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Voice of America, 96-10-08

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] GERMANY / BOSNIA CRIMES (L) BY KYLE KING (BONN)
  • [03] GERMANY / ECON (S ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)
  • [04] GERMANY / STASI FILES (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BERLIN)
  • [05] GERMANY'S BOSNIA REFUGEES BY PAUL HOCKENOS (BERLIN)
  • [06] NEW ATLANTIC COMMUNITY
  • [07] TURKEY / KURDS (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [08] U-S/TURKEY/LIBYA (S-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/08/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09819
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON TUESDAY, OCTOBER 8TH //

    INTRO: THE MOST POPULAR EDITORIAL TOPIC, BY FAR, IN TUESDAY'S LEADING U-S NEWSPAPERS IS THE FIRST PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN DEBATE, WHICH WAS HELD SUNDAY NIGHT IN HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT. OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE: AFGHANISTAN'S TALEBAN ADMINISTRATION; THE NEW DIRECTION OF NATO, THE U-S SUPREME COURT'S NEW TERM, AND THE APPARENTLY INCREASING DANGER OF HURRICANES. NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS _________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THERE ARE A GOOD MANY OPINIONS ON THE PRESIDENTIAL DEBATE, BUT SEVERAL PAPERS ARE CHEERING THE FACT THAT THE TWO CANDIDATES REMAINED MOSTLY CIVIL AND DEALT MOSTLY WITH THE ISSUES. WE BEGIN OUR SAMPLING IN OKLAHOMA CITY, WHERE THE DAILY OKLAHOMAN SAYS:

    VOICE: "IN SUNDAY EVENING'S EXCHANGE WITH BILL CLINTON, THE REPUBLICAN NOMINEE HAD SOME REDEEMING MOMENTS... BUT THE CHALLENGER DID NOT ADEQUATELY CONFRONT THE INCUMBENT'S CONTRADICTIONS. [OPT] WHEN [PRESIDENT] CLINTON WAXED ELOQUENT ABOUT PEACE IN THE MIDDLE EAST, [MR.] DOLE MIGHT HAVE OBSERVED THAT AMERICA'S MOST RELIABLE ALLY -- ISRAEL -- DESERVES SUPPORT, NOT PRESSURE TO MAKE UNWISE SECURITY CONCESSIONS. WHEN [MR.] CLINTON REITERATED ANTAGONISM TOWARD GUNS, [MR.] DOLE SHOULD HAVE SPOKEN MORE FORCEFULLY IN DEFENSE OF THE SECOND AMENDMENT RIGHTS FOR THE LAW-ABIDING. [END OPT] ... [MR.] DOLE'S RESTRAINT AND [MR.] CLINTON'S WILLINGNESS TO SAY AND DO WHATEVER IT TAKES TO WIN, LEFT THE CHALLENGER'S PROSPECTS ONLY MARGINALLY IMPROVED, AT BEST."

    TEXT: ON NEW YORK'S LONG ISLAND, NEWSDAY CALLS THE DEBATE "CIVIL BUT SHALLOW," ADDING:

    VOICE: "... AS HAS OFTEN BEEN THE CASE WITH DEBATES BETWEEN PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES, THIS WAS MORE A JOINT CAMPAIGN APPEARANCE -- IN WHICH EACH CANDIDATE OFFERED WELL-REHEARSED ANSWERS AND TRIED TO SCORE POLITICAL POINTS -- RATHER THAN A SERIOUS DISCUSSION OF THE ISSUES THAT SEPARATE THEM. TOO BAD."

    TEXT: IN MAINE, THE PORTLAND PRESS HERALD LAUDS THE PERFORMANCE OF THE CANDIDATES, SAYING THAT ISSUES WERE IN THE FOREFRONT AS THEY SHOULD HAVE BEEN, BUT WONDERS ABOUT A TOTAL LACK OF DISCUSSION ON ABORTION.

    VOICE: "ONE TOPIC ON WHICH THE CANDIDATES HAVE CLEAR-CUT DIFFERENCES, HOWEVER, WAS CURIOUSLY MISSING FROM THE DEBATE: ABORTION. FOR ALL THE FUROR IT HAS CAUSED, COMING CLOSE TO IGNITING A SELF-DESTRUCTIVE FLOOR FIGHT AT THE REPUBLICAN NATIONAL CONVENTION, ABORTION WAS NOT MENTIONED ONCE BY EITHER CANDIDATE."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: IN GEORGIA, THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION WAS GENERALLY PLEASED WITH THE DEBATE, ALTHOUGH IT NOTED:

    VOICE: "PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES BILL CLINTON AND BOB DOLE TOSSED OUT SOME MISLEADING STATISTICS AND DODGED A FEW TOUGH ISSUES SUNDAY NIGHT. STILL, THEIR FIRST DEBATE WAS ENLIGHTENING TO VOTERS. .... THE DEBATE DID GIVE VOTERS A FEED FOR THE BASIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE CANDIDATES."

    TEXT: IN FLORIDA, THE MIAMI HERALD SAYS "THERE WERE NO LOSERS ON SUNDAY IN HARTFORD -- BUT ONE CLEAR (DEBATE) WINNER: THE U-S VOTERS." WHILE ACROSS THE STATE, THE ORLANDO SENTINEL IS WORRIED THAT SO FEW SPECIFICS WERE DEVOTED TO THE TRADE ISSUE.

    VOICE: "THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT, FOR EXAMPLE, HAS DRAWN THE IRE OF REFORM PARTY CANDIDATE ROSS PEROT. BUT BOTH MR. CLINTON AND MR. DOLE STAND BY THE ACCORD -- FOR GOOD REASON... MR. DOLE SAYS HE CAN DO BETTER THAN MR. CLINTON IN THE TRADE REALM. WELL, HOW ABOUT SOME SPECIFICS FROM BOTH CANDIDATES?"

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: FINALLY ON THE DEBATE, THE WASHINGTON POST, CALLING IT A "SERVICEABLE DEBATE," ADDS THIS:

    VOICE: "YOUR VIEW OF HOW THINGS WENT ... IN THE DEBATE ... WILL DEPEND ON WHAT YOUR EXPECTATIONS WERE. OURS WERE PRETTY LOW, AND IN PART BECAUSE OF THAT WE COME AWAY THINKING THE EVENT WENT PRETTY WELL. ... IF THE PURPOSE OF THE OCCASION WAS TO GIVE THE PUBLIC A SOMEWHAT BETTER FEEL THAN BEFORE FOR THE CONTESTANTS ... THE DEBATE SERVED REASONABLY WELL."

    TEXT: TURNING TO INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, THE NEW YORK TIMES TALKS ABOUT THE NEW REGIME IN AFGHANISTAN -- THE TALEBAN ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISTS -- NOTING:

    VOICE: "THE ARBITRARY ACTIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT FORMED BY THE TALEBAN, ... HAVE ... STIRRED ANGER IN AFGHANISTAN AND UNEASINESS IN THE REGION... THEY EXECUTED NAJIBULLAH, THE FORMER COMMUNIST PRESIDENT ... NOR WAS IT REASSURING FOR THE TALEBAN TO IMPOSE A STRICT ISLAMIC SOCIAL CODE, SHUTTING DOWN GIRLS' SCHOOLS AND TELLING WOMEN TO STAY AT HOME OR VENTURE OUT ONLY WHEN COVERED HEAD TO FOOT... SO FAR THE TALEBAN HAS GIVEN NO SIGN TO A BATTERED AFGHANISTAN THAT IT INTENDS TO BE A FORCE FOR RECONCILIATION AND HUMANE LEADERSHIP."

    TEXT: IN NEW ENGLAND, THE BOSTON GLOBE IS TALKING ABOUT THE NEW DIRECTION OF NATO AND THE DIPLOMATIC CHALLENGE OF ASSURING RUSSIA THAT IT "HAS NOTHING TO FEAR FROM A LARGER, TRANSFORMED NATO."

    VOICE: "SINCE THE NEW MISSION OF NATO WILL BE TO PRESERVE A FORM OF SECURITY EXPRESSED IN THE FORMULA 'NO MORE BOSNIAS,' MOSCOW SHOULD NOT FEEL THREATENED BY AN ENLARGED ALLIANCE. ON THE CONTRARY, IF RUSSIA CAN ENTER INTO THE KIND OF CHARTER IT WANTS TO SIGN WITH NATO, AN EXPANDED AREA OF STABILITY IN EUROPE CAN ONLY MAKE RUSSIA MORE SECURE."

    TEXT: THE SUN IN BALTIMORE TAKES NOTE OF MONDAY'S OPENING SESSION OF THE U-S SUPREME COURT AND LOOKS AHEAD TO THE TRIBUNAL'S MORE CHALLENGING DECISIONS.

    VOICE: "AS THE SUPREME COURT BEGINS A NEW TERM ... IT FACES MORE THAN THE USUAL SHARE OF CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES. FROM THE RIGHT OF A CITIZEN TO SUE A SITTING PRESIDENT TO THE PROPER BALANCE OF POWER BETWEEN STATE AND FEDERAL GOVERNMENTS, THE COURT HAS AGREED TO RULE ON A NUMBER OF CLOSELY WATCHED ISSUES."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, ON THE FEAR THAT A NEW CYCLE OF MORE FREQUENT AND MORE DEADLY HURRICANES HAS EMERGED, TODAY'S ATLANTA CONSTITUTION SAYS:

    VOICE: "THE COMBINATION OF YEARS OF INAPPROPRIATE COASTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE END OF A QUARTER CENTURY LULL IN HURRICANE ACTIVITY WILL ALSO HAVE POLITICAL REPERCUSSIONS. BEACH COMMUNITIES, PARTICULARLY THOSE BUILT IN THE PAST 25 YEARS, TEND TO BE AFFLUENT AND POLITICALLY INFLUENTIAL. IN MANY CASES, THEIR ECONOMIC SUCCESS HAS BEEN BUILT ON ACCESS TO FEDERAL FLOOD INSURANCE AND EXPENSIVE BEACH-PROTECTION PROJECTS... AS FEDERAL BUDGETS TIGHTEN, STORMS BECOME MORE FREQUENT AND WELFARE PROGRAMS FOR THE POOR ARE REDUCED, IT WILL BECOME MORE AND MORE DIFFICULT TO DEFEND FEDERAL PROGRAMS THAT ENCOURAGE RISKY COASTAL DEVELOPMENT."

    TEXT: ON THE METEOROLOGICALLY OMINOUS NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF OPINION FROM THE PAGES OF TUESDAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    08-Oct-96 10:53 AM EDT (1453 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] GERMANY / BOSNIA CRIMES (L) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=10/8/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-204316
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AUTHORITIES IN GERMANY HAVE CHARGED A BOSNIAN SERB MAN WITH GENOCIDE, MURDER, AND EXTORTION FOR HIS ALLEGED ROLE IN THE EXPULSION OF MUSLIMS FROM THEIR HOMES IN BOSNIA. V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM BONN.

    TEXT: GERMAN PROSECUTORS SAY THE SUSPECT -- IDENTIFIED ONLY AS NIKOLA J. -- IS BELIEVED TO HAVE BEEN IN COMMAND OF A GROUP OF BOSNIAN SERB FIGHTERS WHO ROUNDED UP AND KILLED MORE THAN 20 MUSLIMS FROM A SMALL VILLAGE IN NORTHERN BOSNIA IN JULY 1992.

    PROSECUTORS SAY THE 49-YEAR-OLD SUSPECT IS ONE OF TWO MEN WHO OPENED FIRE WITH MACHINE GUNS ON THE GROUP, KILLING 22 PEOPLE, INCLUDING THREE WOMEN AND A CHILD.

    THE SUSPECT ALSO HAS BEEN ACCUSED OF ORDERING ONE HIS SUBORDINATES TO KILL A MUSLIM PRISONER AND OF BEATING ANOTHER MAN TO DEATH IN SEPTEMBER 1992.

    PROSECUTORS SAY THE SUSPECT -- WHO WAS TAKEN INTO INVESTIGATIVE CUSTODY IN GERMANY LAST DECEMBER -- ALSO HAS BEEN CHARGED WITH GENOCIDE IN 14 OTHER CASES.

    THOSE CHARGES, WHICH WERE OFFICIALLY BROUGHT LAST MONTH, INCLUDE MURDER, ASSAULT, UNLAWFUL DETENTION AND EXTORTION.

    THE CHARGES ARE NOT RELATED TO THE U-N WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL THAT SO FAR HAS INDICTED MORE THAN 70 BOSNIAN SERBS, CROATS, AND MUSLIMS.

    AUTHORITIES SAY THE SUSPECT IS BEING CHARGED IN GERMANY BECAUSE HE LIVED IN THE COUNTRY FROM 1969 UNTIL 1992.

    UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW, SUSPECTS ACCUSED OF GENOCIDE ARE NOT ELIGIBLE FOR ASYLUM IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES AND CAN BE TRIED FOR CRIMES THAT WERE COMMITTED ELSEWHERE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/JWH/RRM
    08-Oct-96 11:34 AM EDT (1534 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] GERMANY / ECON (S ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=10/8/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-204315
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: GERMANY'S SEASONALLY ADJUSTED UNEMPLOYMENT RATE ROSE SHARPLY LAST MONTH, AND GERMAN OFFICIALS SAY THE ECONOMY IS STILL NOT SHOWING SIGNS OF A REBOUND. V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM BONN.

    TEXT: THE ACTUAL NUMBER OF PEOPLE REPORTING THEY WERE OUT OF WORK IN SEPTEMBER WAS DOWN SLIGHTLY. BUT WHEN SEASONAL FACTORS WERE ADDED IN, THE NUMBER WAS MUCH HIGHER THAN EXPECTED.

    LABOR DEPARTMENT OFFICIALS SAY THE SEASONALLY ADJUSTED NUMBER OF JOBLESS ROSE 39-THOUSAND IN SEPTEMBER, BRINGING THE NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED TO THREE-POINT-99 MILLION.

    OFFICIALS HAD BEEN HOPING FOR A DECLINE IN THE ADJUSTED JOBLESS FIGURE, SO THE INCREASE CAME AS SOMETHING OF A SURPRISE TO MANY ECONOMISTS.

    ANALYSTS CALL THE NEWS A SETBACK FOR HOPES OF AN IMPROVEMENT IN GERMANY'S ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE.

    LABOR DEPARTMENT OFFICIALS BLAMED THE RISING JOBLESS NUMBERS ON THE COUNTRY'S CONTINUED WEAK GROWTH RATE. AND THEY SAY THEY DO NOT SEE ANY SIGNS OF A SIGNIFICANT TURNAROUND. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/JWH/RRM
    08-Oct-96 11:23 AM EDT (1523 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] GERMANY / STASI FILES (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BERLIN)

    DATE=10/8/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-204318
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: GERMAN OFFICIALS RESPONSIBLE FOR MAINTAINING THE FILES OF THE ONCE FEARED EAST GERMAN SECRET POLICE, SAY THEY HAVE FOUND TRANSCRIPTS OF PRIVATE CONVERSATIONS BETWEEN THE POPE AND U-S OFFICIALS DURING THE VIETNAM WAR. THE DOCUMENTS ARE THE LATEST IN A SERIES OF STARTLING DISCOVERIES THAT SHOW THE REACH OF THE COMMUNIST EAST GERMAN SPY AGENCY. AS V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM BERLIN, AUTHORITIES ARE ADDING TO THE INFORMATION THEY ALREADY HAVE, BY PIECING TOGETHER NEW DOCUMENTS FROM FILES THE COMMUNISTS THOUGHT THEY HAD DESTROYED.

    TEXT: DURING THE HECTIC LAST DAYS OF THE COMMUNIST EAST GERMAN GOVERNMENT, SECRET POLICE AGENTS DESTROYED MILLIONS OF TOP SECRET DOCUMENTS DETAILING THEIR ACTIVITIES.

    ALTHOUGH THE CONTENTS OF FILES THAT WERE SHREDDED AND BURNED WILL NEVER BE KNOWN, GERMAN OFFICIALS HAVE INHERITED THOUSANDS OF BAGS OF PAPER SCRAPS FROM DESTROYED DOCUMENTS.

    JOHANNES LEGNER, AN OFFICIAL AT THE AGENCY CHARGED WITH MAINTAINING THE EAST GERMAN SECRET POLICE ARCHIVES, SAYS RESEARCHERS ARE NOW SLOWLY AND PAINSTAKINGLY RECONSTRUCTING THE DOCUMENTS.

    /// LEGNER ACT ///

    EVERYBODY HAS NOW THE METHOD OF TRYING TO GET THEM BACK TOGETHER IN THE MOST EFFECTIVE WAY. SOME PEOPLE TRY TO SELECT SCRAPS BY COLOR, BECAUSE EVERY PAGE HAD ITS OWN COLOR. SOME PEOPLE TRY TO GO BY THE CORNERS, BECAUSE IT HELPS IF YOU TRY TO FIRST FIND THE CORNERS OF THE PAGE. IT DEPENDS TOO ON WHICH KIND OF DESTRUCTION THE PAPERS WENT THROUGH. IT IS A SCIENCE IN ITSELF.

    /// END ACT ///

    ALTHOUGH THE PROCESS IS SOMEWHAT LIKE PUTTING SEVERAL HUNDRED PUZZLES BACK TOGETHER AT THE SAME TIME, MR. LEGNER SAYS RESEARCHERS HAVE MANAGED TO IMPROVE THEIR TECHNIQUE.

    /// LEGNER ACT ///

    IN FACT IT WORKS VERY WELL. WE HAVE UNTIL NOW RECONSTRUCTED 200-THOUSAND PAGES. THAT'S A LOT OF PAPER. AND IN THIS 200-THOUSAND PAGES, THERE IS A LOT OF NONSENSE, BUT WE ALSO FOUND SOME VERY IMPORTANT DOCUMENTS.

    /// END ACT ///

    OFFICIALS SAY THE RECONSTRUCTED DOCUMENTS DEAL NOT ONLY WITH THE FINAL DAYS OF THE EAST GERMAN GOVERNMENT BUT WITH FALLEN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS OF OTHER EUROPEAN NATIONS AS WELL.

    BECAUSE THE PROCESS IS SO UNUSUAL, SOME SCIENTISTS HAVE COME TO THE STASI ARCHIVES TO EXAMINE THE WAY THE PAPERS ARE BEING REASSEMBLED.

    /// LEGNER ACT ///

    ONE DAY PERHAPS WE WILL HAVE A VERY UNUSUAL SORT OF TECHNIQUE, WHICH IS VERY UNIQUE IN THE WORLD AND PERHAPS WE CAN MAKE SOME MONEY WITH IT SOMEWHERE ELSE, BECAUSE OTHER STATES TOO HAVE THE SAME PROBLEMS. EVERYWHERE CRIMINALS TRY TO DESTROY THEIR EVIDENCE, AND SOMETIMES IT IS PAPER...(LAUGHTER)

    /// END ACT ///

    FOR NOW, OFFICIALS SAY THEY WILL HAVE PLENTY OF PRACTICE ON THEIR TECHNIQUE. IN THE PAST YEAR, THEY HAVE MANAGED TO REASSEMBLE ABOUT 60 BAGS WORTH OF DOCUMENTS. BUT THEY STILL HAVE ABOUT 12-THOUSAND BAGS TO GO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/JWH/MMK
    08-Oct-96 11:40 AM EDT (1540 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] GERMANY'S BOSNIA REFUGEES BY PAUL HOCKENOS (BERLIN)

    DATE=10/8/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-34598
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ON OCTOBER FIRST, THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT BEGAN SENDING SELECT GROUPS OF BOSNIAN REFUGEES IN BERLIN AND BAVARIA LETTERS TELLING THEM THEY MUST LEAVE THE COUNTRY. CURRENTLY, THERE ARE 320-THOUSAND BOSNIAN REFUGEES LIVING IN GERMANY, MORE THAN ANYWHERE ELSE IN WESTERN EUROPE. THE GOVERNMENT'S DECISION TO START SENDING PEOPLE BACK HAS IGNITED A STORM OF PROTEST FROM OPPOSITION POLITICAL PARTIES, CHURCH GROUPS AND HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS. THEY SAY CONDITIONS IN BOSNIA ARE STILL NOT ACCEPTABLE FOR MANY REFUGEES. FROM BERLIN, PAUL HOCKENOS REPORTS.

    // SOUND 1 : MUSIC //

    TEXT: HERE IN A LOCAL BERLIN CULTURAL CENTER, A YOUNG BOSNIAN COUPLE CELEBRATES THEIR MARRIAGE. BUT DESPITE THE JOYOUS MUSIC, MOST OF THE BOSNIAN REFUGEES HERE ARE TENSE AND ANXIOUS. THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT'S DECISION TO BEGIN REPATRIATING REFUGEES TO BOSNIA IS TOPIC NUMBER-ONE. DANIEL, A 21-YEAR-OLD COMPUTER PROGRAMMER FROM THE CITY OF MOSTAR, SAYS MANY REFUGEES ARE FEARFUL THEY WILL BE SENT BACK TO VILLAGES THAT TODAY LIE IN RUIN.

    // DANIEL ACT //

    THERE ARE CERTAIN CITIES OR PARTS OF BOSNIA WHERE PEOPLE COULD GO BACK. AND IF PEOPLE HAVE THE FACILITIES TO GO BACK TO THE HOMES AND WORK, THEY SHOULD GO BACK. BUT IF THEY DON'T AND THEY GO BACK, WHAT WOULD HAPPEN TO THOSE PEOPLE? THEY'RE GOING TO BE REFUGEES IN THEIR OWN COUNTRY.

    // END ACT //

    BERLIN ALONE HAS MORE BOSNIAN REFUGEES THAN BRITAIN AND FRANCE COMBINED. THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT SAYS NOW THAT THERE IS PEACE IN BOSNIA, THESE REFUGEES SHOULD BEGIN TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES. BUT TWO-THIRDS OF THE BOSNIAN REFUGEES IN BERLIN ARE VICTIMS OF ETHNIC CLEANSING WHO WERE FORCED OUT OF SERB-HELD TERRITORY. EVEN IF THEIR HOMES ARE STANDING, IT IS IMPOSSIBLE FOR THEM TO GO BACK TO PLACES RULED BY THE SAME PEOPLE WHO EXPELLED THEM. JASMINKA, FOR EXAMPLE, COMES FROM SREBRENICA, THE MUSLIM "SAFE HAVEN" IN EASTERN BOSNIA THAT WAS OVERRUN BY BOSNIAN SERB FORCES LAST YEAR.

    // JASMINKA ACT -- IN GERMAN, WITH TRANSLATION //

    IF I COULD RETURN TO BOSNIA AND DO MY STUDIES THERE, OF COURSE I 'D LIKE TO. BUT WHERE SHOULD I GO? MY CITY'S IN THE HANDS OF AN ENEMY ARMY. I CAN'T EVEN TRAVEL TO SREBRENICA.

    // END ACT //

    THE DECISION BY GERMANY'S INTERIOR MINISTER, MANFRED KANTHER, TO RETURN THE REFUGEES HAS SPARKED PROTESTS ACROSS THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM. THE GREEN PARTY, SOCIAL DEMOCRATS AND CHURCH GROUPS SAY THE POLITICAL SITUATION IN BOSNIA IS STILL TOO VOLATILE TO GUARANTEE REFUGEES' SAFETY. EVEN THE U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES HAS CALLED ON GERMANY TO POSTPONE REPATRIATION, AT LEAST FOR SIX OR SEVEN MONTHS.

    HAJO FUNKE IS A PROFESSOR AT BERLIN'S FREE UNIVERSITY AND THE GERMAN DIRECTOR OF THE GERMAN-JEWISH AID GROUP "LA BENEVOLENCJIA."

    // FUNKE ACT //

    WE ARE STRICTLY AGAINST THIS DECISION ... YOU CAN IMAGINE THERE ARE PEOPLE WHO WENT THOUGH THE MOST HORRIBLE THINGS SINCE THE HOLOCAUST. SOME JEWISH MEMBERS OF OUR ORGANIZATION SAY IT'S AS IF JEWS WERE FORCED BACK TO GERMANY IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR (AND) INTO A SITUATION IN WHICH A LOT OF NAZIS ARE AROUND.

    THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT SAYS THE FINAL DECISION ON WHEN REPATRIATION WILL BEGIN LIES WITH THE INDIVIDUAL FEDERAL STATES. SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC-LED STATES ARE POSTPONING THE FIRST REPATRIATIONS UNTIL SPRING (IN EUROPE). BUT THE CONSERVATIVE GOVERNMENTS OF BAVARIA AND BERLIN WANT TO BEGIN RIGHT AWAY. SINGLE PEOPLE AND COUPLES WITHOUT CHILDREN ARE AT THE TOP OF THE LIST. BERLIN'S AUTHORITIES INSIST NO ONE WILL BE FORCED TO RETURN TO UNSAFE REGIONS.

    BOSLIJKA SCHEDLICH IS DIRECTOR OF THE SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE CULTURAL CENTER, A PROMINENT REFUGEE ORGANIZATION IN BERLIN. SHE SAYS THE STATE'S POLICY IS ONE OF CALCULATED INTIMIDATION.

    // SCHEDLICH ACT IN GERMAN -- WITH TRANSLATION //

    LEGALLY, THE POLICE CAN'T JUST START FORCEFULLY EXPELLING PEOPLE. THE REAL PURPOSE OF THIS CAMPAIGN IS TO MAKE REFUGEES FEEL INSECURE AND TO INDUCE THEM TO GO OF THEIR OWN ACCORD. IT'S A NASTY GAME BECAUSE THE REFUGEES WANT TO GO HOME. BUT THIS KIND OF PRESSURE ONLY MAKES PEOPLE SICKER BOTH PHYSICALLY AND PSYCHOLOGICALLY. THEY JUST BREAK DOWN.

    CONSERVATIVES ARGUE THAT GERMANY HAS FOOTED AN ENORMOUS BILL, TAKING IN AND CARING FOR REFUGEES. NOW IT'S TIME TO DRAW THE LINE BEFORE PATIENCE RUNS OUT. BUT PROFESSOR FUNKE SAYS THE GOVERNMENT'S RHETORIC IS CREATING A DANGEROUS, XENOPHOBIC ATMOSPHERE IN GERMANY.

    // FUNKE ACT //

    THE DECISION OF THE MINISTER OF INTERIOR IS A POPULIST ONE THAT CAN CREATE PREJUDICES AGAINST FOREIGNERS, ESPECIALLY AGAINST BOSNIA REFUGEES, ALTHOUGH THE BOSNIAN REFUGEES WERE SUPPORTED BY THE MAJORITY OF THE PEOPLE.

    // END ACT //

    EVEN CRITICS OF GOVERNMENT REFUGEE POLICY ACKNOWLEDGE THAT DURING THE FOUR YEARS OF WAR IN BOSNIA, GERMANY RESPONDED QUICKLY AND GENEROUSLY TO THE PLIGHT OF HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF REFUGEES. AFTER EXTENDING SUCH COMPASSION AND GENEROSITY FOR SO LONG, THEY SAY, IT WOULD BE A PITY TO REVOKE IT NOW. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PH/RRM
    08-Oct-96 3:40 PM EDT (1940 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] NEW ATLANTIC COMMUNITY

    DATE= OCTOBER 9, 1996
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-06993
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    OCTOBER 9, 1996.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    NATO IS THE CENTRAL PILLAR OF AMERICA'S SECURITY RELATIONSHIP WITH EUROPE. AS SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER SAID IN A RECENT SPEECH, THE END OF THE COLD WAR DID NOT BRING AN END TO ARMED CONFLICT ON THE CONTINENT. AND WHILE THE COLD WAR DIVISION IN EUROPE IS FADING, IT HAS NOT BEEN FULLY OVERCOME. THAT DIVISION IS STILL VISIBLE IN THE ECONOMIC GULF BETWEEN EAST AND WEST. IT IS EVIDENT IN THE POLLUTION THAT SHORTENS LIVES FROM UKRAINE TO SILESIA. ABOVE ALL, IT IS APPARENT IN THE DESIRE FOR GREATER SECURITY FELT BY CITIZENS ACROSS A REGION WHERE THIS CENTURY'S TWO GREAT WARS AS WELL AS THE COLD WAR BEGAN.

    THE FIRST CHALLENGE, SAID MR. CHRISTOPHER, IS TO BUILD A SECURE AND INTEGRATED EUROPE WHERE THE COLD WAR'S FRONTIERS ARE FOREVER ERASED. IT IS IN THE WEST'S INTEREST TO EXTEND TO THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL EUROPE AND THE NEWLY INDEPENDENT STATES THE SAME STRUCTURE OF VALUES AND INSTITUTIONS THAT ENABLED WESTERN EUROPE TO OVERCOME ITS OWN LEGACY OF CONFLICT AND DIVISION.

    ONE WAY TO DO THAT IS BY ENLARGING NATO. CURRENTLY, THE ALLIANCE IS ENGAGED IN DIALOGUE WITH INTERESTED COUNTRIES TO DETERMINE WHAT THEY MUST DO TO PREPARE FOR MEMBERSHIP. SEVERAL COUNTRIES SHOULD BE INVITED TO THE 1997 NATO SUMMIT TO BEGIN NEGOTIATIONS ON JOINING. MR. CHRISTOPHER STRESSED THAT WHEN THE FIRST NEW MEMBERS PASS THROUGH NATO'S OPEN DOOR, THAT DOOR WILL STAY OPEN FOR OTHERS WHO DEMONSTRATE THAT THEY ARE WILLING AND ABLE TO SHOULDER THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF MEMBERSHIP.

    WHETHER THEY JOIN NATO SOONER, LATER, OR NOT AT ALL, EUROPE'S NEW DEMOCRACIES DESERVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO HELP SHAPE EUROPE'S FUTURE. THAT IS WHERE THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE COMES IN. ITS ROLE SHOULD BE EXPANDED TO INVOLVE PARTNERS IN THE PLANNING AS WELL AS THE CARRYING OUT OF NATO MISSIONS. THESE COUNTRIES SHOULD ALSO BE GIVEN A STRONGER VOICE THROUGH THE CREATION OF AN ATLANTIC PARTNERSHIP COUNCIL.

    WITH THESE EFFORTS, SAID SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER, "NATO GIVES US A FOUNDATION TO BUILD OUR NEW ATLANTIC COMMUNITY ONE IN WHICH ALL OF EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA WORK TOGETHER TO BUILD LASTING SECURITY, ONE THAT SUCCEEDS WHERE ALL PAST EFFORTS HAVE FAILED."

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR.
    08-Oct-96 2:16 PM EDT (1816 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] TURKEY / KURDS (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=10/8/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-204317
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FIGHTING BETWEEN THE TURKISH MILITARY AND SEPARATIST REBELS OF THE "KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY," OR "P-K-K," CONTINUES TO ESCALATE IN SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY. ACCORDING TO LATEST REPORTS, 118 KURDISH REBELS AND 11 TURKISH SOLDIERS HAVE BEEN KILLED IN CLASHES IN TWO PROVINCES (HAKKARI AND SIRNAK) NEAR THE IRAQI BORDER. FROM ANKARA, REPORTER AMBERIN ZAMAN HAS THE DETAILS.

    TEXT: ACCORDING TO THE SEMI-OFFICIAL ANATOLIAN NEWS AGENCY, TURKISH TROOPS -- BACKED BY HELICOPTER GUNSHIPS AND WARPLANES -- HAVE LAUNCHED A NEW OFFENSIVE AGAINST THE REBELS IN THE EASTERN PROVINCE OF SIVAS. THE OFFENSIVE WAS DESCRIBED AS BEING IN RETALIATION FOR THE KILLING OF FOUR SOLDIERS IN A P-K-K AMBUSH LAST WEEK.

    HEAVY FIGHTING WAS ALSO REPORTED TUESDAY IN THE PROVINCE OF HAKKARI AFTER A GROUP OF P-K-K REBELS FROM NORTHERN IRAQ ATTACKED TARGETS ALONG THE TURKISH BORDER.

    THE NEW FIGHTING APPEARED TO DASH HOPES FOR A POLITICAL DIALOGUE BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT AND KURDISH POLITICAL GROUPS, WHICH ARE WIDELY VIEWED AS AFFILIATES OF THE P-K-K.

    ANALYSTS SAY THE GOVERNMENT'S HARDENING STANCE WAS DEMONSTRATED BY A DECISION BY A SPECIAL SECURITY COURT ON MONDAY. THE COURT DECIDED TO TAKE LEGAL ACTION AGAINST A MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT FROM PRIME MINISTER NECMETTIN ERBAKAN'S PRO-ISLAMIC WELFARE PARTY FOR NEGOTIATING THE RELEASE OF SEVEN TURKISH SOLDIERS BY THE P-K-K.

    THE CHIEF PROSECUTOR OF THE ANKARA STATE SECURITY COURT IS SEEKING THE REMOVAL OF WELFARE DEPUTY FETULLAH ERBAS'S PARLIAMENTARY IMMUNITY. THE PROSECUTOR WANTS MR. ERBAS TO BE TRIED, ALONG WITH SEVERAL HUMAN RIGHTS OFFICIALS WHO ACCOMPANIED HIM ON THE TRIP, FOR ALLEGEDLY PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO A TERRORIST GROUP BECAUSE HE PUBLICIZED THE GROUP'S SEPARATIST CAMPAIGN. MR. ERBAS, WHO TRAVELED TO A P-K-K CAMP IN NORTHERN IRAQ LAST AUGUST TO SECURE THE PRISONERS' RELEASE, HAS DENIED THE CHARGES. HE SAYS HIS TRIP BORE NO POLITICAL MOTIVES AND THAT HE WAS ONLY TRYING TO HELP THE PRISONERS AND THEIR FAMILIES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/PCF/RRM
    08-Oct-96 12:00 PM EDT (1600 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] U-S/TURKEY/LIBYA (S-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/8/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-204341
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS SHARPENING ITS CRITICISM OF TURKISH PRIME MINISTER NECMETTIN ERBAKAN FOR HIS VISIT TO LIBYA LAST WEEKEND. U-S OFFICIALS ACCUSE THE TURKISH LEADER OF UNDERMINING U-N SANCTIONS AGAINST THE LIBYAN REGIME OF MUAMMAR GADHAFI. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: THE STATE DEPARTMENT IS LASHING OUT AT THE TURKISH PRIME MINISTER FOR HIS EMBRACE OF THE LIBYAN LEADER, AND SAYS OFFICIALS IN ANKARA SHOULD RECONSIDER ANY BUSINESS DEALS CONCLUDED BY MR. ERBAKAN IN TRIPOLI.

    U-S OFFICIALS ARE USING UNUSUALLY BLUNT LANGUAGE IN CRITICIZING THE TURKISH LEADER -- FOR AMONG OTHER THINGS SUGGESTING THAT LIBYA IS A VICTIM, RATHER THAN A PROMOTER, OF TERRORISM.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAID THE ERBAKAN COMMENTS WERE OBJECTIONABLE, AND UNWELCOME GIVEN LONG-TERM U-S SUPPORT FOR TURKEY'S STRUGGLE AGAINST TERRORISM BY KURDISH P-K-K EXTREMISTS:

    ///BURNS ACTUALITY///

    THE UNITED STATES HAS STOOD BY TURKEY. NOW, IT'S TIME FOR TURKEY TO STAND BY THE UNITED STATES IN OUR FIGHT AGAINST GADHAFI, IN OUR FIGHT TO ISOLATE HIM, TO MAINTAIN THE U-N SANCTIONS.

    ///END ACT///

    THE SPOKESMAN SUGGESTED THAT AN ACCORD CONCLUDED BY MR. ERBAKAN TO TRIPLE THE VOLUME OF TURKISH-LIBYAN TRADE WOULD VIOLATE THE U-N SANCTIONS -- IMPOSED TO PUNISH LIBYA FOR REFUSING TO TURN OVER SUSPECTS IN THE 1988 BOMBING OF A U-S AIRLINER OVER SCOTLAND. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/GKT/KL
    08-Oct-96 6:08 PM EDT (2208 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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