETARY-GENERAL. BUT I CAN ASSURE YOU THAT DURING THE EIGHT YEARS THAT HE WAS SECRETARY-GENERAL, HE AT VARIOUS TIMES BECAME EXTREMELY UNPOPULAR WITH VIRTUALLY ALL THE MEMBERSHIP, PARTICULARLY THE GREAT POWERS -- ONE AFTER ANOTHER, BECAUSE HE WAS A VERY STRONG AND INDEPENDENT PERSON."

    TEXT: THE FIRST U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL, TRYGVE LIE OF NORWAY, LEARNED WHAT IT MEANS TO OPERATE WITHOUT THE SUPPORT OF A MAJOR COUNTRY. HE HAD PERSUADED THE SECURITY COUNCIL TO INTERVENE IN KOREA -- OVER THE OBJECTIONS OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION. WHEN MOSCOW EVENTUALLY VETOED HIS BID FOR RE-ELECTION, THE UNITED STATES AND ITS ALLIES TOOK ADVANTAGE OF A CHARTER PROVISION AND ASKED THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY TO BREAK THE DEADLOCK. TRYGVE LIE WAS GIVEN A SECOND ABBREVIATED TERM. BUT THE LACK OF SOVIET COOPERATION FORCED HIM TO RETIRE EARLY.

    U-N HISTORY IS DOTTED WITH SECRETARIES-GENERAL ACTING THEIR ROLE IN SOMETIMES DRAMATIC FASHION: KURT WALDHEIM OF AUSTRIA TRYING TO WIN THE RELEASE OF AMERICAN HOSTAGES AFTER THE ISLAMIC REVOLUTION IN IRAN, OR JAVIER PEREZ DE CUELLAR OF PERU TRYING TO BROKER AN END TO EIGHT YEARS OF WAR BETWEEN IRAN AND IRAQ.

    BUT BRIAN URQUHART SAYS POWER AT THE TOP OF THE U-N IS MOSTLY ILLUSION. IT'S REALLY ALL ABOUT MORAL SUASION:

    TAPE: CUT FOUR - URQUHART (:23) "YOU SAID THE SECRETARY-GENERAL HAS POWER. HE DOESN'T. HE HAS INFLUENCE AND A GREAT DEAL OF EXPOSURE. HE HAS VIRTUALLY NO POWER AT ALL. AND I THINK IN THAT SITUATION IDEAS ARE IMMENSELY MORE IMPORTANT THAN, SAY, THEY ARE IN A NATIONAL GOVERNMENT. SO I THINK ANY SECRETARY-GENERAL HAS TO TRY TO DO THAT. AND THAT TAKES A RATHER SPECIAL SORT OF PERSON. THERE ARE VERY FEW PEOPLE WHO CAN ACTUALLY DO IT."

    TEXT: SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS-GHALI -- HAVING DECIDED TO MUTE HIS CAMPAIGN FOR RE-ELECTION AFTER THE UNITED STATES INSISTED IT WOULD NOT SUPPORT HIM -- HAS THROWN HIS LOT IN HISTORY'S DIRECTION. HE HAS PUT HIS FUTURE IN THE HANDS OF GOVERNMENTS:

    TAPE: CUT FIVE - BOUTROS-GHALI (:14) "I HAVE NO INTENTION TO DISCUSS THE PROBLEM OF MY RE-ELECTION FOR THE TIME BEING. I'M OVERLOADED BY DAILY PROBLEMS. THIS IS NOW IN THE HANDS OF THE MEMBER-STATES. THEY HAVE TO DECIDE IT."

    TEXT: CHINA IN 1981 VETOED KURT WALDHEIM'S BID FOR A THIRD TERM 16 TIMES. A COMPROMISE CANDIDATE FINALLY EMERGED. HOW THE UPCOMING DRAMA WILL PLAY ITSELF OUT IS A SCRIPT STILL BEING WRITTEN IN THE KEY CAPITALS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EJ/PCH
    25-Jul-96 2:44 PM EDT (1844 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L-ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=7/25/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-200731
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-N YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL HAS HEARD MORE EYEWITNESS EVIDENCE AGAINST BOSNIAN SERB DUSAN TADIC. IN THE TRIBUNAL'S FIRST TRIAL, HE IS ACCUSED OF CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY AND OTHER WAR CRIMES. BUT AS GILLIAN SHARPE REPORTS FROM THE HAGUE, THE DEFENSE TEAM SAYS A KEY PROSECUTION WITNESS TESTIFIED (THURSDAY) HE HAD NOT SEEN MR. TADIC AT THE SCENE OF ONE OF HIS MOST NOTORIOUS ALLEGED CRIMES.

    TEXT: THE MAN, KNOWN ONLY AS "WITNESS-H" TO PROTECT HIS IDENTITY, WAS HEARD IN CLOSED COURT. HE IS THOUGHT TO BE ONE OF ONLY TWO SURVIVORS OF WHAT HAS BECOME ONE OF THE MOST INFAMOUS ALLEGED INCIDENTS AT THE OMARSKA PRISON CAMP IN BOSNIA.

    PROSECUTORS AT THE TRIBUNAL ACCUSE DUSAN TADIC OF BEING WITH A GROUP OF SERBS WHO BEAT THREE PRISONERS TO DEATH. ANOTHER MAN DIED AFTER A SECOND PRISONER WAS FORCED TO BITE ONE OF HIS TESTICLES OFF.

    THE TEXT OF WHAT WITNESS-H HAD TO SAY HAS NOT YET BEEN OFFICIALLY RELEASED, BUT MR. TADIC'S DEFENSE TEAM SAYS HE TOLD THE COURT MR. TADIC WAS NOT THERE. THE DEFENSE SAYS WITNESS-H KNEW THEIR CLIENT WELL, BEFORE THE WAR. IF THAT IS TRUE, IT WILL BE A SETBACK FOR THE PROSECUTION. TRIBUNAL OBSERVERS SAY WHY THE DEFENSE CALLED HIM IS NOT CLEAR.

    OTHER PROSECUTION WITNESSES, LIKE MUHAREM BESIC, HAVE PUT MR. TADIC FIRMLY AT THE SCENE OF THE ATROCITY. HE TOLD THE COURT MR TADIC HAD SINGLED OUT ONE OF THE MEN WHO LATER WAS KILLED. HE SAID MR. TADIC THREATENED TO KILL THE MAN. MR. BESIC'S WORDS ARE SPOKEN BY A TRANSLATOR.

    /// BESIC ACT ///

    PEOPLE WERE SCREAMING LIKE ANIMALS -- "WHY ME, WHY ME?" YOU CAN NOT IMAGINE WHAT THE SITUATION WAS LIKE. AT THAT MOMENT THERE WERE THREE-THOUSAND PEOPLE IN THE CAMP AND I DO NOT KNOW IF ANYONE WAS EVEN BREATHING LOUDLY.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE WITNESS WAS RELYING ON WHAT HE HAD HEARD AND COULD NOT SAY WHETHER MR. TADIC HAD BEEN INVOLVED.

    EARLIER IN THE WEEK, THE COURT HEARD FROM ONLY ONE OF TWO DIRECT EYEWITNESSES TO THIS INCIDENT. HE DESCRIBED THE ATTACK IN DETAIL. THE WITNESS TOLD THE COURT, DUSAN TADIC WAS THERE, BUT UNDER QUESTIONING FROM THE JUDGE, HE ADMITTED HE HAD NOT SEEN MR. TADIC ISSUING ORDERS.

    OBSERVERS SAY THIS WEEK SHOULD HAVE BEEN ONE OF THE HIGHLIGHTS OF THE PROSECUTION'S CASE. AS IT TURNS OUT IT HAS ALSO BEEN A GOOD WEEK FOR THE DEFENSE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/PCF/RAE
    25-Jul-96 1:59 PM EDT (1759 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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