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Voice of America, 1 August 1996

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] BOSNIA / MOSTAR (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)
  • [03] CHICAGO / BOSNIA VOTE (L) BY MICHAEL LELAND (CHICAGO)
  • [04] ITALY / NAZI BY RUTH GRUBER (ROME)
  • [05] NATO ENLARGEMENT: PART TWO BY FRANCIS RONALDS (WASHINGTON)
  • [06] THE TROUBLE WITH KOSOVO BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)
  • [07] U-S FORCES/BOSNIA (L) BY JILL MOSS (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=8/1/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09707
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=_
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON THURSDAY, AUGUST 1ST //

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON'S DECISION TO SIGN LEGISLATION THAT WOULD ALTER A MAJOR AMERICAN SOCIAL WELFARE PROGRAM IS ONE OF THE LEADING TOPICS DISCUSSED ON THE EDITORIAL PAGES OF THURSDAY'S NEWSPAPERS. OTHER SUBJECTS INCLUDE INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM, AND THE POSSIBLE ACCEPTANCE BY CHINA OF A NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY. NOW, FOR A CLOSER LOOK AND SOME QUOTES, HERE IS ________________ WITH TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: ON WEDNESDAY, PRESIDENT CLINTON SAID THAT HE WOULD SIGN A WELFARE-REFORM BILL. IT'S OFFICIAL NAME IS THE PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY AND WORK OPPORTUNITY ACT. THE PRESIDENT SAID THAT "TODAY (AMERICANS) HAVE A HISTORIC OPPORTUNITY TO MAKE WELFARE WHAT IT WAS MEANT TO BE -- A SECOND CHANCE, NOT A WAY OF LIFE." AMONG THE PROVISIONS IS A REQUIREMENT THAT ABLE-BODIES WELFARE RECIPIENTS FIND WORK WITHIN TWO YEARS. LIFETIME BENEFITS ARE LIMITED TO FIVE YEARS. RECENT IMMIGRANTS TO THE UNITED STATES ALSO FACE REDUCED AID. THE WASHINGTON TIMES WELCOMES THE LEGISLATION, HEADLINING ITS LEAD EDITORIAL: "WELFARE REFORM AT LONG LAST."

    VOICE: "NOT ONLY DOES THIS BIPARTISAN ACHIEVEMENT REPRESENT A POLITICAL VICTORY FOR BOTH THE DEMOCRATIC PRESIDENT AND THE REPUBLICAN CONGRESS. EVEN MORE IMPORTANT, IT WILL SURELY OFFER A BETTER LIFE FOR THE MILLIONS OF WELFARE RECIPIENTS WHOSE LONG-TERM DEPENDENCY UPON THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT HAS CONSPIRED TO DENY THEM THE OPPORTUNITY TO SUPPORT THEMSELVES AND THEIR FAMILIES IN THE MOST OPPORTUNITY-LADEN SOCIETY CIVILIZATION HAS EVER CREATED."

    TEXT: BUT, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES IS OF THE OPINION THAT THE NEW LEGISLATION IS "WELFARE REFORM AT CALIFORNIA'S EXPENSE."

    VOICE: "STATE AND COUNTY GOVERNMENTS ARE REQUIRED TO PROVIDE AID TO ALL LEGAL RESIDENTS. EXPECT LINES OF ELDERLY, BLIND OR DISABLED IMMIGRANTS AT RELIEF AGENCIES, FOR THEY WILL NO LONGER BE ELIGIBLE FOR FEDERAL BENEFITS. NEEDY NON-CITIZENS WILL ALSO LOSE ACCESS TO FEDERAL FOOD STAMPS. ALL THIS ADDS UP TO GENERAL RELIEF AT LOCAL EXPENSE... AMERICAN CHILDREN, HOWEVER, WILL NO LONGER BE ENTITLED TO FEDERAL SUBSISTENCE AID SIMPLY BECAUSE THEIR FAMILIES ARE POOR. THE NATIONAL SAFETY NET ESTABLISHED BY PRESIDENT FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT IN THE 1930S IS, IN ESSENCE, EVAPORATING. THE CHANGES COULD PLUNGE AN ESTIMATED ONE-POINT-ONE MILLION CHILDREN DEEPER INTO POVERTY... [OPT] BY SIGNING THE WELFARE REFORM LEGISLATION, (MR.) CLINTON WILL BE ABLE TO SAY HE FULFILLED A KEY CAMPAIGN PROMISE TO 'END WELFARE AS WE KNOW IT'. BUT HE WON'T BE ABLE TO SAY THAT HE LIVED UP TO HIS MORE RECENT ASSERTION THAT CHILDREN 'NEED TO COME OUT AHEAD'." [END OPT]

    [OPT]

    TEXT: THE WALL STREET JOURNAL, ON ITS EDITORIAL PAGE, CALLS THE WELFARE REFORM LEGISLATION 'HISTORIC."

    VOICE: "UNTIL RECENTLY, THE ETHOS WAS THAT WELFARE WAS A PUBLIC RESPONSIBILITY. CLEARLY, HISTORY'S TIDE HAS SHIFTED, WITH THE ASCENDANT ETHOS NOW HOLDING THAT THE ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE OF OUR POLITICS SHOULD BE PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY. [OPT] MOST AMERICANS SUPPORT THE IDEA OF SOME KIND OF SAFETY NET, OF COURSE, BUT THIS BILL DEVOLVES THAT RESPONSIBILITY AWAY FROM THE MASSIVE AUTHORITY OF ONE GOVERNMENT AND DISPENSES IT AMONG THE VARIANTS OF 50 POLITICAL UNITS. MIRRORING FORCES LONG EVIDENT IN THE MODERN MARKETPLACE, WELFARE NOW HAS MANY PRODUCERS. RUNNING FOR RE-ELECTION, NO CLINTON CAMPAIGN WOULD EVER STAND AGAINST SO STRONG A TIDE." [END OPT]

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES COMMENTS ON THE POLITICAL VIOLENCE LAST WEEKEND IN JAKARTA, INDONESIA. THE NEWSPAPER SAYS THAT TROUBLE BEGAN WHEN POLICE "FORCIBLY EVICTED SUPPORTERS OF AN EMBATTLED BUT PEACEABLE OPPOSITION LEADER FROM HER PARTY'S HEADQUARTERS..."

    VOICE: "...ANTI-GOVERNMENT RIOTERS SURGED THROUGH DOWNTOWN STREETS, CLASHING WITH POLICE AND SOLDIERS AND BURNING GOVERNMENT OFFICES AND BANKS. THIS EXPLOSIVE OUTBURST COULD SIGNAL A SERIOUS CHALLENGE TO THE 36-YEAR-LONG RULE OF INDONESIA'S LEADER, SUHARTO. THE COUNTRY'S SUPPRESSED OPPOSITION FORCES CAN MOUNT NO MORE THAN A MODEST POLITICAL CHALLENGE TO THE MILITARY-BACKED REGIME AT THIS POINT. BUT THE GOVERNMENT'S REFLEXIVE RESPONSE TO THE RIOTING -- INCLUDING A CALL FOR THE ARMY TO SHOOT RIOTERS ON SIGHT -- RISKS IGNITING A PROLONGED PERIOD OF INSTABILITY... THE UNITED STATES, WHICH HAS BEEN QUICKER TO SEE INDONESIA AS AN EMERGING MARKET THAN AN EMERGING DEMOCRACY, MUST USE ITS CONSIDERABLE INFLUENCE TO DISCOURAGE REFLEXIVE REPRESSION AND ENCOURAGE TIMELY CHANGE."

    TEXT: ONE SUGGESTION TO MAKE IT EASIER TO TRACE TERRORISTS IS TO MIX MULTI-LAYERED PARTICLES OF COLOR-CODED PLASTIC -- KNOWN AS TAGGANTS -- IN WITH EXPLOSIVES DURING THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS. THE TAGGANTS WOULD IDENTIFY THE EXPLOSIVE'S MANUFACTURER, BATCH NUMBER, AND THE DATE THE MIXTURE WAS PRODUCED. "IN HIS LATEST ANTI-TERRORISM PROPOSAL," NOTES THE USA TODAY NEWSPAPER, "PRESIDENT CLINTON ASKS CONGRESS TO FUND A STUDY OF CURRENT TAGGANT TECHNOLOGY."

    VOICE: "THE NEW REVIEW IS NEEDED TO ADDRESS CONCERNS THAT TAGGANTS CAN BE UNSAFE. TAGGANT MANUFACTURERS SAY DANGER CAN ARISE IF THE PARTICLES ARE USED IN TOO HIGH A CONCENTRATION IN SOME POWDERS. BUT FOLLOW-UP STUDIES AND THE PROVEN SWISS RECORD CLEARLY DEMONSTRATE THAT TAGGANTS CAN BE SAFELY USED... [OPT] BOMBING FACTS, UNFORTUNATELY, MAKE A COMPELLING TAGGANT CASE. CRIMINAL BOMB ATTACKS AND BOMB ATTEMPTS HAVE DOUBLED IN A DECADE, HITTING THREE-THOUSAND-163 IN 1994, ACCORDING TO THE BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS. BLACK OR SMOKELESS POWDER WAS USED IN 25 PERCENT OF THESE. [END OPT] TAGGANTS COULD PROVIDE POWERFUL, EXPLOSIVE 'FINGERPRINTS' THAT RESULT IN MORE ARRESTS SOONER. THAT'S A CRIME-SOLVING WEAPON THAT SHOULD NOT BE KEPT IN THE CLOSET."

    TEXT: HOWEVER, TANYA METASKA, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL RIFLE ASSOCIATION, OFFERS AN OPPOSING VIEW IN USA TODAY.

    VOICE: "N-R-A SUPPORTS A STUDY OF TAGGANTS IN POWDERS IF CONDUCTED BY AN INDEPENDENT PANEL OF SCIENTISTS. THE SAFETY HAZARD IS JUST TOO GRAVE TO ENTRUST TO POLITICAL APPOINTEES. THAT PANEL SHOULD HEAR FROM ALL CONCERNED PARTIES, ESPECIALLY TERRORIST EXPERTS, ON TAGGANT USEFULNESS. [OPT] AFTER ALL, THOSE WITH EVIL INTENT CAN REMOVE TAGGANTS USING A MAGNET OR SIEVE. ALSO, TAGGANTS IDENTIFY POWDER BY LOT, NOT PURCHASER. SOME 30-THOUSAND PURCHASERS MIGHT USE POWDER FROM THE SAME LOT. [END OPT] MORE IMPORTANTLY, THE PANEL SHOULD EXAMINE TRULY MODERN TECHNOLOGY. NEW TECHNOLOGIES LIKE VAPOR-DETECTION SYSTEMS, FOR INSTANCE, DETECT THE PRESENCE OF TERRORISTS' TOOLS BEFORE LIVES ARE LOST. UNLIKE TAGGANTS, THEY CAN PREVENT TRAGEDIES."

    TEXT: AN EDITORIAL IN THURSDAY'S WASHINGTON POST MAKES THE POINT THAT "BENJAMIN NETANYAHU, THE NEW ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER, IS BEING PRESSED BY HIS CONSTITUENTS AND COMMITMENTS TO TAKE A HARD LINE ON PEACE..."

    VOICE: "...BUT HIS AMERICAN PATRONS AND ARAB NEIGHBORS -- THIS WEEK IT WAS PRESIDENT CLINTON AND EGYPT'S VISITING PRESIDENT MUBARAK -- URGE A MODERATE LINE. SO FAR HE HAS NOT CHOSEN HIS COURSE, AND THE TENSION IS RISING.... HOSNI MUBAREK IS ONE OF THOSE ARAB 'AUTOCRATS' MR. NETANYAHU CRITICIZED BEFORE CONGRESS EARLIER THIS MONTH. AT HOME HE SEEMS MORE ATTUNED TO AN OUTDATED KIND OF 'STABILITY' THAN TO POLITICAL REFORM. BUT LIKE HIS PREDECESSOR, ANWAR SADAT, HE IS A PROVEN AND CRUCIAL SUPPORTER OF A DIPLOMATIC INITIATIVE THAT HAS GIVEN THE UNITED STATES A LEADING REGIONAL ROLE AND THAT STILL CAN BRING BENEFITS TO ARABS AND ISRAELIS. HE IS A STEADYING FIGURE IN THE MIDEAST'S STORMS, AND HIS ADVICE TO THE ISRAELIS IS SOUND."

    VOICE: THE BALTIMORE SUN TAKES HOPE IN CHINA'S ANNOUNCEMENT THAT IT IS ENDING NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTS AFTER SETTING OFF ITS 45TH DEVICE SINCE 1964.

    VOICE: "IT WAS A SMALL UNDERGROUND BLAST HOURS BEFORE 61 NATIONS RESUMED THE CONFERENCE ON DISARMAMENT AT GENEVA. THE RUSH TO CONCLUDE TESTING BEFORE THE CONFERENCE IS ONE OF THE FEW REASSURING SIGNS THAT CHINA'S PRESENT RULERS ACTUALLY PAY HEED TO WORLD OPINION... NOW THAT THE WORLD'S FIVE ADMITTED NUCLEAR POWERS HAVE EACH UNILATERALLY STOPPED TESTING, THE CHANCE OF A COMPREHENSIVE NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY EMERGING FROM THIS CONFERENCE IS THAT MUCH IMPROVED. BUT NOT A SURE THING... A COMPREHENSIVE TEST BAN TREATY WOULD NOT SOLVE ALL PROBLEMS. IT WOULD GO A LONG WAY TO REDUCING ONE OF THEM."

    [REST OPT]

    TEXT: "CONGRESS," IN THE WORDS OF THE BOSTON GLOBE, "HAS JUST PROVED THAT THE ROAD TO BAD LEGISLATION CAN BE PAVED WITH GOOD INTENTIONS."

    VOICE: "THE SANCTIONS BILL IT PASSED TO PUNISH COUNTRIES INVESTING MORE THAN 40 MILLION DOLLARS IN THE ENERGY SECTORS OF IRAN AND LIBYA EXPRESSES A JUSTIFIABLE FRUSTRATION AT THE FAILURE OF ALLIES TO HELP QUARANTINE THE TERRORIST REGIMES IN TEHRAN AND TRIPOLI. BUT THE LAWMAKERS WHO PASSED THIS SANCTIONS BILL ALLOWED THEMSELVES TO BE BLINDED BY ANGER. THE LEGISLATION VIOLATES THE SOUND LEGAL PRINCIPLE THAT PROTECTS CITIZENS AND COMPANIES IN ONE COUNTRY FROM THE EXTRATERRITORIAL EXTENSION OF ANOTHER COUNTRY'S LAWS..."

    TEXT: AND FINALLY, THE MIAMI HERALD DISCUSSES THE RE-OPENING OF ATLANTA'S CENTENNIAL OLYMPIC PARK. IT WAS CLOSED SATURDAY AFTER A BOMB WENT OFF, KILLING ONE WOMAN AND INJURING MORE THAN 100 OTHERS.

    VOICE: "ANDREW YOUNG PUT IT JUST RIGHT: 'WE ARE NOT HERE TO WALLOW IN TRAGEDY BUT TO CELEBRATE A TRIUMPH -- A TRIUMPH OF THE HUMAN SPIRIT'... TUESDAY'S RESURGENCE OF PEOPLE BACK INTO THE REOPENED PARK AFFIRMED THAT THE PEOPLE OF YET ANOTHER CITY WOULD NOT BE COWED BY VIOLENT COWARDS. THE BOMB SITE ITSELF SPROUTED FLOWERS, FLAGS, AND MESSAGES -- A MAKESHIFT, HEARTFELT MEMORIAL TO ALICE HAWTHORNE, THE WOMAN KILLED, AND TO THE LESS-TANGIBLE WOUNDS INFLICTED ON A COLLECTIVE BODY AND SOUL. MR. YOUNG, ATLANTA'S FORMER MAYOR, CAPTURED THE BREADTH OF HEALING THAT ALREADY HAS TAKEN PLACE AND THAT WILL, WITH GOOD WISHES AND GOODWILL, SEE THE OLYMPICS THROUGH TO THEIR CONCLUSION."

    TEXT: THAT CONCLUDES THIS SAMPLING OF SOME OF TODAY'S EDITORIALS TO BE FOUND IN THE U-S PRESS.
    NEB/DN/PCH
    01-Aug-96 10:30 AM EDT (1430 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] BOSNIA / MOSTAR (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=8/1/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-201126
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: HIGH LEVEL TALKS HAVE FAILED TO END A STALEMATE BETWEEN CROATS AND MUSLIMS IN BOSNIA. CROATS IN THE SOUTHERN CITY OF MOSTAR ARE CONTINUING TO BOYCOTT THE CITY COUNCIL, AFTER THEY LOST AN ELECTION TO MUSLIMS. DAVID FOLEY IN SARAJEVO REPORTS CROATIA'S PRESIDENT WILL TRAVEL TO WASHINGTON FOR TALKS WITH PRESIDENT CLINTON IN AN EFFORT TO END WHAT IS SEEN AS A SERIOUS THREAT TO THE DAYTON PEACE PROCESS.

    TEXT: DESPITE THE INTERVENTION OF SENIOR DIPLOMATS, BOSNIAN CROATS ARE STILL REFUSING TO END THEIR BOYCOTT OF A CITY COUNCIL IN BITTERLY DIVIDED MOSTAR.

    INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS, ALONG WITH THE BOSNIAN VICE-PRESIDENT, MET WEDNESDAY IN ZAGREB WITH CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN IN AN EFFORT TO CONVINCE HIM TO REIN IN BOSNIAN CROAT HARD-LINERS IN MOSTAR. COLUM MURPHY, THE SPOKESMAN FOR CARL BILDT, THE SENIOR INTERNATIONAL MEDIATOR IN BOSNIA, SAYS PRESIDENT TUDJMAN WAS NON-COMMITTAL.

    /// ACT - MURPHY ///

    THE BASIC MESSAGE OF THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT WAS THAT "WE HAVE LISTENED TO WHAT YOU HAVE TO SAY, WE'LL THINK ABOUT IT. WE'LL COME BACK TO YOU. MESSAGE NOTED AND RECEIVED."

    /// END ACT ///

    THE CROAT BOYCOTT OF THE MOSTAR CITY COUNCIL IS INCREASING ETHNIC TENSIONS AND DESTABILIZING MUCH OF CENTRAL AND WESTERN BOSNIA. MR. MURPHY SAYS THAT IS WHY PRESIDENT CLINTON WILL MEET WITH PRESIDENT TUDJMAN ON FRIDAY AT THE WHITE HOUSE.

    /// ACT - MURPHY ///

    THE FACT THAT PRESIDENT TUDJMAN, FOR EXAMPLE, WILL SEE PRESIDENT CLINTON TOMORROW IS INDICATIVE OF OUR CONCERNS AND OF THE NEED FOR DIPLOMACY AT THE HIGHEST POSSIBLE LEVEL.

    /// END ACT ///

    CARL BILDT, IN NEW YORK ON WEDNESDAY FOR A MEETING WITH THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL, SAID THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION WAS AT ITS LOWEST EBB AND HAD BEEN GOING BACKWARDS FOR MONTHS.

    THE EUROPEAN UNION, WHICH ADMINISTERS MOSTAR, HAS SAID IT WILL PULL OUT OF THE CITY IF THE CROATS DO NOT END THE BOYCOTT BY SUNDAY.

    THE TOP AMERICAN ENVOY ON BOSNIA, JOHN KORNBLUM, HAS MANAGED TO WIN A PROMISE FROM BOSNIAN CROAT LEADERS TO ABOLISH THEIR SEPARATE GOVERNMENT IN WESTERN BOSNIA, KNOWN AS "HERCEG BOSNA." BUT CRITICS DESCRIBE THE DEAL AS DIFFICULT TO IMPLEMENT AND ONLY COSMETIC.

    AFTER MEETINGS ON THURSDAY IN MOSTAR, MR. KORNBLUM SAID THE BOSNIAN CROATS HAD STATED THEY ARE WILLING TO COMPROMISE, BUT PROPOSALS PUT FORWARD BY THE CROATS FOR EQUAL POWER SHARING WITH MUSLIMS WERE QUICKLY DESCRIBED AS UNACCEPTABLE BY DIPLOMATS.

    MR. KORNBLUM WILL RETURN TO WASHINGTON TO BRIEF PRESIDENT CLINTON BEFORE THE MEETING WITH PRESIDENT TUDJMAN ON FRIDAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DF/JWH/MMK
    01-Aug-96 11:16 AM EDT (1516 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] CHICAGO / BOSNIA VOTE (L) BY MICHAEL LELAND (CHICAGO)

    DATE=8/1/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-201121
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN CHICAGO, THE LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS IS LOOKING FOR SEVERAL HUNDRED BOSNIAN REFUGEES WHO HAVE SETTLED IN THE MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES. THE LEAGUE IS TRYING TO ENCOURAGE THEM TO REGISTER TO VOTE IN THE SEPTEMBER BOSNIA ELECTION. THE REGISTRATION DEADLINE IS MONDAY (8/5). MORE FROM V-O-A'S MICHAEL LELAND:

    TEXT: THE LEAGUE IS LOOKING FOR ABOUT TWO-THOUSAND BOSNIAN REFUGEES IN THE CHICAGO AREA, TO LET THEM KNOW THAT THEY CAN VOTE IN THE SEPTEMBER ELECTIONS, AND THAT THE REGISTRATION DEADLINE IS FAST APPROACHING.

    CINDY CANARY DIRECTS THE LEAGUE'S ILLINOIS OFFICE, AND SAYS HER PEOPLE HAVE BEEN CALLING AGENCIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA THAT HAVE BEEN HELPING BOSNIAN REFUGEES RESETTLE OVER THE PAST COUPLE OF YEARS.

    // CANARY ACT #1 //

    WHAT WE ARE TRYING TO ENCOURAGE PEOPLE TO DO IS CALL A ONE-800 (TOLL-FREE) NUMBER. THEY CAN CALL THAT NUMBER, AND THERE ARE OPERATORS WHO SPEAK THE SERBO-CROATIAN LANGUAGES AND CAN HELP THEM TO REGISTER.

    // END ACT //

    THE LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS OFTEN HOLDS VOTER-REGISTRATION DRIVES, BUT NOT USUALLY FOR OTHER COUNTRIES.

    // CANARY ACT #2 //

    THIS IS A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENT FOR THE (STATE OF) ILLINOIS LEAGUE. IT IS THE SAME GENERAL PRINCIPLE BUT IT TAKES A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENT STRATEGY TO GET OUT THE VOTE TO THE BOSNIAN COMMUNITY.

    // END ACT //

    ON CHICAGO'S FAR NORTH SIDE, THE BOSNIAN REFUGEE CENTER IS HELPING TO FIND REFUGEES AND ENCOURAGING THEM TO VOTE IN THE SEPTEMBER ELECTIONS. MARSID KURTAGIC IS HELPING WITH THE REGISTRATION EFFORT. HE DOES NOT SPEAK ENGLISH, SO ZUMRA, WHO DID NOT WANT HER LAST NAME USED, TRANSLATED. THEY SAY THE REGISTRATION DRIVE HAS BEEN SUCCESSFUL SO FAR.

    // ZUMRA ACT #1 //

    THEY WERE VERY INTERESTED AND WE HAVE MADE CONTACT WITH BOSNIANS ALL OVER NORTH AMERICA, NOT ONLY CHICAGO. THEY SENT US THEIR LISTS BY MAIL.

    // END ACT //

    BOTH MARSID AND ZUMRA HAVE BEEN IN CHICAGO FOR TWO YEARS, AND BOTH ARE REGISTERED FOR THE SEPTEMBER 14TH ELECTION. ZUMRA SAYS IT IS TOO IMPORTANT AN ELECTION TO MISS.

    // ZUMRA ACT #2 //

    WE STILL DO NOT KNOW WHAT WILL HAPPEN THERE (IN BOSNIA) BUT WE WANT TO BE INVOLVED (IN) WHATEVER HAPPENS IN OUR COUNTRY.

    // END ACT //

    THE BOSNIAN REFUGEES WHO REGISTER BY MONDAY'S DEADLINE WILL BE SENT BALLOTS IN LATE AUGUST. THOSE BALLOTS WILL EVENTUALLY BE SENT IN TAMPER-PROOF CONTAINERS TO THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE, WHICH IS OVERSEEING THE ELECTIONS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MJL/MMK
    01-Aug-96 10:15 AM EDT (1415 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] ITALY / NAZI BY RUTH GRUBER (ROME)

    DATE=8/1/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-201152
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN A VERDICT ADDING MORE CONTROVERSY TO AN ALREADY DRAMATIC TRAIL, A MILITARY COURT IN ROME ON THURSDAY ABSOLVED FORMER NAZI SS CAPTAIN ERICH PRIEBKE OF WAR CRIME CHARGES STEMMING FROM THE WORLD WAR TWO MASSACRE OF 335 ITALIAN CIVILIANS. CITING EXTENUATING CIRCUMSTANCES, IT ORDERED HIM RELEASED FROM PRISON.

    /// ACTUALITY OF PEOPLE SHOUTING ///

    TEXT: PRESIDING JUDGE AGOSTINO QUISTELLI SAID IN EFFECT THAT THE 83- YEAR OLD PRIEBKE, WHO HAD ADMITTED TAKING PART IN THE MASSACRE, WAS JUDGED GUILTY OF PARTICIPATING IN IT. BUT IT WAS RULED THAT HE COULD NO LONGER BE PUNISHED FOR THE WAR CRIMES CHARGES OF ACTING WITH CRUELTY AND PREMEDITATION AS THESE FELL UNDER A STATUTE OF LIMITATION.

    MR. QUISTELLI ALSO MENTIONED EXTENUATING CIRCUMSTANCES ARGUING FOR PRIEBKE'S RELEASE, INCLUDING HIS AGE AND HIS GOOD BEHAVIOR WHILE IN JAIL. FRIENDS AND RELATIVES OF THE VICTIMS WHO LISTENED TO THE VERDICT BEING READ ERUPTED INTO OUTRAGED SHOUTS OF ASSASSIN, FASCIST, AND SHAME, SHAME.

    THE ITALIAN GOVERNMENT ALSO ISSUED A STATEMENT EXPRESSING BITTERNESS AND ROME'S MAYOR ORDERED THAT THE LIGHTS ON ROME'S MONUMENTS BE DIMMED. THE MARCH 1944 MASSACRE AT THE ARDEATINE CAVE SOUTH OF ROME IS REGARDED AS THE WORST..NAZI ATROCITY TO HAVE TAKEN PLACE IN ITALY DURING WORLD WAR II. IT WAS ORDERED BY THE NAZIS IN REPRISAL FOR A PARTISAN BOMB THAT KILLED 33 GERMAN SOLDIERS. THE VERDICT ADDED FURTHER CONTROVERSY TO A THREE MONTH TRIAL THAT WILL SURELY BE ONE OF THE LAST TIMES A FORMER NAZI WILL APPEAR IN COURT ON WAR CRIMES CHARGES.

    BOTH THE PROSECUTION AND LAWYERS FOR RELATIVES AND FRIENDS OF THE VICTIMS HAD UNSUCCESSFULLY TRIED TO GET THE JUDGES DISMISSED, CLAIMING THEY WERE BIASED IN FAVOR OF PRIEBKE. BOTH REQUESTS WERE REJECTED BY AN APPEALS COURT. IT WAS NOT IMMEDIATLEY CLEAR WHAT PRIEBKE WOULD DO OR WHERE HE WOULD GO NOW. PROSECUTION LAWYERS SAID THEY WERE CONSIDERING APPEALING THE VERDICT. AND GERMANY HAS ISSUED AN ARREST WARRANT FOR PRIEBKE.

    PRIEBKE HAD LIVED WITH IMPUNITY FOR NEARLY 50 YEARS IN ARGENTINA AFTER ESCAPING FROM A P O W CAMP IN ITALY AFTER THE WAR. HE WAS DISCOVERED IN A RESORT TOWN IN THE ANDES, WHERE HE HAD RUN A HOTEL AND A DELICATESSEN, BY AN AMERICAN NEWS CREW IN MAY 1994. AFTER AN 18 MONTH LEGAL BATTLE, PRIEBKE WAS EXTRADITED TO ITALY LAST NOVEMBER WHERE HE WAS HELD IN A MILITARY PRISON. THE TRIAL AGAINST HIM BEGAN MAY 8TH, THE 51ST ANNIVERSARY OF THE END OF WORLD WAR II IN EUROPE.

    DURING THE TRAIL PRIEBKE'S LAWYER ARGUED THAT HE SHOULD BE ACQUITTED AS HE WAS SIMPLY FOLLOWING ORDERS WHEN HE SHOT TWO OF THE ARDEATINE CAVE VICTIMS AND CROSSED OFF NAMES OF THE VICTIMS FROM A LIST. THE MURDERED MEN AND BOYS, WHO INCLUDED ABOUT 75 JEWS, WERE LED IN GROUPS OF FIVE INTO THE CAVE WITH THEIR HANDS TIED BEHIND THERE BACKS. THERE THEY WERE SHOT IN THE BACK OF THE HEAD. THE CAVES WERE LATER BLOWN UP.

    PRIEBKE SAID THE ORDER FOR THE MASSACRE HAD COME FROM HITLER DIRECTLY AND THAT ANY OFFICER WHO HAD REFUSED TO TAKE PART WOULD HAVE RISKED BEING KILLED HIMSELF (SIGNED)
    NEB/RG/KL
    01-Aug-96 5:06 PM EDT (2106 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] NATO ENLARGEMENT: PART TWO BY FRANCIS RONALDS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=8/1/96
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-09316
    TELEPHONE=619-3937
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // INSERTS AVAILABLE IN AUDIO SERVICES //

    INTRO: WHAT IS THE OUTLOOK FOR ENLARGEMENT OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION? WHAT ARE THE POSSIBILITIES THAT RUSSIA WILL BECOME RECONCILED TO SUCH AN EXPANSION? AND WHAT ROLE IN THE PROCESS CAN BE PLAYED BY THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE -- AN ORGANIZATION INCLUDING ALL OF THE STATES OF EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE AND THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, AS WELL AS THE 16 NATO NATIONS?

    VOA'S FRANK RONALDS HAS SPOKEN WITH A NUMBER OF

    SPECIALISTS ON THE SUBJECT, AND PRESENTS THE VIEWS OF ONE OF THEM IN THIS SECOND PART OF A SERIES ON THE SUBJECT. HOST: KARL KAISER, A PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AT BONN UNIVERSITY, POINTS OUT THAT NATO WAS FAR MORE THAN A DEFENSE ORGANIZATION FORMED TO CONTAIN THE THREAT OF EXPANSION BY THE SOVIET UNION UNDER DICTATOR JOSEF STALIN. IN PARALLEL WITH THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY, NATO INTEGRATED COUNTRIES WHICH HAD BEEN ENEMIES -- ESPECIALLY GERMANY AND FRANCE -- INTO A TIGHTLY KNIT ALLIANCE. PROFESSOR KAISER HAS PRESENTED HIS VIEWS IN THE CURRENT ISSUE OF THE BONN JOURNAL, "INTERNAZIONALE POLITIK," AND ALSO SHARED HIS ANALYSIS

    WITH VOA:

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- KAISER "NATO DID A BRILLIANT JOB, DURING THE COLD WAR, IN THE FIELD OF COLLECTIVE DEFENSE, IN PREVENTING WAR, IN KEEPING THE PEACE. BUT MANY PEOPLE HAVEN'T REALIZED THAT DURING THIS PERIOD IT BUILT UP A SYSTEM OF COOPERATION WHICH IS UNPRECEDENTED IN HISTORY. IT HELPED TO ELIMINATE WAR COMPLETELY IN RELATIONS BETWEEN THESE COUNTRIES, THESE DEMOCRACIES. IT CHANGED THE NATURE OF RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THESE COUNTRIES AND THAT IS THE BASIS FOR AN ENTIRELY NEW ROLE NOW IN THE POST-COLD WAR PERIOD. IT IS NOT THE PREVENTION OF MAJOR AGGRESSION FROM THE SOVIET UNION, THAT NO LONGER EXISTS, WHICH IS AT THE CENTER OF CONCERN. IT IS NOW THE TASK OF PROVIDING STABILITY THROUGH PEACE-KEEPING, THROUGH PEACE-ENFORCEMENT, BY TRYING TO MAINTAIN AN ENVIRONMENT THAT HELPS TO PREVENT MAJOR CATASTROPHES SUCH AS THE SPREAD OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION OR TERRORISM." HOST: IN 1990, WITH MOSCOW'S AGREEMENT, THE GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC WAS UNITED WITH THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY AND THE NEWLY UNIFED GERMANY WAS INTEGRATED INTO NATO. PROFESSOR KAISER POINTS OUT THAT THIS WAS A VERY IMPORTANT STEP IN STRENGTHENING EUROPEAN STABILITY. STABILITY WILL BE FURTHER INCREASED, HE SAYS, WHEN THOSE CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES THAT HAVE SUCCESSFULLY ESTABLISHED DEMOCRATIC POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS AND MARKET ECONOMIES ARE BROUGHT INTO NATO. HE BELIEVES THAT POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC WILL BE THE FIRST COUNTRIES TO QUALIFY, IN ABOUT TWO YEARS, WITH PERHAPS AN ADDITIONAL YEAR FOR THE RATIFICATION OF THE NECESSARY TREATIES BY THE PARLIAMENTS OF NATO'S 16 PRESENT MEMBERS. THIS PRESENTS THE PROBLEM OF RELATIONS WITH OTHER COUNTRIES WHICH FORMERLY BELONGED TO THE WARSAW PACT:

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- KAISER "WE WANT TO DEVELOP A SECURITY RELATIONSHIP WITH RUSSIA AND WITH UKRAINE, BUT WE CANNOT TAKE THEM INTO NATO. NOR CAN WE, AT THIS STAGE, TAKE IN A NUMBER OF OTHER CENTRAL EUROPEAN DEMOCRACIES, BEYOND POLAND, THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND HUNGARY. SO IT WILL BE NECESSARY FOR THE WESTERN POWERS TO CREATE DEVICES TO DEAL WITH THE SECURITY PROBLEMS OF THE COUNTRIES IN BETWEEN WHILE THEY CAN NOT YET JOIN NATO. THE NEXT MEETING OF NATO (IN BRUSSELS) IN DECEMBER IS LIKELY TO ENDORSE WHAT WILL HAVE BEEN WORKED OUT BY THEN, NAMELY, A PRECISE MECHANISM WHEREBY THE EUROPEANS WILL HAVE THE POSSIBILITY OF ACTING AS EUROPEANS WITH THE SUPPORT OF AND IN THE CONTEXT OF NATO." HOST: (OPT) A MAJOR ROLE, PROFESSOR KAISER SAYS, CAN BE PLAYED BY THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE:

    TAPE: (OPT) CUT THREE -- KAISER "THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE IS IN THE MIDST. IT IS DOING QUITE WELL, AND IT IS CHANGING THE NATURE OF RELATIONS BETWEEN THE NATO COUNTRIES AND THE NEW PARTNERS. BUT THAT TAKES TIME, BECAUSE ONE IS DEALING WITH A RELATIONSHIP THAT WAS CHARACTERIZED BY ENMITY FOR DECADES; ONE IS DEALING WITH MILITARY AND POLITICAL STRUCTURES THAT EMERGED FROM COMMUNISM ONLY A FEW YEARS AGO. BUT ONE CAN SEE VERY CLEARLY THAT THE PARTNERSHIP DEVELOPS NEW LINKS, HELPS PEOPLE TO LEARN WHAT REALITY IS LIKE, IN PARTICULAR EAST EUROPEANS, TO LEARN HOW DEMOCRACIES WORK, HOW CIVILIAN CONTROL OF THE MILITARY OPERATES AND ALL OF THAT. IT TAKES SOME TIME AS IT DID DURING THE COLD WAR WHEN NATO ESTABLISHED THE BASIS FOR A VERY DIFFERENT COOPERATIVE RELATIONSHIP." (END OPT) HOST: A MAJOR RECENT DEVELOPMENT, PROFESSOR KAISER SAYS, WAS THE ANNOUNCEMENT BY FRANCE LAST DECEMBER THAT IT WOULD REVERSE THE DECISION MADE BY GENERAL CHARLES DE GAULLE 30 YEARS AGO AND REJOIN ALL OF THE MILITARY STRUCTURES OF NATO. BUT THE PROFESSOR THINKS THESE STRUCTURES NEED TO BE REVISED TO GIVE EUROPE MORE FREEDOM OF ACTION. FRANCE'S PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAQ RECOGNIZES THAT ANY SIGNIFICANT OPERATION, SUCH AS THE PRESENT NATO MISSION IN BOSNIA, REQUIRES AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT. BUT, ACCORDING TO KARL KAISER, A NATO RESTRUCTURING CAN ENHANCE THE EUROPEAN ROLE:

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- KAISER "FRANCE HAS RECOGNIZED THAT IT CAN EXERCISE INFLUENCE ONLY WITHIN NATO. THERE IS NOW CONSENSUS BETWEEN THE TWO ACTORS ON THE CONTINENT THAT ARE THE CHIEF ACTORS, NAMELY GERMANY AND FRANCE. BOTH WANT A STRONG LINK AND A REFORM OF NATO THAT GIVES A STRONGER PLACE TO EUROPEAN POSSIBILITIES AND INSTITUTIONS AND SECURITY POLICY, BUT WITHIN A NATO CONTEXT." HOST: THE CURRENT EFFORT TO DEAL WITH ETHNIC CONFLICT IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, PROFESSOR KAISER SAYS, MAKES IT CLEAR THAT NATO HAS BECOME AN INSTRUMENT FOR WORLD ORDER:

    TAPE: CUT FIVE -- KAISER "THE BOSNIAN OPERATION SHOWS VERY CLEARLY THAT NATO HAS BECOME AN INSTRUMENT OF WORLD ORDER, BECAUSE LIKE-MINDED DEMOCRACIES CAN ACT FOR AND ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED NATIONS, WHICH OTHERWISE WOULD NOT BE ABLE TO HELP IN SUCH CASES AS ETHNIC CONFLICTS OR ETHNIC CLEANSING AS WE HAVE SEEN IT IN EX-YUGOSLAVIA. SO NATO IS LIKELY TO MOVE TO A DIFFERENT ROLE, BEYOND CLASSICAL COLLECTIVE DEFENSE, AND PLAY A ROLE IN UPHOLDING CERTAIN PRINCIPLES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW." HOST: KARL KAISER, PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AT BONN UNIVERSITY. OUR NEXT GUEST IN THIS SERIES OF PROGRAMS ON NATO ENLARGEMENT WILL BE MICHEL TATU, LONGTIME CHIEF OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS COVERAGE FOR THE PARIS NEWSPAPER, LE MONDE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/FSR/PCH
    01-Aug-96 1:57 PM EDT (1757 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] THE TROUBLE WITH KOSOVO BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=8/1/96
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-09315
    TELEPHONE=619-1101
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // TAPE INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES //
    [EDS NOTE: THIS REPORT MAY BE OPTED FROM THE HOST BREAK ON PAGE 3.]

    INTRO: THERE ARE SIGNS THAT SERBIA MAY BE PREPARED TO GIVE UP PART OF THE PROVINCE OF KOSOVO. ALTHOUGH KOSOVO'S POPULATION TODAY IS 90 PERCENT ETHNIC ALBANIAN, IT HAS LONG BEEN CONSIDERED BY SERBS AS THE CRADLE OF THEIR RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL HERITAGE. THUS, BALKAN ANALYSTS HAVE LONG FEARED THAT ONE DAY KOSOVO MIGHT TURN INTO ANOTHER BOSNIA, DRAWING NEIGHBORING ALBANIA, GREECE AND TURKEY INTO A WIDER BALKAN CONFLICT. BUT A RECENT PAPER BY THE SERBIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCE AND ARTS, CIRCULATED IN BELGRADE, REFLECTS A SOFTER LINE ON KOSOVO, AND PERHAPS A SERB WILLINGNESS TO COMPROMISE WITH THE ETHNIC ALBANIANS, WHO SEEK AUTONOMY. COINCIDENTALLY, A LEADER IN THE SERBIAN-AMERICAN COMMUNITY, PROFESSOR ALEX DRAGNICH, HAS WRITTEN A COMMENTARY IN THE WASHINGTON POST NEWSPAPER CALLING FOR A PARTITIONING OF KOSOVO.

    VOA'S PAMELA TAYLOR TALKED WITH PROFESSOR DRAGNICH.

    PT: I THOUGHT IT WAS EXTREMELY INTERESTING WHAT YOU SAID IN YOUR COMMENTARY BECAUSE IT SEEMS TO BE SIMILAR PERHAPS TO WHAT WAS CIRCULATED RECENTLY BE A MEMBER OF THE SERBIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ABOUT SHARING POWER IN KOSOVO. WHY DO YOU THINK (PARTITION) IS THE SOLUTION TO THE KOSOVO PROBLEM? AD: WELL, IT SEEMS TO ME THAT SOMEHOW DIVIDING, DRAWING A DIVIDING LINE IS THE ONLY SENSIBLE THING TO DO. OTHERWISE, I THINK THERE IS RISK OF VIOLENCE. PT: BUT WOULD YOU BE ADVOCATING A PARTITITION OR DIVISION THAT WOULD RESEMBLE THE KIND OF PATCHWORK THAT WE'VE SEEN IN (BOSNIA AND) REPUBLIKA SRPSKA? AD: WELL, IT MIGHT VERY WELL BE. IT'S CERTAINLY NOT GOING TO BE A STRAIGHT LINE ALONG SOME RIVER OR MOUNTAIN CHAIN, YOU KNOW. THIS IS SOMETHING THAT NEEDS TO BE WORKED OUT. I'M ADVANCING SIMPLY THE PRINCIPLE OF DIVISION. THE ALBANIANS WHO HAVE GONE AND SETTLED IN SERBIA, THEY'RE GOING TO CONSTITUTE A TREMENDOUS PROBLEM TO THE SERBS IN THE FUTURE, SO I THINK THIS IS AN OPPORTUNITY TO SOLVE THE KOSOVO PROBLEM AND ALSO TO PROVIDE SOME SOLUTION TO THE OTHER PROBLEM, AND IT SEEMS TO ME THE ONLY SENSIBLE WAY IS SOME KIND OF DIVISION, WITH AN EXCHANGE OF POPULATIONS. KOSOVO WAS REGARDED BY THE SERBS AS A VERY HOLY PLACE. PT: BUT WHERE WOULD THE LINE BE DRAWN. I MEAN, AREN'T THESE MONASTARIES AND THESE SERBIAN RELIGIOUS MONUMENTS SORT OF SPRINKLED ABOUT? AD: THEY ARE AND FROM A SERBIAN POINT OF VIEW YOU WANT TO SAVE AS MANY OF THEM AS POSSIBLE. I THINK THE SERBS WOULD HAVE TO LOSE SOME OF THE MONASTARIES. AND MANY, I AM SURE, ARE NOT GOING TO LIKE THE IDEA THAT I'VE ADVANCED BECAUSE MANY SERBS HAVE SAID 'NOT ON YOUR LIFE; NEVER WILL WE GIVE AN INCH OF KOSOVO'. PT: WE'VE HEARD SINCE THE OUTBREAK OF THE WAR THAT KOSOVO IS THE CRADLE OF SERBIAN CIVILIZATION, THAT IS WAS THE MOST IMPORTANT REGION AS FAR AS SERBS ARE CONCERNED. DO YOU THINK IT STILL HAS THAT IMPORTANCE OR IS IT OF EVEN GREATER IMPORTANCE NOW? AD: WHAT I'M ARGUING IS, LET'S FACE THE REALITIES. IT IS AN AREA THAT IS IMPORTANT TO SERBS HISTORICALLY, CULTURALLY, RELIGIOUSLY AND SO ON, BUT IT IS NOW 90 PERCENT ALBANIAN SO YOU HAVE TWO REALITIES THERE AND I THINK THE GORDION KNOT HAS TO BE CUT. THE SERBS AND THE ALBANIANS HAVE TO GET TOGETHER AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY CAN HELP THEM RESOLVE IT AND IT SEEMS TO ME THAT PARTITION IS THE ONLY WAY. HOST: SERBIAN-AMERICAN COMMUNITY LEADER ALEX DRAGNICH, A FORMER PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AT TENNESSEE'S

    VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY, SPOKE WITH VOA'S PAMELA TAYLOR

    ABOUT THE FUTURE OF THE SERBIAN PROVINCE OF KOSOVO.

    [BEGIN OPT]

    MS. TAYLOR ALSO DISCUSSED THE KOSOVO QUESTION WITH PROFESSOR THOMAS EMMERT OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS COLLEGE IN ST. PETER, MINNESOTA. PROFESSOR EMMERT IS THE AUTHOR OF A BOOK CALLED 'SERBIAN GOLGOTHA: KOSOVO 1389'. HE DOESN'T THINK PARTITION IS A GOOD IDEA: TE: THE TROUBLE WITH THAT ARGUMENT IS THAT THE ARGUMENT HAS BEEN MADE FOR THE LAST FIVE TO TEN YEARS OVER YUGOSLAVIA ITSELF. YOU KNOW, GENERALLY, PEOPLE - FOR EXAMPLE IN BOSNIA - GOT ALONG QUITE WELL. IT WAS THE FORCED PROPAGANDA OF ETHNIC HATRED THAT LED TO THIS WAR WHEN PEOPLE REALLY DIDN'T WANT IT AND THE IDEA BEHIND THIS WAS THAT WE ARE SO DIFFERENT WE REALLY CAN'T LIVE TOGETHER AND THEREFORE YOU FABRICATE THE CONFLICT SO THAT IT'S PROVEN YOU CAN'T LIVE TOGETHER. BUT TO SUGGEST ETHNIC PARTITION IS TO SUGGEST THERE'S NO WAY TO RESOLVE THIS ANY OTHER WAY AND IT'S ALSO TO SUGGEST THAT IT'S EVEN PRACTICAL OR POSSIBLE. SERBS AND ALBANIANS LIVE IN MANY DIFFERENT PLACES IN KOSOVO AND SO I THINK WHAT WE'RE BEGINNING TO SAY IS -- EVEN SERBS TODAY SAY -- 'LISTEN, KOSOVO IS 85 MAYBE 90 PERCENT ALBANIAN. THEY HAVE THE HIGHEST NATALITY (BIRTH) RATE IN EUROPE, WE ARE NOT GOING TO BE ABLE TO SUSTAIN OUR PRESENCE THERE. THIS IS THE PAST.' THERE'S SOMETHING THAT HAS TO SUSTAIN US BESIDES KOSOVO. I MEAN, I'VE WRITTEN ABOUT KOSOVO. I KNOW AND CAN ARGUE, I CAN UNDERSTAND THAT CERTAINLY THROUGHOUT PERIODS OF YUGOSLAV HISTORY, KOSOVO HAS BEEN VERY, VERY IMPORTANT TO SERBS. THERE HAS BEEN A SENSE, EVEN BEYOND MYTH, THAT 'WE CANNOT EXIST WITHOUT KOSOVO.' IT'S THEIR JERUSALEM, AS I HAVE WRITTEN, AND THEY HAVE OFTEN EXPRESSED. AT THE SAME TIME, THEY ARE NOT GOING TO HAVE IT IN ANOTHER TEN, 20 YEARS IF NORMAL BIRTH RATES PREVAIL. PT: COULD YOU WIND THIS UP BY REMINDING US WHY THE LEGEND OF KOSOVO IS SO POWERFUL? WHAT DOES IT SAY TO THE AVERAGE SERB? TE: WHAT IT SAYS TO AN AVERAGE SERB IS THAT, "WE ARE A SPECIAL PEOPLE. WE (SERBS) HAVE BEEN CHOSEN BY GOD, THE CHILDREN OF THE NEW ISRAEL, OF THE NEW TESTAMENT, PUT HERE TO SUFFER OFTEN. BUT THERE HAS TO BE SOME PURPOSE TO THE SUFFERING. SOMETHING GREAT HAS TO COME OUT OF IT, THAT WE WERE ONCE GREAT, WE WERE A BASTION IN EUROPE. WE SORT OF MANNED THE BARRICADES SO THAT ISLAM DID NOT SPREAD THROUGHOUT EUROPE AND TAKE OVER WESTERN SOCIETIES. WE (SERBS) SUFFER FOR IT, WE LIVE IN OUR OWN BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY. BUT WE WERE DETERMINED NEVER TO BE SLAVES AGAIN ONCE WE ACHIEVED OUR FREEDOM BECAUSE THE LESSON OF KOSOVO IS THAT WE (SERBS) MUST ALWAYS RISE TO THE OCCASION WHEN WE ARE BEING THREATENED AND WE ARE A PEOPLE WHO ARE REGULARLY BEING THREATENED. THEREFORE, IN THIS CONFLICT IN BOSNIA -- OR IF THERE WERE TO BE ONE IN KOSOVO -- THERE'S NO QUESTION ABOUT WHO IS THE VICTIM. WE (SERBS) HAVE ALWAYS BEEN THE VICTIM." THIS MAKES IT IMPOSSIBLE FOR A SERB, I MEAN MOST SERBS, TO SEE THEMSELVES EVER AS THE AGGRESSORS IN THE CONFLICT WE HAVE BEEN WITNESSING FOR THE LAST FIVE YEARS. HOST: THAT WAS PROFESSOR THOMAS EMMERT OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS

    COLLEGE IN ST. PETER, MINNESOTA, SPEAKING WITH VOA'S

    PAMELA TAYLOR ABOUT SUGGESTIONS THAT THE SERBIAN PROVINCE OF KOSOVO MIGHT EVENTUALLY BE PARTITIONED BETWEEN SERBS AND ETHNIC ALBANIANS.
    NEB/PAM/PCH
    01-Aug-96 8:59 AM EDT (1259 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] U-S FORCES/BOSNIA (L) BY JILL MOSS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=8/1/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-201143
    CONTENT=_

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES SENATE IS REVIEWING AMERICA'S MILITARY COMMITMENT IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. UNDER TERMS OF THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD SIGNED IN NOVEMBER, THE UNITED STATES AGREED TO COMMIT 20-THOUSAND TROOPS TO BOSNIA AS PART OF THE NATO-LED IMPLEMENTATION FORCE. THEIR WITHDRAWAL DATE IS SET FOR DECEMBER 20TH. BUT AS V-O-A'S JILL MOSS REPORTS, CONCERNS ARE MOUNTING OVER A POSSIBLE NEED FOR EXTENSION OF THE I-FOR MISSION.

    TEXT: THE U-S DEFENSE DEPARTMENT SAYS THERE IS NO PLAN UNDER CONSIDERATION TO EXTEND U-S MILITARY INVOLVEMENT IN BOSNIA.

    UNDERSECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR POLICY WALTER SLOCOMBE TOLD THE SENATE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE THAT FOLLOWING THE SEPTEMBER 14TH ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA, NATO MINISTERS WILL MEET TO ASSESS THE SITUATION.

    THE MISSION OF THE MORE THAN 15-THOUSAND U-S SOLDIERS STATIONED IN THE WAR-TORN REGION IS SCHEDULED TO END DECEMBER 20TH. UNDERSECRETARY SLOCOMBE SAYS THE MISSIONS STATUS WILL NOT BE CONSIDERED UNTIL AFTER THE ELECTIONS.

    // SLOCOMBE ACT //

    WE EXPECT THAT AFTER THE ELECTION IN SEPTEMBER, WE WILL, WITH OUR (NATO) ALLIES, MAKE AN ANALYSIS OF THE SECURITY SITUATION. HOW LONG THIS PROCESS TAKES IS IMPOSSIBLE TO SAY FOR CERTAIN. (BUT) THERE HAS BEEN NO DECISION MADE ABOUT WHAT WILL BE DONE, AND NO PLANS HAVE BEEN DRAWN UP IN THAT RESPECT.

    MILITARY INTELLIGENCE OFFICIALS ESTIMATE THERE IS A 50 PERCENT CHANCE FIGHTING WOULD BREAK OUT IN BOSNIA AFTER THE NATO-LED FORCE PULLS OUT. UNDERSECRETARY SLOCOMBE SAYS THIS IS ONE OF MANY SECURITY ISSUES THAT WILL BE CONSIDERED WHEN THE NATO MINISTERS MEET.

    // SLOCOMBE ACT //

    WE WILL HAVE TO ASSESS THE RISK OF RENEWED FIGHTING. WE WILL HAVE TO ASSESS WHAT IT WOULD TAKE BY WAY OF A MILITARY COMMITMENT TO REDUCE THAT THREAT TO A LOWER LEVEL. IT WOULD NOT NECESSARILY HAVE TO BE A FORCE ON THE GROUND IN BOSNIA. THESE ISSUE WOULD ARISE -- COULD IT BE DONE THROUGH THE POSSIBILITY OF AIR STRIKES? COULD IT BE DONE WITH A RAPID REACTION FORCE WHICH WOULD BE DEPLOYED OUTSIDE THE COUNTRY? WOULD IT TAKE A PRESENCE ON THE GROUND?

    // END ACT //

    MR. SLOCOMBE TOLD THE SENATE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE IN ADDITION TO SEPTEMBER'S ELECTIONS AND THE RISK OF RENEWED FIGHTING IN BOSNIA, THE SUCCESSFUL U-S TRAINING OF BOSNIA'S ARMY AND THE RE-SETTLEMENT OF DISPLACED REFUGEES WILL ALSO AFFECT I-FOR WITHDRAWAL. HE SAID UNTIL THESE ISSUES ARE ADDRESSED, IT IS PREMATURE TO WORRY ABOUT A POST I-FOR MISSION. HOWEVER, UNDERSECRETARY SLOCOMBE SAID SHOULD AMERICA'S MILITARY COMMITMENT IN BOSNIA BE EXTENDED AFTER DECEMBER THE MISSION WOULD REMAIN A NATO-LED FORCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JAG/JM
    01-Aug-96 2:58 PM EDT (1858 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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