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Voice of America, 97-02-18

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] E-U / ALBRIGHT (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)
  • [03] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)
  • [04] FREEDOM OF THE PRESS IN THE BALKANS BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)
  • [05] NATO / ALBRIGHT (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)
  • [06] ROMANIA REFORM (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [07] RUSSIA/NATO BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=02/18/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10027
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=GARY EDQUIST
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON TUESDAY FEBRUARY 18TH //

    INTRO: RETURNING TO WORK FROM MONDAY'S PRESIDENT'S DAY HOLIDAY, AMERICANS ARE FINDING A WIDE RANGE OF TOPICS IN THEIR NEWSPAPER'S EDITORIAL COLUMNS. THERE IS THE POSSIBLE CHINESE CONNECTION TO DEMOCRATIC PRESIDENTIAL FUND RAISING; THE DRIVE FOR ISRAELI-SYRIAN PEACE TALKS; THE FINANCIAL SCANDAL IN ALBANIA; NERVOUSNESS IN THE TWO KOREAS IN THE WAKE OF A HIGH LEVEL DEFECTION; AND AN OLD VILLAGE IS UNCOVERED IN CHILE. NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS _____________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE REVELATIONS IN THE WASHINGTON POST LAST WEEK THAT THE CHINESE EMBASSY IN WASHINGTON MAY HAVE PLAYED A ROLE IN CHANNELING PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL COMMITTEE, CONTINUES TO DRAW COMMENTS IN THE PRESS. TODAY'S NEW YORK POST SAYS, IN ITS LEAD EDITORIALS:

    VOICE: "BILL CLINTON MAY BE SURPRISED BY THIS SCANDAL - - BUT SO, IN A WAY, ARE ALL AMERICANS. FOR WHAT NOW EMERGES FROM THE PRESIDENT'S FUND-RAISING OPERATION ARE FACTS THAT RESIDE ON A COMPLETELY DIFFERENT PLANE THAN WHITEWATER. ..... AT THIS POINT, VIRTUALLY NO AMERICANS OUTSIDE THE WHITE HOUSE UNDERSTAND THE DEGREE AND DEPTH OF THE CLINTON-CHINA INFLUENCE-PEDDLING SCANDAL. [OPT] THERE HAVE BEEN CREDIBLE REPORTS LINKING THE PRESIDENT'S ABRUPT TURNABOUT ON IMMIGRATION REFORM ..... TO A FUND-RAISING DINNER ARRANGED BY COMMERCE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL-TURNED-D-N-C-FUNDRAISER JOHN HUANG. ..... BUT A DEEPER QUESTION UNDERLIES THESE REPORTS OF ILLEGAL BEHAVIOR ..... [END OPT] IT TOUCHES ... ON WHETHER THOSE STANDING AT THE PINNACLE OF POWER IN WASHINGTON RETAIN ANY SENSE OF LOYALTY TO THE UNITED STATES - - OR INDEED..... WHETHER THEY RETAIN A SENSE OF WHAT THAT EVEN MEANS."

    TEXT: THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER, MEANWHILE, IS CALLING FOR A SPECIAL COUNSEL, INDEPENDENT OF GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS, TO INVESTIGATE THE MATTER.

    VOICE: "EVIDENCE MOUNTS THAT ...... CLINTON AIDES RAN A KIND OF ESCORT SERVICE, WHEREBY DONORS COULD BUY A RENDEZVOUS WITH THE PRESIDENT AND / OR KEY MEMBERS OF HIS TEAM, WHO WOULD LISTEN TO THEIR SPECIAL REQUESTS. [OPT] IN ONE TOUR-DE-FORCE OF MONEY-SQUEEZING, THE CLINTON TEAM GOT ABOUT 900-THOUSAND DOLLARS IN DONATIONS OUT OF [THE PACIFIC ISLAND TERRITORY OF] GUAM. THEN THE ADMINISTRATION SPUN 180 DEGREES - - GIVING GUAM THE POWER TO DECIDE ITS OWN IMMIGRATION POLICY AND ENFORCE IT OWN LABOR LAWS. A CORPORATE WINDFALL, THAT. [END OPT] .... IT'S ONE MORE REASON FOR AN INDEPENDENT COUNSEL. HERE'S ANOTHER: THE QUASI-CONTRITE [WHITE HOUSE] LINE THAT 'MISTAKES WERE MADE' BY THIRD-STRINGERS [LOWER-LEVEL OFFICIALS] - - A HUANG HERE, A TRIE THERE - - DOESN'T WASH ANYMORE [I.E., IS NO LONGER BELIEVABLE]."

    TEXT: [OPT] TURNING TO INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, THE ORLANDO SENTINEL IS ASKING READERS NOT TO ABANDON HOPE OF ISRAEL AND SYRIA REACHING SOME KIND OF PEACE ACCORD.

    VOICE: "[ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER] ... NETANYAHU HAS PUSHED FOR RESTARTING PEACE TALKS WITHOUT PRECONDITIONS, EXCEPT FOR NOT FULLY WITHDRAWING FROM THE GOLAN HEIGHTS. ..... SYRIA'S VICE PRESIDENT SAID MONDAY THAT NEGOTIATIONS WOULD LAST A CENTURY UNDER ISRAEL'S CONDITIONS. ..... OBVIOUSLY, NOT ALL THOSE COMMENTS CAN BE TAKEN AT FACE VALUE. ....THERE'S ALSO MUTUAL DISTRUST, MEMORIES OF PAST CONFLICT AND FEAR. .....MR. RABIN AND MR. PERES [THE TWO PREVIOUS PRIME MINISTERS] HELPED ISRAEL MOVE MORE QUICKLY TOWARD A REGIONAL SETTLEMENT THAN EVER HAD BEEN THE CASE. IN THE INTEREST OF CONSISTENCY AND FUTURE PROGRESS TOWARD PEACE, THEIR UNCONCLUDED ACCORD WITH SYRIA SHOULD BE PART OF THE DISCUSSION." [OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO EUROPE'S POOREST AND MOST TROUBLED NATION, TINY ALBANIA, THE NEW YORK TIMES LAMENTS THE WAY PEOPLE HAVE LOST MONEY IN A CROOKED FINANCIAL SCHEME.

    VOICE: "WHEN ASKED WHY THE ALBANIAN GOVERNMENT HAD NOT STEPPED IN TO END RECENT PYRAMID SCHEMES BEFORE THEY SWINDLED ALBANIANS OUT OF HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS OF DOLLARS, PRESIDENT SALI BERISHA SAID HIS INACTION WAS A SIGN OF THE GOVERNMENT'S COMMITMENT TO THE FREE MARKET. ...... MR. BERISHA'S VIEW IS DISTURBING. SUCH A MISREADING OF CAPITALISM HAS CAUSED WIDESPREAD MISERY IN FORMER COMMUNIST COUNTRIES, WHICH ARE STILL LEARNING THAT THE FREE MARKET WORKS BEST WHEN NOT COMPLETELY FREE. [OPT] ..... THE MOST IMPORTANT REGULATION COMES FROM THE MARKET ITSELF. COMPANIES AND BROKERS THAT WANT LONG-TERM BUSINESS NEED TO BEHAVE THEMSELVES. SO FAR, FEW COMPANIES IN THE GET-RICH-QUICK CLIMATE OF EASTERN EUROPE ARE WORRYING ABOUT THEIR REPUTATION." [END OPT]

    TEXT: TENSIONS ON THE KOREAN PENINSULA FOLLOWING THE DEFECTION OF A KEY NORTH KOREAN THEORETICIAN APPEAR TO BE LIFTING SLIGHTLY, AS THE SUN IN BALTIMORE NOTES.

    VOICE: "SOUTH KOREA MADE A GOOD DECISION YESTERDAY [ MONDAY] TO MAINTAIN FOOD AID AND DISPATCH TECHNICIANS TO NORTH KOREA IN HOPES OF PROVIDING IT WITH NUCLEAR POWER MINUS A WEAPONS BYPRODUCT. UNTIL THIS GESTURE FOR STABILITY, BOTH THE NOISY GOVERNMENT OF SOUTH KOREA AND THE RECLUSIVE COMMUNIST-MILITARY REGIME OF NORTH KOREA WERE TALKING UP A CRISIS. [OPT] NORTH KOREAN DIPLOMATS IN BEIJING WERE THREATENING WAR IF THE PROMINENT DEFECTOR HWANG JANG YOP ..... IS ALLOWED OUT TO SEOUL. .....WORD FROM PYONGYANG YESTERDAY THAT THE FOREIGN MINISTRY OF THE NORTH ACCEPTED MR. HWANG'S DEFECTION DEFUSED SOME OF THE TENSION, AND MET THE CONCILIATORY GESTURE OF THE SOUTH. [END OPT] EACH REGIME MIGHT SEE SOME VALUE IN A CRISIS BUT ONLY CALAMITY IN A WAR."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: ONE OF AMERICA'S GREAT NATIONAL PARKS, YOSEMITE, WAS BADLY DAMAGED BY LAST MONTH'S DISASTROUS FLOODS, BUT THE LOS ANGELES TIMES SAYS THE DELUGE MAY HAVE A POSITIVE SIDE AS WELL.

    VOICE: "THE NEW REALITY: LESS SPONTANEITY, MORE ENJOYMENT. PARK OFFICIALS ANNOUNCED LAST WEEK THAT .... THEY WILL REQUIRE VISITORS ARRIVING IN THEIR OWN CARS TO MAKE A RESERVATION EVEN FOR JUST A DAY IN THE PARK. ..... MOTEL OPERATORS AND MERCHANTS IN COMMUNITIES JUST OUTSIDE THE PARK UNDERSTANDABLY FEAR THAT DAY-USE RESERVATIONS WILL CUT INTO THEIR BUSINESS. ..... YET THE PROPOSED SYSTEM IN FACT OFFERS OPPORTUNITIES FOR THESE SO-CALLED GATEWAY COMMUNITIES. OPERATING SHUTTLES TO AND FROM THE PARK, FOR EXAMPLE, AND ACCOMMODATING THOSE THE PARK CAN'T."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES COMMENTS ON THE RECENT DISCOVERY BY ANTHROPOLOGISTS FROM A DALLAS MUSEUM, OF A VERY OLD VILLAGE IN CHILE, SHAKING PREVIOUS THEORIES ABOUT EARLY MAN IN THE NEW WORLD.

    VOICE: "...THE CHRONOLOGY OF HEMISPHERIC SETTLEMENT MUST NOW BE RECALCULATED AGAIN. STRONG EVIDENCE SHOWS THAT HUMANS LIVED IN SOUTHERN CHILE AT LEAST 12-THOUSAND-500-YEARS AGO. THE SITE, CALLED MONTE VERDE, WAS FIRST EXCAVATED IN 1977 BY A TEAM OF ARCHEOLOGISTS LED BY DR. TOM DILLEHAY, OF THE UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY. FURTHER RESEARCH HAS CONVINCED EVEN MANY SKEPTICS THAT THE PLACE WAS INDEED HOME TO A HUMAN COMMUNITY. ...... THE AGE OF EXPLORATION THAT BEGAN IN THE 15TH CENTURY LED EUROPEANS TO CALL OUR HEMISPHERE THE NEW WORLD ..... BUT THE DISCOVERY OF THE ANCIENT VILLAGE AT MONTE VERDE IS JUST THE MOST RECENT REMINDER OF HOW RELATIVE THAT WORD ["NEW"] CAN BE."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: WITH THAT, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/GE
    18-Feb-97 10:38 AM EST (1538 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] E-U / ALBRIGHT (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=2/18/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-201235
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT -- ON A VISIT TO EUROPEAN CAPITALS -- HAS HELD HER FIRST MEETING WITH EUROPEAN UNION COMMISSIONERS. JOHN FRASER IN BRUSSELS REPORTS THE MOST CONTROVERSIAL DISCUSSIONS WERE ABOUT AN AMERICAN LAW WHICH PENALIZES SOME FOREIGN COMPANIES THAT DO BUSINESS WITH CUBA.

    TEXT: THE EUROPEAN UNION SAYS THAT IF THERE IS NOT A SOLUTION TO THE DISPUTE WITH THE UNITED STATES OVER THE U-S LAW, THE HELMS-BURTON ACT, THE ISSUE WILL HAVE TO GO TO A TRIBUNAL OF JUDGES IN THE GENEVA-BASED WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION. HOWEVER, THE SECRETARY OF STATE AND EUROPEAN COMMISSIONERS SAID THEY AGREED THAT ALL POSSIBLE EFFORTS MUST BE MADE TO REDUCE TENSIONS. THEY ALSO AGREED THE E-U AND THE UNITED STATES WOULD CONTINUE NEGOTIATIONS -- EVEN AFTER THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION BEGINS ITS WORK.

    AFTER THE MEETING E-U OFFICIALS SAID THAT IT HAD BEEN USEFUL, BUT NOT A SPECTACULAR EXCHANGE OF VIEWS.

    THERE WAS ALSO A DISCUSSION OF THE CRISIS IN THE GREAT LAKES REGION OF AFRICA, IN PARTICULAR THE REFUGEE PROBLEM IN ZAIRE. EUROPEAN COMMISSIONERS SAID THIS CANNOT BE SOLVED BY HUMANITARIAN AID ALONE; THERE ALSO MUST BE A POLITICAL AND A DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION.

    BOTH SIDES AGREED TO COORDINATE MORE CLOSELY THEIR POLICY TOWARDS CHINA, FOCUSING ON THE NEED TO IMPROVE HUMAN RIGHTS WITHOUT ISOLATING THE CHINESE. THERE WERE ALSO DISCUSSIONS ON BOSNIA, ALBANIA, TURKEY, THE NEED TO FURTHER ENHANCE TRANS-ATLANTIC RELATIONS, AND PLANS FOR THE EUROPEAN UNION TO ADMIT NEW MEMBERS FROM EASTERN EUROPE.

    AFTER HER MEETING WITH EUROPEAN COMMISSIONERS, MRS ALBRIGHT TRAVELLED ACROSS BRUSSELS TO NATO HEADQUARTERS FOR DISCUSSIONS WITH SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA AND OTHER SENIOR NATO OFFICIALS AND DIPLOMATS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JF/JWH
    18-Feb-97 7:56 AM EST (1256 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

    DATE=2/18/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-210259
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SHARE PRICES WERE MIXED IN TRADING TUESDAY ON EUROPEAN MARKETS. V-O-A'S JACK HUIZENGA HAS THE CLOSING MARKET REPORT FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: STOCKS WERE UP IN FRANKFURT, BUT DOWN IN BOTH LONDON AND PARIS.

    IN FRANKFURT, THE TRADING DAY ENDED WITH THE DAX-30 INDEX AT ANOTHER RECORD HIGH -- UP ALMOST 44 POINTS -- ABOUT ONE-AND-FOUR-TENTHS PERCENT. BUT IN LATER COMPUTERIZED TRADING, THE GERMAN MARKET FELL BACK ALMOST 30 POINTS AS THE U-S DOLLAR DROPPED IN VALUE AGAINST THE GERMAN MARK. IN PARIS, THE CAC-40 INDEX WAS DOWN ALMOST 17 POINTS -- ABOUT SIX-TENTHS OF ONE PERCENT AND, IN LONDON, THE FOOTSIE-100 INDEX WAS DOWN MORE THAN FIVE POINTS, ABOUT ONE-TENTH OF ONE PERCENT.

    ON THE LONDON CURRENCY EXCHANGE, THE VALUE OF THE U-S DOLLAR WAS UP AGAINST THE BRITISH POUND, BUT WAS DOWN AGAINST THE GERMAN MARK AND THE JAPANESE YEN.
    NEB/JWH
    18-Feb-97 1:34 PM EST (1834 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] FREEDOM OF THE PRESS IN THE BALKANS BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=2/18/97
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-09609
    TELEPHONE=619-3464
    EDITOR=SWANEY
    CONTENT= (TAPE CUTS IN AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: IN MID-FEBRUARY [2/11/97], THE VOICE OF AMERICA AND RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY HOSTED A SYMPOSIUM ON "FREEDOM OF THE PRESS IN THE BALKANS." THE COUNTRIES IN THE REGION ARE NOW STRUGGLING TO EMERGE FROM MANY YEARS

    OF PRESS CENSORSHIP. VOA'S JUDITH LATHAM COVERED THE

    SYMPOSIUM IN WASHINGTON, DC, WHERE WELL-KNOWN AMERICAN JOURNALISTS AND A HIGH-RANKING STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL WERE GUEST SPEAKERS. HERE'S ____ WITH A REPORT.

    TEXT: THE HUNGARIAN-BORN AMERICAN JOURNALIST KATI MARTON [KAH-TEE MAR-TEN] WAS THE KEYNOTE SPEAKER AT THE RECENT

    VOA-RFE/RL SYMPOSIUM ON "FREEDOM OF THE PRESS IN THE

    BALKANS." AS CHAIR OF THE COMMITTEE FOR THE PROTECTION OF JOURNALISTS, MS. MARTON MADE TWO SEPARATE TRIPS TO THE BALKANS LAST YEAR TO MEET WITH SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC AND WITH CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN.

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- MARTON (0:45) "I HAD A SINGLE AGENDA -- TO BRING TO BEAR THE FULL FORCE OF THE AMERICAN MEDIA ON THESE POST-COMMUNIST DICTATORS' ATTEMPT TO SUPPRESS INDEPENDENT JOURNALISTS. THE STATE OF CROATIAN MEDIA IS FROZEN IN POST-COMMUNIST AUTHORITARIANISM. I DON'T SEE MUCH HOPE UNDER THE PRESENT REGIME, BUT THE PRESENT REGIME MAY NOT LAST THE YEAR. PRESIDENT TUDJMAN IS VERY ILL. THERE CAN BE NO REAL DEMOCRATIZATION IN CROATIA WHILE TUDJMAN IS IN POWER. A SURGE OF PRO-DEMOCRACY, PRO-FREE PRESS CAME FROM AN UNEXPECTED PLACE TOWARD THE YEAR'S END -- SERBIA, A COUNTRY THAT SO MANY OF US HAD WRITTEN OFF AS HOPELESSLY MIRED IN THE MOST ATAVISTIC SORT OF NATIONALISM."

    TEXT: IN DECEMBER KATI MARTON PRESSED PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC INTO SIGNING A DECLARATION OF SUPPORT FOR THE RIGHT OF JOURNALISTS TO PUBLISH AND BROADCAST FREELY.

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- MARTON (0:34) "I HAD NO ILLUSIONS THAT HE WOULD ABIDE BY THAT DOCUMENT, BUT MY POINT WAS TO HAVE SOMETHING TO REFER BACK TO THE NEXT TIME HE INEVITABLY PULLS THE PLUG ON INDEPENDENT MEDIA, AND SECOND, TO HAVE PROOF THAT THE MAN IS A LIAR. DAILY PRO-DEMOCRACY DEMONSTRATIONS ON THE ICY STREETS OF BELGRADE HAVE STUNNED MILOSEVIC, AS THEY HAVE MOST OF THE REST OF THE WORLD. WHEN HE PULLED THE PLUG ON [INDEPENDENT RADIO STATION] B-92, RADIO FREE EUROPE AND VOICE OF AMERICA MADE THEIR AIRWAVES AVAILABLE TO B-92. AND I CANNOT [OVER] EMPHASIZE TO YOU HOW IMPORTANT THAT WAS TO THE REGION."

    TEXT: KATI MARTON SAYS (OPT) CIRCULATION OF "NASA BORBA," THE SERB PAPER THAT HAS FACED THE HARSHEST REPRESSION FROM THE GOVERNMENT IS SOARING, WHILE READERSHIP OF THE PRO-MILOSEVIC DAILY, "POLITIKA," HAS PLUNGED. SHE SAYS (END OPT) STATE-RUN TELEVISION, WHICH IS "LAUGHABLY OUT OF TOUCH WITH REALITY," IS LOSING ITS CREDIBILITY IN SERBIA. "CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" CORRESPONDENT JONATHAN LANDAY DISCUSSED THE MEDIA SITUATION IN BOSNIA-HERCEGOVINA. A FORMER U-P-I BUREAU CHIEF IN BELGRADE, MR. LANDAY SERVED AS BALKAN CORRESPONDENT FOR THE "MONITOR" IN '93 AND '94. LAST FALL HE LED A MEDIA WORKSHOP IN SARAJEVO, BRINGING TOGETHER JOURNALISTS FROM THE BOSNIAN FEDERATION AND FROM REPUBLIKA SRPSKA TO TALK ABOUT THEIR MUTUAL PROBLEMS.

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- LANDAY (0:44) "THE NEED FOR A VIABLE INDEPENDENT MEDIA NOW IN BOSNIA HAS BEEN MADE EVEN MORE VITAL BY BOTH THE DAYTON ACCORDS AND THE OUTCOME OF THE ELECTIONS IN SEPTEMBER. THE ELECTIONS RECONFIRMED IN POWER THE NATIONALISTS, THE ETHNIC-BASED PARTIES, IN THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION AND RUPUBLIKA SRPSKA. THEIR CONTROL OF THE STATE-OWNED MEDIA, AND I SPECIFICALLY MEAN TELEVISION, IS THE PRIME INSTRUMENT THROUGH WHICH THEY PERPETUATE THEIR GRIP ON POWER. SHOULD THIS CONTROL REMAIN UNCHALLENGED BY A VIABLE, STRONG INDEPENDENT MEDIA, THE CURRENT POLICIES OF THOSE IN CHARGE IN BOSNIA COULD VERY WELL PUSH THAT COUNTRY BACK INTO WAR, ONCE THE INTERNATIONAL PEACE-KEEPING FORCES LEAVE IN 18 MONTHS OR SO."

    TEXT: MR. LANDAY SAYS INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT OF INDEPENDENT MEDIA IN BOSNIAN-GOVERNMENT CONTOLLED AREAS HAS BEEN UNFOCUSED, INEFFICIENT, AND UNCOORDINATED. SUPPORT FOR SO-CALLED "BILDT T-V," WHICH HAS SO FAR ABSORBED $12 MILLION, BUT CAN'T COMPETE WITH STATE-RUN TELEVISION, HAS RESULTED IN WHAT HE CALLS A "MASSIVE WASTE OF RESOURCES." ANOTHER PROBLEM, JONATHAN LANDAY SAYS, IS THAT THERE IS NO INDEPENDENT MEDIA IN WESTERN HERCEGOVINA, WHICH IS UNDER THE CONTROL OF THE BOSNIAN WING OF CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN'S PARTY.

    NATIONAL PUBLIC RADIO CORRESPONDENT TON GJELTEN [JEL-TIN], WHO COVERED THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA FROM 1991 TO'94, HAS WRITTEN A BOOK ABOUT SARAJEVO AND ITS DAILY NEWSPAPER, "OSLOBODJENJE" [OS-LOH-BOH-JAYN-YAH]. HE SAYS THE EDITORS AND REPORTERS THERE HAVE HAD TO FIGHT THREE WARS, NOT JUST ONE. THE FIRST, IN 1989 AND '90, WAS TO FREE THEMSELVES FROM THE CONTROL OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY. THE SECOND WAS THE WAR AGAINST NATIONALISM, LED BY THE THREE RULING PARTIES REPRESENTING THE MUSLIMS, THE CROATS, AND THE SERBS. AND THE THIRD WAR WAS AGAINST FASCISM IN WHICH THE "VERY IDEA OF CIVIL SOCIETY, DEMOCRACY, AND INTERETHNIC LIFE WAS AT STAKE."

    CUT FOUR -- GJELTEN (0:31) "UNFORTUNATELY THE VOICES THAT ADVOCATE THE VALUES OF CIVIL SOCIETY AND MULTIETHNIC LIFE IN BOSNIA ARE PROBABLY WEAKER NOW THAN THEY EVER HAVE BEEN BEFORE. THESE ARE VERY DIFFICULT ISSUES FACING INDEPENDENT JOURNALISTS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLOVIA, AND IF WE ARE REALLY TO WORK FOR THEIR CONTINUED SURVIVAL AND FUNCTIONING, WE ARE GOING TO HAVE TO BE ABLE TO PROVIDE THEM PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AS WELL AS PROTECTION, IN ORDER FOR THEM TO WORK THROUGH SOME OF THESE EXTREMELY COMPLICATED ISSUES."

    TEXT: ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE JOHN SHATTUCK, WHO HAS MADE MORE THAN 20 TRIPS TO THE BALKANS IN THE PAST THREE YEARS, SAYS THERE IS A CLOSE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEMOCRACY AND FREEDOM OF THE PRESS.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE -- SHATTUCK (0:24) "THERE IS NO QUESTION THAT IN THE COUNTRIES IN THE BALKANS WHERE THERE IS SOME DEGREE OF INDEPENDENT MEDIA, THERE IS IN FACT MORE OPPORTUNITY FOR DEMOCRACY. AND IN THOSE COUNTRIES WHERE THE MEDIA ARE REPRESSED, DEMOCRACY IS SIMILARLY REPRESSED. (OPT) THESE ARE NOT SIMPLY ABSTRACT VALUES HAVING TO DO WITH THE IMPORTANCE OF PEOPLE BEING ABLE TO DEBATE SUBJECTS FREELY. IN FACT, THEY RELATE DIRECTLY TO THE WAY IN WHICH THEIR LIVES ARE GOVERNED." (END OPT)

    TEXT: U.S. ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE JOHN SHATTACK SAYS HE PLANS TO RETURN TO BELGRADE SOON TO MEET WITH THOSE WHO ARE CURRENTLY STRUGGLING TO BRING DEMOCRACY AND FREE MEDIA TO SERBIA.
    18-Feb-97 3:35 PM EST (2035 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] NATO / ALBRIGHT (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=2/18/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-210261
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDS: MRS. ALBRIGHT FLIES TO LONDON TUESDAY EVENING, ARRIVING ABOUT 1930 U-T-C, FOR TALKS WEDNESDAY WITH BRITISH OFFICIALS ///

    INTRO: U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT HAS CALLED FOR THE EXPANSION OF NATO IN 1999, THE YEAR OF THE ALLIANCE'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY. JOHN FRASER IN BRUSSELS REPORTS MRS. ALBRIGHT SPOKE AT NATO HEADQUARTERS AFTER MEETING CANADIAN AND EUROPEAN COLLEAGUES TO DISCUSS THE CHALLENGES AHEAD.

    TEXT: THE SECRETARY OF STATE SAID THERE WILL BE AN IMPORTANT NATO SUMMIT IN MADRID IN JULY, AT WHICH SHE HOPES THE ALLIANCE WILL AGREE ON A LIST OF CANDIDATES FOR FUTURE MEMBERSHIP.

    IF ALL GOES WELL, SHE SAID, NEGOTIATIONS WILL BE OVER BY CHRISTMAS, WITH NATO ENLARGEMENT IN 1999. SHE SAYS ALL NATO MEMBERS ARE MOVING TOGETHER ON THE ROAD TO MADRID.

    MRS. ALBRIGHT SAID ANOTHER CHALLENGE IS TO NEGOTIATE A NEW RELATIONSHIP WITH BETWEEN NATO AND RUSSIA, TO GIVE THE RUSSIANS A BIGGER ROLE IN EUROPEAN SECURITY WITHOUT GIVING THEM A VETO OVER NATO ACTIVITIES.

    /// ALBRIGHT ACT ///

    I THINK THE ISSUE HERE IS THAT WE ARE GOING TO TRY TO INCLUDE RUSSIA AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE IN NATO ACTIVITIES. BUT WHAT WE DO NOT WANT TO HAVE IS AN ARRANGEMENT WHEREBY THE RUSSIANS COULD, IN FACT, STOP AN ACTIVITY THAT THE OTHER NATO MEMBERS WISH TO UNDERTAKE. WE WANT TO MAKE SURE THAT IT IS STILL POSSIBLE FOR NATO AS CONSTITUTED -- THE MEMBERSHIP WITHIN IT -- TO TAKE DECISIONS INDEPENDENTLY. SO RUSSIA WILL HAVE A VOICE. BUT RUSSIA WILL NOT HAVE A VETO.

    /// OPT ///

    WE WILL TRY AS OFTEN AS POSSIBLE TO ACT JOINTLY WITH RUSSIA. BUT WHERE WE CANNOT, WE WILL CONTINUE TO ACT AS THE ALLIANCE. /// END OPT ///

    /// END ACT ///

    MRS. ALBRIGHT ADDED THAT SHE WANTS TO SEE A JOINT NATO-RUSSIAN BRIGADE TO BUILD ON THE SUCCESSFUL COOPERATION IN BOSNIA. IT WOULD UNDERTAKE JOINT TRAINING AND PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS.

    SHE SAID THIS WOULD BE ONE WAY TO CONVINCE RUSSIA THAT NATO WANTS TO BE AN ALLY, NOT AN ADVERSARY.

    EUROPEAN NATO DIPLOMATS WELCOMED THE SECRETARY OF STATE'S MESSAGE. ONE SAID THAT HER FIRST VISIT TO ALLIANCE HEADQUARTERS WAS MORE THAN JUST A RITUAL, AND THAT HER VIEWS WERE EXTREMELY REASSURING. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JF/JWH
    18-Feb-97 1:54 PM EST (1854 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] ROMANIA REFORM (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=2/18/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-210250
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THERE HAS BEEN A POSITIVE INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE TO THE TOUGH ECONOMIC REFORM MEASURES UNVEILED MONDAY BY ROMANIA'S NEW CENTER-RIGHT GOVERNMENT. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD HAS MORE.

    TEXT: THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND WASTED NO TIME IN ENTHUSIASTICALLY ENDORSING THE TOUGH AND AMBITIOUS REFORMS ANNOUNCED IN BUCHAREST BY PRIME MINISTER VICTOR CIORBEA.

    THE HEAD OF AN I-M-F TEAM VISITING ROMANIA, POUL THOMSEN, SAYS HE BELIEVES THE NEW GOVERNMENT IS SERIOUS ABOUT REFORM AND THAT THE I-M-F IS READY TO PROVIDE IMMEDIATE ASSISTANCE. THAT HELP ALONG WITH LOANS FROM THE WORLD BANK AND WESTERN GOVERNMENTS COULD TOTAL ONE-BILLION DOLLARS DURING THE NEXT 12 MONTHS.

    PRIME MINISTER CIORBEA, WHO HAS BEEN IN OFFICE ONLY THREE MONTHS, WENT ON NATIONAL TELEVISION MONDAY NIGHT TO ANNOUNCE THE REFORMS WHICH ARE SIMILAR TO EARLIER SHOCK THERAPY PROGRAMS OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND POLAND.

    THE FORMER LABOR LEADER, FLANKED BY MINISTERS IN ROMANIA'S COALITION GOVERNMENT, GAVE NO ASSURANCE OF IMMEDIATE BENEFITS AND PROMISED ONLY WORK, SWEAT AND AUSTERITY.

    THE PROGRAM'S CENTER PIECE, HE SAID, IS MINIMIZING THE STATE ROLE IN THE ECONOMY, DEREGULATION, AND ENHANCEMENT OF PRIVATE INITIATIVE. FUEL PRICES ARE TO RISE 50 PERCENT THIS WEEK AND THERE WILL BE FAR REACHING PRICE RISES AS SUBSIDIES ON TRANSPORTATION, TELEPHONES, WATER AND HEATING ARE REMOVED.

    MR. CIORBEA SAID THE REFORMS WOULD BE PAINFUL AND THAT THE ECONOMY WOULD SHOW NO GROWTH THIS YEAR. HE SAID HE. LIKE MOST OF HIS COUNTRYMEN, HAD FELT HUMILIATED TO SEE THE CZECHS, HUNGARIANS, SLOVENES, AND POLES SWEEP PAST ROMANIA IN THE RACE TO IMPROVE LIVING STANDARDS. MR. CIORBEA SAID HE HOPES THAT IN A FEW YEARS TIME, PEOPLE WILL LOOK BACK ON THIS PERIOD AS A DECISIVE TURNING POINT IN ROMANIA'S HISTORY.

    BANKERS AND INVESTORS WERE SIMILARLY UPBEAT ABOUT THE REFORM PROGRAM. ONE STOCK BROKER CALLED IT MORE FAR REACHING THAN EXPECTED. THE SLEEPY ROMANIAN STOCK MARKET HAD ALREADY COME TO LIFE IN RECENT WEEKS AS MR. CIORBEA AND PRESIDENT EMIL CONSTANTINESCU BEGAN A CAMPAIGN TO ENCOURAGE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT.

    MR. CIORBEA SAYS HE HOPES TO PRIVATIZE 36-HUNDRED STATE ENTERPRISES BY THE END OF THIS YEAR. THE BUDGET DEFICIT IS TO BE NARROWED AND INFLATION BROUGHT UNDER CONTROL.

    THE CENTER-RIGHT COALITION CAME TO POWER IN NOVEMBER WHEN VOTERS TURNED ASIDE THE FORMER COMMUNISTS WHO HAD RULED ROMANIA SINCE 1989. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/JWH
    18-Feb-97 11:38 AM EST (1638 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] RUSSIA/NATO BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=2/18/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-35732
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT IS GETTING SOME RAVE REVIEWS DURING HER "GET-ACQUAINTED" TOUR OF WESTERN EUROPEAN CAPITALS. BUT AS VOA MOSCOW CORRESPONDENT PETER HEINLEIN REPORTS, MRS. ALBRIGHT IS ABOUT TO ENCOUNTER FIERCE OPPOSITION WHEN SHE ARRIVES IN THE KREMLIN TO DISCUSS NATO EXPANSION.

    TEXT: SO FAR, IT HAS BEEN A HONEYMOON. THE SECRETARY OF STATE HAS FOUND THE GOING SMOOTH IN ROME, BONN AND PARIS, AND AT NATO ALLIANCE HEADQUARTERS IN BRUSSELS AS SHE TRIES TO FORGE A UNITED FRONT ON THE EXPANSION ISSUE.

    WHEN SHE COMES TO MOSCOW, HOWEVER, THE RECEPTION IS LIKELY TO BE A BIT MORE FROSTY. AS VICTOR KREMENYUK OF MOSCOW'S U-S-A/CANADA INSTITUTE EXPLAINS, THERE WILL BE LITTLE SYMPATHY IN THE KREMLIN FOR MRS. ALBRIGHT'S MESSAGE THAT NATO EXPANSION POSES NO THREAT TO RUSSIA'S SECURITY.

    ///KREMENYUK ACT///

    I DON'T THINK THAT ANY SERIOUS RUSSIAN LEADERS WOULD BELIEVE ALL THESE EMPTY EXPLANATIONS THAT NATO EXPANSION IS NOT A THREAT TO RUSSIA. IT IS A THREAT. IF NATO HAD REALLY TRANSFORMED INTO SOMETHING LIKE A POLITICAL UNION, (OR) POLITICAL ORGANIZATION, THEN MAYBE RUSSIAN CONCERNS WOULD BE LESS. BUT NATO CONTINUES TO BE ESSENTIALLY A MILITARY ALLIANCE.

    ///END ACT///

    RUSSIA HAS MADE CLEAR IT WANTS A LEGALLY-BINDING CHARTER GIVING THE KREMLIN A SAY IN NATO AFFAIRS. FOREIGN MINISTER YEVGENY PRIMAKOV SAYS THE CHARTER SHOULD GIVE RUSSIA THE RIGHT TO DISCUSS CERTAIN ISSUES ON WHAT HE CALLS "A CONSENSUS BASIS, THE SAME AS OTHER NATO COUNTRIES."

    MR. PRIMAKOV'S STATEMENT HAS BEEN PORTRAYED IN THE WESTERN MEDIA AS A DEMAND FOR A RUSSIAN VETO IN NATO AFFAIRS. RUSSIAN ANALYST VICTOR KREMENYUK EMPHATICALLY SAYS SUCH REPORTS ARE FALSE.

    ///SECOND KREMENYUK ACT///

    THAT'S A BIG LIE. RUSSIA HAS NEVER DEMANDED ANYTHING LIKE A VETO POWER. RUSSIA HAS ALWAYS DEMANDED ONLY ONE THING, THAT HER LEGITIMATE SECURITY INTERESTS SHOULD BE RESPECTED BY THE OTHER NATIONS AS WELL AS RUSSIA IS READY TO RESPECT THE LEGITIMATE SECURITY INTERESTS OF HER NEIGHBORS.

    ///END ACT///

    DURING HER VISIT TO NATO HEADQUARTERS, SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT OF A JOINT MILITARY BRIGADE WITH RUSSIAN AND NATO TROOPS. ANALYST VICTOR KREMENYUK, HOWEVER, SAYS THE KREMLIN IS ASKING FOR SOMETHING MORE SUBSTANTIAL.

    ///THIRD KREMENYUK ACT///

    WHAT THE RUSSIANS REALLY WANT (IS) A CLEAR, LEGALLY BINDING AGREEMENT WITH THE NATO NATIONS THAT WHATEVER NATO DOES, THIS WILL NEVER BE DIRECTED AGAINST RUSSIAN SECURITY INTERESTS, //OPT// AND THERE SHOULD BE SOME VERY OPEN, VERY CLEAR OBLIGATIONS. AND RUSSIA IS READY TO GIVE, IN RETURN, ITS OBLIGATIONS IF THERE ARE SOME CONCERNS ABOUT THE FUTURE OF FUTURE RUSSIAN MILITARY POSTURE.

    ///END ACT/////END OPT//

    MR. KREMENYUK SAYS DESPITE NATO'S CLEARLY EXPRESSED EXPANSION PLANS, THE KREMLIN IS INTENT ON FORGING AHEAD WITH ITS OPPOSITION. OTHER ANALYSTS SAY THE HIGH-PROFILE STANCE SUITS FOREIGN MINISTER PRIMAKOV'S NEGOTIATING STYLE, IMPROVING HIS BARGAINING POSITION.

    //REST OPT//

    NEVERTHELESS, WESTERN DIPLOMATS EXPECT THE ATMOSPHERE TO BE HIGHLY-CHARGED WHEN MRS. ALBRIGHT AND MR. PRIMAKOV SIT DOWN FOR TALKS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/PCF
    18-Feb-97 11:18 AM EST (1618 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
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