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Voice of America, 98-10-06

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] ALBRIGHT/KOSOVO (L AND S) BY GIL BUTLER (JERUSALEM)
  • [02] CHINA / KOSOVO (L-ONLY) BY STEPHANIE HO (BEIJING)
  • [03] CLINTON / KOSOVO (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [04] KOSOVO / HOLBROOKE (L ONLY) BY PHILIP SMUCKER (PRISTINA)
  • [05] KOSOVO - HOLBROOKE UPDATE (S/L) BY ART CHIMES (BELGRADE)
  • [06] KOSOVO-SENATE-COHEN-L BY JIM RANDLE (CAPITOL HILL)
  • [07] RUSSIA / KOSOVO (L) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (MOSCOW)
  • [08] SERBIA / REACT (L ONLY) BY ART CHIMES (BELGRADE)
  • [09] U-N-H-C-R BOSNIA (L-ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [10] TURKEY-SYRIA (L) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [11] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [12] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [13] EDITORIAL: SLOVAK ELECTIONS

  • [01] ALBRIGHT/KOSOVO (L AND S) BY GIL BUTLER (JERUSALEM)

    DATE=10/5/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239747
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    ////

    NOTE: THIS CAN BE USED AS A SHORT CR BY DROPPING OPTIONAL MATERIAL////

    INTRO: U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT IS IN THE MIDDLE EAST FOR TALKS IN JERUSALEM WITH ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER NETANYAHU AND IN JERICHO WITH PALESTINIAN LEADER YASSER ARAFAT. OFFICIALS SAY SHE IS TRYING TO SETTLE AS MANY ISSUES AS POSSIBLE BETWEEN THE TWO BEFORE A SUMMIT MEETING IN THE UNITED STATES LATER THIS MONTH. BUT AS V-O-A'S GIL BUTLER REPORTS FROM JERUSALEM, THE KOSOVO CRISIS TOOK MOST OF HER ATTENTION AS SHE TRAVELLED TO ISRAEL.

    TEXT:/// OPTIONAL/// IN THE WORDS OF U-S OFFICIALS, THE DECISION BY THE NATO ALLIES IS ON A "FAST TRACK" ON WHETHER TO TAKE MILITARY ACTION TO FORCE SERBIAN COMPLIANCE WITH UNITED NATIONS DEMANDS FOR A CEASE FIRE./// END OPTIONAL ///

    SECRETARY ALBRIGHT SPENT MUCH OF SUNDAY BEFORE LEAVING FOR THE MIDDLE EAST TALKING BY TELEPHONE WITH EUROPEAN AND RUSSIAN LEADERS AND CONFERRING WITH U-N SECRETARY GENERAL KOFI ANNAN. THE SECRETARY GENERAL HAS REPORTED THAT SERB ACTION AGAINST CIVILIANS CONTINUED FOR AT LEAST A WEEK AFTER THE U-N ORDERED THE CEASE FIRE. MRS. ALBRIGHT CALLED IT A STRONG REPORT AND SAID THE ALLIES ARE INSISTING ON FULL COMPLIANCE BY YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, SOME OF WHOSE SECURITY FOURCES HAVE PULLED BACK.

    /// ALBRIGHT ACT ///

    SO THE CONVERSATIONS I HAD YESTERDAY WE WERE ALL VERY MUCH ON THE SAME TRACK. THAT WHAT MILOSEVIC WAS DOING, WE HAD TO MAKE CLEAR THAT IT WAS NOT REVERSABLE AND THAT IN FACT , HE HAS TO DO WHAT WE WERE TALKING ABOUT: PULL OUT THE FORCES, ALLOW HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE TO GO IN AND TRY TO GET TO THE NEGOTIATING TABLE AND COMPLY, BASICALLY.

    /// END ACT ///

    SHE SAID IF THERE IS NOT FULL COMPLIANCE NATO WILL CONSIDER THE NEXT STEP. THE NEXT STEP COULD BE WHAT IS CALLED AN ACTIVATION ORDER WHICH GIVES THE GO-AHEAD FOR MILITARY ACTION. BUT IT IS NOT CERTAIN (THAT NATO) MILITARY ACTION IS COMING. THE UNITED STATES SAYS IT WANTS A DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION SO HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE CAN BE PROVIDED TO THE THOUSANDS OF KOSOVAR ALBANIANS DISPLACED FROM THEIR HOMES.

    /// REST OPTIONAL ////

    IDEALLY, MOST OF THEM WOULD BE ABLE TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES ONCE THEY ARE CONVINCED DANGER OF SERB ASSAULTS IS PASSED. SECRETARY ALBRIGHT COULD BE ON HER WAY TO BRUSSELS BY THE END OF THE WEEK FOR A NATO DECISION ON WHETHER AIR ACTION WILL BE NECESSARY IN KOSOVO.(SIGNED)
    NEB/PT
    NEB/MGB/WDC
    05-Oct-98 9:35 PM EDT (0135 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] CHINA / KOSOVO (L-ONLY) BY STEPHANIE HO (BEIJING)

    DATE=10/6/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239753
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AS NATO CONTEMPLATES MILITARY INTERVENTION IN KOSOVO, CHINA SAYS IT IS AGAINST THE USE OF FORCE TO RESOLVE THE SITUATION. AS VOA'S STEPHANIE HO REPORTS, A CHINESE GOVERNMENT SPOKESMAN URGED DIALOGUE TO END THE KOSOVO CRISIS.

    TEXT: CHINESE FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESMAN ZHU BANGZAO -- SPEAKING THROUGH AN INTERPRETER -- EXPRESSED CHINA'S DEEP CONCERN WITH WHAT HE CALLED THE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE KOSOVO SITUATION.

    // ZHU INTERPRETER ACT //

    WE HAVE ALL ALONG OPPOSED THE USE OF FORCE AND THE THREAT TO USE FORCE IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS.

    // END ACT //

    MR. ZHU CALLED FOR AN OVERALL INVESTIGATION INTO THE SITUATION IN KOSOVO, AND ADDED THAT CHINA WANTS A NON-VIOLENT SOLUTION TO DISAGREEMENTS THERE.

    // ZHU INTERPRETER ACT //

    WE HOPE THE DIALOGUE CAN BE RESTORED AT AN EARLY DATE. WE BELIEVE THAT THE PEACEFUL RESOLUTION OF THE KOSOVO ISSUE THROUGH DIALOGUE, IN THE PREMISE OF RESPECT FOR THE SOVEREIGNTY AND TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY OF THE FEDERATION OF YUGOSLAVIA AND ENSURING THE RIGHTS AND BENEFITS OF ALL NATIONS IN YUGOSLAVIA, IS THE ONLY MEANS TO SOLVE THE KOSOVO ISSUE.

    // END ACT //

    EARLIER TUESDAY, FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESMAN TANG GUOQIANG SAID CHINA ALSO BELIEVES THAT SANCTIONS ARE NOT CONDUCIVE TO A SOLUTION.

    MR. TANG WAS BRIEFING REPORTERS ON TALKS BETWEEN BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR AND CHINESE PREMIER ZHU RONGJI. MR. BLAIR HAS BEEN A STAUNCH ADVOCATE OF NATO MILITARY STRIKES AGAINST SERB TARGETS IF YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC DOES NOT HALT VIOLENCE AGAINST ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN THE SERBIAN PROVINCE OF KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/HO/FC
    06-Oct-98 4:33 AM EDT (0833 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] CLINTON / KOSOVO (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=10/6/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239779
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION IS STEPPING UP DIPLOMATIC CONSULTATIONS ON THE KOSOVO CRISIS, WITH PRESIDENT CLINTON PERSONALLY WARNING YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC THAT TIME IS RUNNING OUT FOR ACTION TO AVERT NATO MILITARY STRIKES. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: MR. CLINTON CONFERRED BY TELEPHONE WITH BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR ON THE KOSOVO SITUATION. AND HE BEGAN A WASHINGTON ADDRESS TO THE WORLD BANK AND INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND WITH A NEW WARNING THAT NATO IS READY TO ACT TO FORCE COMPLIANCE BY BELGRADE WITH U-N KOSOVO RESOLUTIONS.

    /// CLINTON ACT ///

    NATO IS PREPARED TO ACT IF PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC FAILS TO HONOR THE UNITED NATIONS RESOLUTIONS. THE STAKES ARE HIGH. THE TIME IS NOW TO END THE VIOLENCE IN KOSOVO. I HOPE ALL OF YOU WILL DO WHATEVER YOU CAN TO THAT END.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. CLINTON CALLED KOSOVO A POWDER KEG IN THE BALKANS AND SPOKE OF A LOOMING HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE THIS COMING WINTER IF A SOLUTION IS NOT FOUND. WHITE HOUSE OFFICIALS SAID EARLIER THAT LIMITED WITHDRAWALS BY YUGOSLAV FORCES IN KOSOVO COME NOWHERE NEAR FULL COMPLIANCE WITH THE U-N RESOLUTIONS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/WTW
    06-Oct-98 12:34 PM EDT (1634 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] KOSOVO / HOLBROOKE (L ONLY) BY PHILIP SMUCKER (PRISTINA)

    DATE=10/6/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239771
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S SPECIAL ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE IS CONTINUING HIS EFFORTS TO BROKER A CEASEFIRE IN SERBIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE. PHILIP SMUCKER REPORTS MR. HOLBROOKE MET WITH KOSOVO OFFICIALS TUESDAY IN PRISTINA, THEN FLEW BACK TO BELGRADE FOR MORE DISCUSSIONS WITH SERB LEADERS.

    TEXT: THE U-S SPECIAL ENVOY IS HOLDING THE THREAT OF POSSIBLE NATO AIR STRIKES OVER THE HEAD OF THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT. BUT HE IS ALSO IS EXAMINING THE OPTION OF BEEFING UP THE WESTERN PRESENCE IN KOSOVO TO MONITOR A POSSIBLE CEASEFIRE BETWEEN SERBS AND ALBANIANS.

    U-S OFFICIALS SAID MR. HOLBROOKE ASKED AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN OBSERVERS IN KOSOVO TUESDAY HOW MANY MEN WOULD BE NEEDED TO MONITOR A CEASEFIRE IN KOSOVO. A U-S PLAN ALREADY EXISTS TO EXPAND THE CURRENT WESTERN MONITORING MISSION -- BASED MAINLY IN PRISTINA -- TO COVER ALL OF KOSOVO.

    A LARGER WESTERN PRESENCE TO MONITOR A CEASEFIRE AND END THE VIOLENCE IN KOSOVO IS CONSIDERED ONE ALTERNATIVE TO DIRECT WESTERN MILITARY INTERVENTION IN KOSOVO.

    WESTERN OBSERVERS FEAR THAT NATO BOMBING, MEANT TO PUNISH THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT FOR ITS VIOLENCE AGAINST ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO, COULD BACKFIRE AND LEAD TO REVENGE KILLINGS OF REFUGEES BY SERBIAN PARAMILITARY UNITS.

    U-S AND EUROPEAN OBSERVERS IN KOSOVO HAVE BEEN INSTRUMENTAL IN UNCOVERING SEVERAL ATROCITIES ALLEGEDLY CARRIED OUT BY SERB SECURITY FORCES. THE REPORTED ATROCITIES HAVE SPARKED INTERNATIONAL CONDEMNATION OF SERBIAN AUTHORITIES AND PROMPTED THE THREAT OF NATO AIR STRIKES.

    ONE WESTERN DIPLOMAT CAUTIONED THAT WHILE THE WESTERNERS COULD ACT AS A SHIELD FOR ETHNIC ALBANIANS, THEY ALSO COULD BE TAKEN HOSTAGE IF AND WHEN NATO DECIDED TO INTERVENE.

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAID EARLIER THAT YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC REMAINS UNCOMPROMISING IN HIS APPROACH TO THE KOSOVO CRISIS.

    IN PRISTINA, ETHNIC ALBANIAN LEADER IBRAHIM RUGOVA TOLD MR. HOLBROOKE THAT ETHNIC ALBANIANS FAVOR A NATO MISSION IN KOSOVO TO STOP THE SERB MILITARY AND TO KEEP THE PEACE IN KOSOVO.

    MR. RUGOVA AND MR. HOLBROOKE ARE CLOSE FRIENDS AND THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN LEADER HAS STRONG BACKING IN WASHINGTON FOR HIS NON-VIOLENT APPROACH TO THE SITUATION. BUT THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN LEADER HAS NO CONTROL OVER GUERRILLA FIGHTERS IN THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY, K-L-A.

    A NEW COMMUNIQUE FROM THE K-L-A'S GENERAL STAFF SAYS THAT THE TIME IS PAST FOR A PEACEFUL POLITICAL SOLUTION TO THE KOSOVO QUESTION AND THAT THE TIME HAS COME FOR A MILITARY AND POLITICAL SOLUTION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PS/JWH
    06-Oct-98 11:17 AM EDT (1517 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] KOSOVO - HOLBROOKE UPDATE (S/L) BY ART CHIMES (BELGRADE)

    DATE=10/5/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239743
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AMERICAN ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE HEADS FOR KOSOVO TODAY (TUESDAY) AFTER TALKS MONDAY WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. AS WE HEAR FROM V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES IN BELGRADE, IT COULD BE THE LAST DIPLOMATIC CHANCE TO AVOID NATO AIR STRIKES ON SERB MILITARY TARGETS AFTER MONTHS OF FIGHTING IN (SERBIA'S INDEPENDENCE-MINDED) KOSOVO PROVINCE.

    TEXT: THERE WAS LITTLE SIGN OF PROGRESS AFTER HOURS OF TALKS. IN A STATEMENT PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC SAID THE THREAT OF NATO ATTACK WAS ITSELF "A CRIMINAL ACT."

    MR. HOLBROOKE AS USUAL REFUSED TO COMMENT ON THE SPECIFICS OF HIS TALKS.

    //OPT-FOR SHORT ONLY //

    HE DID, HOWEVER, DESCRIBE THIS AS A DANGEROUS AND PARTICULARLY DIFFICULT MOMENT FOR THE REGION.

    //ENDOPT//

    // OPTIONAL HOLBROOKE ACTUALITY FOR LONG VERSION //

    WE NEVER DISCUSS WHETHER WE MAKE PROGRESS OR NOT, WE JUST KEEP GOING AND DO THE BEST WE CAN. THIS IS A DANGEROUS MOMENT IN THE REGION. WE'VE BEEN AT THESE DANGEROUS MOMENTS BEFORE. THIS ONE IS PARTICULARLY DIFFICULT.

    // END OPTIONAL ACTUALITY //

    THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL HAS CALLED ON BELGRADE TO WITHDRAW SERB FORCES FROM KOSOVO, BUT IN A REPORT ISSUED MONDAY SECRETARY GENERAL KOFI ANNAN SAID HE WAS UNABLE TO VERIFY IF YUGOSLAVIA HAS COMPLIED. NATO SAYS BELGRADE HAS NOT COMPLIED, BUT YUGOSLAVIA INSISTS IT HAS , AND INTERNATIONAL DIPLOMATIC OBSERVERS IN KOSOVO SAY SERBIAN FORCES HAVE LARGELY RETURNED TO THEIR BARRACKS.

    // REST OPTIONAL FOR LONG VERSION //

    AT NATO HEADQUARTERS IN BRUSSELS MONDAY, MR. HOLBROOKE SAID PREPARATION FOR POSSIBLE MILITARY ACTION IS "SERIOUS, INTENSE AND SUSTAINED."

    THE YUGOSLAV FEDERAL PARLIAMENT MET IN AN ALL-DAY SESSION AND IN THE END DECIDED NOT TO DECLARE AN IMMINENT THREAT OF WAR, WHICH WOULD HAVE REQUIRED CALLING-UP MILITARY RESERVISTS.

    SERB FORCES RECENTLY WOUND DOWN AN OFFENSIVE AGAINST SEPARATIST GUERRILLAS OF THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY, WHICH HAS BEEN FIGHTING FOR AN INDEPENDENT KOSOVO.

    IN THE PROCESS, HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF CIVILIANS HAVE BEEN DRIVEN FROM THEIR HOMES, AND MANY OF THEIR HOMES AND FARMS HAVE BEEN DESTROYED. TENS OF THOUSANDS REMAIN WITHOUT SHELTER AS THE HARSH BALKAN WINTER APPROACHES. HUMAN RIGHTS MONITORS SAY THE DESTRUCTION OF PROPERTY AMOUNTS TO ETHNIC CLEANSING AND WAS NOT NEEDED IN THE FIGHT AGAINST THE REBELS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/PT
    05-Oct-98 8:14 PM EDT (0014 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] KOSOVO-SENATE-COHEN-L BY JIM RANDLE (CAPITOL HILL)

    DATE=10/6/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239800
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN SAYS YUGOSLAVIA WILL HAVE TO DO MORE THAN PULL BACK A FEW TROOPS TO AVOID THREATENED NATO AIR STRIKES IN KOSOVO. THE POSSIBLE BOMBING CAMPAIGN SPARKED SHARP QUESTIONS FOR U-S MILITARY LEADERS AT A SENATE HEARING TUESDAY. MANY SENATORS SUPPORT THE AIR ATTACKS, BUT SEVERAL ALSO WORRY THAT U-S GROUND TROOPS WILL HAVE TO FOLLOW AMERICAN AIRPLANES INTO THE TROUBLED SERBIAN PROVINCE. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS FROM CAPITOL HILL.

    TEXT: MEMBERS OF THE SENATE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE SAY IF DIPLOMACY OR AIR STRIKES BRING A CEASE-FIRE TO KOSOVO, FOREIGN TROOPS WILL BE NEEDED TO MONITOR AND ENFORCE IT.

    TENS OF THOUSANDS OF KOSOVAR ALBANIANS FLED FIGHTING IN KOSOVO, AND ARE NOW FACING WINTER IN THE MOUNTAINS WITHOUT FOOD OR SHELTER. SENATOR JOHN WARNER SAYS NEUTRAL FOREIGN TROOPS WILL ALSO BE NEEDED TO ENSURE THAT HUMANITARIAN AID GETS TO THOSE WHO NEED IT.

    /// WARNER ACT ///

    THAT (AID) HAS TO BE BROUGHT IN BASICALLY BY CIVILIANS -- NON-GOVERNMENTAL INSTITUTIONS, BRINGING IN THE BEDS, BLANKETS, MEDICINE AND THE LIKE. AND THEY CAN NOT BE CONFRONTED BY AN INSECURE SITUATION. THEY HAVE NO ARMAMENTS.

    /// END ACT ///

    SENATOR OLYMPIA SNOWE SAYS SIMILAR U-S TROOP COMMITMENTS TO ENFORCE THE PEACE IN BOSNIA HAVE GONE ON FAR LONGER AND COST BILLIONS OF DOLLARS MORE THAN THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION TOLD CONGRESS TO EXPECT. AN ANGRY SENATOR JOHN MCCAIN ACCUSED SECRETARY OF DEFENSE WILLIAM COHEN OF MISLEADING THE SENATE ON THIS AND OTHER ISSUES. SECRETARY COHEN DENIED THE CHARGE.

    MR. COHEN SAYS THE BOSNIA COMMITMENT HAS PUT SUCH A STRONG POLITICAL STRAIN ON WASHINGTON THAT EUROPEAN TROOPS WILL HAVE TO DO ANY PEACE-KEEPING NEEDED IN KOSOVO.

    /// COHEN ACT ///

    IF A GROUND COMPONENT IS REQUIRED, IT IS MY RECOMMENDATION -- INSISTENCE -- THAT IT BE LARGELY, IF NOT WHOLLY EUROPEAN IN NATURE, GIVEN THE FACT THAT WE WILL BE CARRYING THE BULK OF THE LOAD AS FAR AS THE AIR (STRIKES ARE) CONCERNED.

    /// END ACT ///

    SECRETARY COHEN SAID LAST FRIDAY THAT AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAV MILITARY TARGETS IN KOSOVO AND ELSWHERE COULD COME WITHIN TWO WEEKS, INVOLVING HUNDREDS OF AIRCRAFT FROM ACROSS THE NATO ALLIANCE. THE UNITED STATES HAS AN AIRCRAFT CARRIER AND A NUMBER OF OTHER SHIPS NOT FAR FROM KOSOVO, ALONG WITH AIRCRAFT BASED IN ITALY AND GERMANY.

    A MAJORITY OF NATO NATIONS HAVE ALSO PLEDGED PLANES. TUESDAY, THE UNITED STATES TOOK ONE MORE FORMAL STEP TOWARD AIR STRIKES BY TELLING NATO COMMANDERS EXACTLY WHICH PLANES WOULD BE AVAILABLE FOR THE PROPOSED ATTACKS. AT THE HEARING, SECRETARY COHEN SAID THE ATTACKS COULD COST YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC A SUBSTANTIAL PORTION OF HIS MILITARY CAPABILITY.

    MANY YUGOSLAV FORCES HAVE BEEN ORDERED BACK TO THEIR BARRACKS IN AN APPARENT EFFORT TO PERSUADE NATO THAT AIR STRIKES ARE NOT NEEDED. BUT SECRETARY COHEN SAYS THE MILOSEVIC GOVERNMENT MUST ALSO ALLOW HUMANITARIAN AID TO REACH THE NEEDY, ALLOW DISPLACED PEOPLE TO GO HOME AND START SERIOUS TALKS WITH THE REBEL KOSOVAR ALBANIANS.

    /// REST OPT ///

    MORE THAN 900 PEOPLE HAVE BEEN KILLED, AND 300-THOUSAND HAVE FLED THEIR HOMES, SINCE FEBRUARY, WHEN YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES LAUNCHED AN OFFENSIVE AGAINST ALBANIANS SEEKING INDEPENDENCE FOR THE SERBIAN PROVINCE OF KOSOVO. SERBIA IS THE LARGEST REPUBLIC IN YUGOSLAVIA. NINETY PERCENT OF THE PEOPLE IN KOSOVO ARE ETHNIC ALBANIANS, BUT ETHNIC SERBS RULE KOSOVO. (SIGNED).
    NEB/JR/WDC
    06-Oct-98 4:57 PM EDT (2057 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] RUSSIA / KOSOVO (L) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (MOSCOW)

    DATE=10/6/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239772
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIAN OFFICIALS HAVE ONCE AGAIN STRONGLY CONDEMNED THE POSSIBILITY OF ANY NATO MILITARY STRIKE ON KOSOVO. V-O-A'S ANDRE DE NESNERA REPORTS FROM MOSCOW.

    TEXT: RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV SAYS MOSCOW WILL USE ITS VETO AT THE UNITED NATIONS TO OPPOSE AIR STRIKES AGAINST SERB MILITARY POSITIONS IN KOSOVO, IF THE ISSUE IS RAISED IN THE SECURITY COUNCIL. THE INTERFAX NEWS AGENCY QUOTES MR. IVANOV AS SAYING A MILITARY STRIKE WILL NOT HELP STABILIZE THE SITUATION THERE -- BUT RATHER ONLY AGGRAVATE TENSIONS.

    NATO OFFICIALS HAVE INDICATED THE WESTERN ALLIANCE'S MILITARY PREPARATIONS ARE VIRTUALLY COMPLETE, AND THE TIME FOR AIR STRIKES IS FAST APPROACHING. IN AN INTERVIEW WITH V-O-A, SENIOR NATO SPOKESMAN JAMIE SHEA MADE CLEAR A U-N SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION IS NOT NEEDED FOR AIR STRIKES TO TAKE PLACE.

    /// FIRST SHEA ACT ///

    OUR UNDERSTANDING IS A U-N SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION IS DESIRABLE -- IF IT CAN BE OBTAINED. BUT ON THE OTHER HAND, THAT CAN NOT BECOME A BLOCK ON NATO ACTION IF NATO ACTION IS URGENTLY REQUIRED TO STOP THE WAR IN KOSOVO AND TO PREVENT A HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. SHEA SAYS THE UNITED NATIONS HAS ALREADY STATED THE SITUATION IN KOSOVO IS A THREAT TO THE REGION'S PEACE AND SECURITY -- AND NATO ALREADY HAS A CLEAR MANDATE TO USE FORCE.

    /// SECOND SHEA ACT ///

    NATO WILL ACT ACCORDING TO INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STANDARDS, THAT IS CLEAR. BUT THE ACTUAL LEGAL BASIS IS SOMETHING THAT WILL BE DEFINED BY THE ALLIES THEMSELVES BEFORE ANY ACTION WOULD BEGIN.

    /// END ACT ///

    MEANWHILE, THE SPEAKER OF THE RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT'S LOWER HOUSE [THE DUMA] -- GENNADY SELEZNYOV -- REPEATED HIS STRONG OPPOSITION TO ANY NATO AIR STRIKES IN KOSOVO.

    /// SELEZNYOV ACT IN RUSSIAN, IN AND UNDER ///

    "IF AIR STRIKES BEGIN," MR. SELEZNYOV SAYS, "THE LOWER HOUSE WILL REACT IMMEDIATELY. WE WILL DEMAND THE SEVERANCE OF THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN RUSSIA AND NATO, AND OUR RELATIONS WITH THIS ALLIANCE WILL BECOME MUCH MORE COMPLICATED."

    MR. SELEZNYOV SAYS NATO AIR STRIKES WILL LEAD TO WAR -- AND YUGOSLAV FORCES WILL INEVITABLY RESPOND BY FIRING AT NATO PLANES.

    /// REST OPT ///

    THE PRESIDENT OF NEIGHBORING BELARUS, ALEXANDER LUKASHENKO, IS PROMISING MILITARY AID TO YUGOSLAVIA -- INCLUDING TROOPS. HE TOLD REPORTERS HIS COUNTRY'S CONSTITUTION DOES NOT FORBID SUCH MEASURES -- AND HE WENT ON TO SAY: "YUGOSLAVS CAN DEPEND ON US." (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/PCF/WTW
    06-Oct-98 11:24 AM EDT (1524 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] SERBIA / REACT (L ONLY) BY ART CHIMES (BELGRADE)

    DATE=10/6/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239778
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WITH THE THREAT OF NATO AIR STRIKES HANGING OVER YUGOSLAVIA BECAUSE OF THE COUNTRY'S ACTIONS IN KOSOVO, RESIDENTS OF BELGRADE ARE EXPRESSING CONCERN ABOUT THE SITUATION. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES HAS BEEN SAMPLING OPINION ON THE STREETS OF THE YUGOSLAV CAPITAL.

    TEXT: PEOPLE OUT ON THE STREETS OF BELGRADE ARE NORMALLY EAGER TO SHARE THEIR OPINIONS. BUT NOT TODAY. MOST PEOPLE WE ASKED ON THIS BEAUTIFUL, WARM AUTUMN DAY WERE NOT WILLING TO SPEAK. AND ONE EVEN SAID HE THOUGHT IT WAS FORBIDDEN TO TALK TO WESTERN RADIO STATIONS LIKE V-O-A.

    SOME ARE WILLING TO SPEAK, HOWEVER. A TELEPHONE REPAIRMAN NAMED ZELJIKO TERIC SAYS THAT LIKE ANY OTHER NORMAL PERSON, HE IS WORRIED ABOUT THE POSSIBILITY OF AN ATTACK. BUT HE SAYS THE UNITED NATIONS IS UNFAIRLY SINGLING OUT YUGOSLAVIA.

    /// TERIC ACTUALITY - IN SERBIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    IF THE BRITISH DID FOR 40 YEARS WHAT THEY DID IN NORTHERN IRELAND, HE ASKS, WHY CAN'T SERBIA DO THE SAME THING IN KOSOVO. AND IF AIR STRIKES ARE FOLLOWED UP WITH GROUND TROOPS -- AS SOME EXPERTS SAY WOULD BE NEEDED -- HE SAYS HE WOULD CONSIDER THEM TO BE AN OCCUPYING ENEMY TO BE FOUGHT IN ANY WAY POSSIBLE.

    ANOTHER PEDESTRIAN, A 25-YEAR OLD BOSNIAN SERB REFUGEE, SAYS HE THINKS YUGOSLAVIA HAS ONLY PARTLY COMPLIED WITH A UNITED NATIONS DEMAND FOR A WITHDRAWAL OF FORCES FROM KOSOVO, BUT SAID ANY DECISION TO PUNISH BELGRADE WOULD BE MADE, NOT BY ANY INTERNATIONAL BODY, BUT BY WASHINGTON ALONE.

    /// MAN ACTUALITY - IN SERBIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    I HEARD THAT RUSSIA WILL VETO ANY ACTION IN THE SECURITY COUNCIL, HE SAYS, BUT AMERICA WILL GO AHEAD ANYWAY IF THEY WANT TO. HE WENT ON TO SAY HE HOPES THAT IF THERE IS AN ATTACK IT WILL BE LIMITED TO MILITARY TARGETS. MEANWHILE, DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS CONTINUE TO TRY TO HEAD OFF THE POSSIBILITY OF MILITARY ACTION. THE HEAD OF THE NEW YORK-BASED INSTITUTE FOR TRANSITION TO DEMOCRACY, BOGDAN DENITCH, SAID THE WESTERN ALLIES ARE UP AGAINST A CLEVER POLITICIAN IN YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC.

    /// DENITCH ACTUALITY ///

    I THINK THAT THIS REGIME HAS BEEN EXTRAORDINARILY SMART IN FIGURING OUT WHEN THE WEST IS BLUFFING. I THINK BASICALLY MILOSEVIC HAS SAID, LOOK I WANT TO SEE WHAT YOU GUYS ARE READY TO PUT UP. HE HAS BACKED DOWN A LITTLE, BUT NOT ENOUGH.

    /// OPT ///

    I MEAN THE FACT IS I, IF I WAS AN ALBANIAN, WOULD ACCEPT NO SETTLEMENT THAT COULD BE REVERSED BY BELGRADE TOMORROW MORNING. THERE HAS TO BE INTERNATIONAL GUARANTEES. INTERNATIONAL GUARANTEES CANNOT EXIST UNLESS THERE IS A MILITARY PRESENCE OR A POLICE PRESENCE IN KOSOVO. /// END OPT ///

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    BACK OUTSIDE, A PENSIONER SITTING ON A BENCH ALONG BELGRADE'S MAIN PEDESTRIAN STREET (KNEZ MIHAJILOVA) SAYS THE WORLD DOES NOT UNDERSTAND SERBIA.

    /// OPT // WOMAN ACTUALITY - IN SERBIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    /// OPT ///

    WE'RE A SMALL COUNTRY, SHE SAYS, AND A THORN IN EVERYONE'S EYE. WE NEVER ATTACK ANYONE. WE ONLY DEFEND OURSELVES, SHE SAYS. AND THAT'S WHY EVERYONE HATES US. A SMALL COUNTRY, SHE REPEATS, BUT STRONG. /// END OPT ///

    THE WOMAN AND HER FRIEND SAY THEY HOPE FOR AND EXPECT A DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION. I ASKED FOR THEIR OCCUPATION.

    /// WOMEN ACTUALITY - IN SERBIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    PATRIOTS, THEY SAY, WHO LOVE THIS COUNTRY AND WOULD NOT GIVE IT UP FOR ANYTHING IN THE WORLD. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/JWH
    06-Oct-98 12:36 PM EDT (1636 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [09] U-N-H-C-R BOSNIA (L-ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=10/6/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239766
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS REFUGEE AGENCY, U-N-H-C-R, SAYS IT IS APPALLED BY THE LATEST OUTBREAK OF VIOLENCE DIRECTED AT MUSLIMS TRYING TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES IN CROAT-CONTROLLED AREAS OF BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA. LISA SCHLEIN IN GENEVA REPORTS THE AGENCY CONSIDERS THIS A SERIOUS SETBACK FOR THE REFUGEE RETURN PROGRAM.

    TEXT: THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY SAYS SEVERAL SERIOUS INCIDENTS SOUTH OF THE TOWN OF MOSTAR EARLIER THIS MONTH HAVE INCREASED TENSIONS BETWEEN THE CROATS AND MUSLIMS. IN ONE INCIDENT, THE AGENCY REPORTS CROATS BLOCKED A ROAD TO TRY TO PREVENT A GROUP OF 50 MUSLIMS FROM RETURNING TO THEIR HOMES IN THE TOWN OF TASOVCICI. THE AGENCY SAYS SEVERAL DAYS LATER, ROCKET PROPELLED GRENADES WERE HURLED AT A HOUSE OCCUPIED BY SIX MUSLIMS.

    U-N-H-C-R SPOKESMAN, KRIS JANOWSKI SAYS FORTUNATELY, NO ONE WAS KILLED. BUT, CONSIDERABLE DAMAGE WAS DONE. HE SAYS THE MOST SERIOUS INCIDENT OCCURRED OCTOBER SECOND WHEN A GRENADE WAS THROWN AT A HOUSE WHERE DISPLACED BOSNIAN MUSLIMS WERE STAYING. HE SAYS ONE PERSON WAS KILLED AND THREE OTHERS WERE INJURED.

    ///JANOWSKI ACT///

    IT IS REALLY SAD TO REPORT THAT PEOPLE RETURNING TO THEIR HOMES ARE STILL BEING KILLED IN ATTACKS NEARLY THREE YEARS AFTER THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT WAS SIGNED.

    ///END ACT///

    THE 1995 DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT DIVIDED BOSNIA INTO A SERB REPUBLIC AND A MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION. UNDER THE AGREEMENT, REFUGEES AND INTERNALLY DISPLACED PEOPLE ARE GUARANTEED THE RIGHT TO RETURN TO THE HOMES THEY FLED DURING THE WAR. BUT, CONTINUING HOSTILITY AMONG THE THREE ETHNIC GROUPS (CROATS, MUSLIMS AND SERBS) HAS PREVENTED MOST OF THE REFUGEES FROM RETURNING TO AREAS WHERE THEY ARE IN THE MINORITY. MR. JANOWSKI SAYS THE SITUATION IS PARTICULARLY BAD IN CROAT-CONTROLLED AREAS. HE SAYS THESE LATEST INCIDENTS WILL FURTHER DISCOURAGE MUSLIMS FROM GOING BACK HOME.

    ///SECOND JANOWSKI ACT///

    THEY (MUSLIMS) HAVE RETURNED UNDER PROTECTION AND UNDER HUGE PRESSURE FROM THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY. THE BOSNIAN CROATS ... SEEM TO BE VERY PERSISTENT IN REFUSING TO GIVE THE MINORITIES AT LEAST A FAIR AND REASONABLE WELCOME AND TO TREAT THEM ON AN EQUAL FOOTING.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. JANOWSKI CALLS THE ATMOSPHERE IN THE CROAT AREAS DENSE WITH HOSTILITY. HE SAYS CROATS HAVE BEEN ATTACKING MUSLIM RETURNEES ON A REGULAR BASIS. ALTHOUGH THE MUSLIMS WANT TO RETAIN THEIR HOMES, MR. JANOWSKI SAYS THEY ARE VERY FEARFUL. AND, HE SAYS, MANY ARE THINKING OF LEAVING. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/PCF
    06-Oct-98 9:55 AM EDT (1355 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] TURKEY-SYRIA (L) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=10/6/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239783
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: EGYPTIAN PRESIDENT HOSNI MUBARAK HEADED BACK TO DAMASCUS TUESDAY ON WHAT BECAME THE THIRD LEG OF A MEDIATING MISSION, AIMED AT DEFUSING A POTENTIAL CONFLICT BETWEEN TURKEY AND SYRIA. AS AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA, THE EGYPTIAN LEADER LEFT FOR SYRIA AFTER THREE HOURS OF CLOSED DOOR TALKS IN THE TURKISH CAPITAL WITH PRESIDENT SULEYMAN DEMIREL.

    TEXT: SPEAKING TO REPORTERS BEFORE LEAVING FOR DAMASCUS, EGYPTIAN FOREIGN MINISTER AMR MOUSSA SAID HE WAS HOPEFUL THAT HIS PRESIDENT COULD HELP DEFUSE THE ESCALATING CRISIS BETWEEN TURKEY AND SYRIA. BUT HE DECLINED TO COMMENT FURTHER.

    TURKISH OFFICIALS CLOSE TO THE TALKS SAID NO BREAKTHROUGH HAD BEEN ACHIEVED DURING PRESIDENT MUBARAK'S VISIT TUESDAY. RATHER, THEY SAID THE EGYPTIAN LEADER WAS PRESENTED WITH TURKISH INTELLIGENCE REPORTS PROVING WHAT THEY TERMED SYRIA'S SUPPORT FOR REBELS OF THE SEPARATIST KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY, THE P-K-K.

    THESE REPORTEDLY INCLUDE PHOTOS SHOWING THE P-K-K LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN IN DAMASCUS AND MAPS OF P-K-K BASES IN NORTHERN SYRIA AND THE SYRIAN-CONTROLLED BEKAA VALLEY.

    MR. DEMIREL ALSO REPORTEDLY ASKED MR. MUBARAK TO RELAY TURKEY'S DEMANDS THAT SYRIA HAND OVER THE P-K-K LEADER AND SHUT DOWN ALL P-K-K CAMPS IN ITS TERRITORY. HE ALSO CALLED ON SYRIA TO WITHDRAW ITS TERRITORIAL CLAIMS ON HATAY, A TURKISH PROVINCE ON THE SYRIAN BORDER.

    JUST HOURS BEFORE MR. MUBARAK'S ARRIVAL, TURKISH PRIME MINISTER MESUT YILMAZ DELIVERED WHAT HE DESCRIBED AS TURKEY'S LAST WARNING FOR SYRIA TO COMPLY WITH ITS DEMANDS. THE TURKISH PRESIDENT EARLIER WARNED HIS COUNTRY RESERVED THE RIGHT TO USE, AS HE PUT IT, "ALL NECESSARY MEANS" IF SYRIA DID NOT END IS SUPPORT FOR KURDISH REBELS.

    IN A STATEMENT ISSUED TUESDAY, THE SYRIAN EMBASSY IN ANKARA BLAMED WHAT IT TERMED TURKEY'S MILITARY ALLIANCE WITH ISRAEL FOR THE CURRENT CRISIS AND REJECTED CLAIMS THAT SYRIA WAS SUPPORTING THE P-K-K.

    //REST OPT//

    RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND THE ARAB WORLD IN GENERAL HAS DETERIORATED FOLLOWING A MILITARY COOPERATION AGREEMENT IT SIGNED TWO YEARS AGO WITH ISRAEL. MANY ARAB OFFICIALS AGREE WITH SYRIA'S CHARGE THAT TURKEY'S NEWLY HAWKISH STANCE IS ROOTED IN DEEPENING TIES WITH THE JEWISH STATE. TURKEY DENIES THERE IS ANY LINK BETWEEN ITS RELATIONS WITH ISRAEL AND ITS RECENT THREATS TO USE FORCE AGAINST SYRIA.

    HOSTILITY BETWEEN TURKEY AND SYRIA DATES BACK TO THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE, WHEN SYRIA WAS UNDER TURKISH RULE. BUT ANALYSTS SAY THAT FAILURE BY TURKEY AND SYRIA TO AGREE ON THE STATUS OF THE EUPHRATES RIVER IS AT THE CORE OF THE CURRENT TENSIONS BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES. DAMASCUS HAS BEEN PRESSING ANKARA TO SIGN AN AGREEMENT TO SHARE THE WATERS ON WHICH SYRIAN AGRICULTURE HEAVILY RELIES. ANKARA SAYS IT RELEASES MORE THAN ENOUGH WATER DOWNSTREAM AND HAS NOTHING TO DISCUSS UNTIL SYRIA ENDS IT SUPPORT FOR THE P-K-K.

    TURKEY HAS SPENT NEARLY 100-BILLION DOLLARS ON ITS 14-YEAR-LONG MILITARY CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE P-K-K. THE CONFLICT HAS CLAIMED NEARLY 40-THOUSAND LIVES. THE P-K-K'S VICTIMS INCLUDE WOMEN AND BABIES BELONGING TO KURDISH TRIBES WHICH ARE FIGHTING ON THE SIDE OF THE TURKISH STATE.

    MOST WESTERN MILITARY ANALYSTS DISCOUNT THE POSSIBILITY OF A LAND WAR BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES. RATHER, THEY SAY, TURKEY WILL LIKELY CARRY OUT SURGICAL AIR STRIKES AGAINST P-K-K TARGETS IN SYRIA AND LEBANON. ANALYSTS ADD THAT SYRIA IS MILITARILY NO MATCH FOR TURKEY, WHICH HAS NATO'S SECOND LARGEST ARMY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/PCF
    06-Oct-98 1:40 PM EDT (1740 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=10/6/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239806
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE GENERALLY DOWN TODAY (TUESDAY) ALTHOUGH THE LEADING U-S STOCK INDEX DID POST A MODEST GAIN. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 77 HUNDRED 42, UP 16 POINTS. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT NINE HUNDRED 84, DOWN FOUR POINTS.

    THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE SOARED BY MORE THAN 150 POINTS EARLY IN THE SESSION BUT THEN FELL BACK AND THE OTHER MAJOR AVERAGES LAGGED BEHIND ALL DAY. ANALYSTS SAY THERE IS STILL A LOT OF NERVOUSNESS ON WALL STREET ABOUT GLOBAL FINANCIAL CONDITIONS. THERE WAS ALSO SOME FRUSTRATION THAT LEADERS OF THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND AND WORLD BANK DID NOT DEVELOP A COMPREHENSIVE SOLUTION TO WORLD ECONOMIC PROBLEMS AT THEIR MEETING IN WASHINGTON.

    AT THE MEETING, PRESIDENT CLINTON URGED POLICY-MAKERS IN EVERY NATION TO PROMOTE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SAID "URGENT STEPS" ARE NEEDED TO STOP THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS FROM SPREADING.

    ///REST OPT///

    HARVEY HIRSCHHORN OF THE STEIN ROE AND FARNHAM INVESTMENT FIRM, SAYS STOCK MARKET TRADERS ARE ALSO STARTING TO FOCUS CLOSELY ON CORPORATE EARNINGS.

    ///HIRSCHHORN ACT///

    THE KEY TO THE STOCK MARKET RIGHT NOW IS CORPORATE PROFITS AND THE PROSPECTS OF PROFITS. THEY HAVE BEEN SCALED DOWN FOR A VARIETY OF REASONS. ONE IS THE IMPACT OF THE FINANCIAL WOES AROUND THE WORLD, THE OTHER IS THE EXPECTATION THAT U-S GROWTH WILL BE MORE MODERATE NEXT YEAR THAN IT WAS LAST YEAR.

    ///END ACT///

    THE MOTOROLA ELECTRONICS COMPANY WENT AGAINST THE GENERAL TREND BY REPORTING BETTER-THAN-EXPECTED PROFITS AND ITS STOCK PRICE ROSE BY ABOUT 12 PERCENT. THE COMPANY SAYS ITS RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM, WHICH INCLUDED THE ELIMINATION OF 15 THOUSAND JOBS, IS STARTING TO PAY OFF.

    GENERAL MOTORS, THE WORLD'S LARGEST AUTOMAKER, IS TAKING A MAJOR STEP TO CONSOLIDATE ITS WORLDWIDE OPERATIONS. G-M WILL COMBINE ITS INTERNATIONAL AND NORTH AMERICAN DIVISIONS INTO ONE UNIT TO BE CALLED G-M AUTOMOTIVE OPERATIONS. RICHARD WAGONER, WHO NOW HEADS G-M'S NORTH AMERICAN OPERATIONS, WILL LEAD THE NEW UNIT. ANALYSTS SAY THE MOVE IS AN EFFORT TO MAKE G-M MORE COMPETITIVE WITH THE MERGING DAIMLER-CHRYSLER CORPORATION AND THE GROWING INTERNATIONAL PRESENCE OF THE FORD MOTOR COMPANY. WAL-MART, THE WORLD'S LARGEST RETAIL CHAIN, SAYS ITS SALES CONTINUE TO GROW WITH SALES AT EXISTING STORES GAINING ALMOST 10 PERCENT IN SEPTEMBER. WAL-MART SAYS IT PLANS TO OPEN OR REMODEL ALMOST 300 STORES NEXT YEAR, INCLUDING ABOUT 80 NEW STORES IN ASIA AND LATIN AMERICA.

    BUT OFFICEMAX, A MAJOR U-S OFFICE SUPPLY CHAIN, IS WARNING THAT ITS PROFITS WILL FALL BELOW EXPECTATIONS. THE COMPANY BLAMES FALLING DEMAND FOR COMPUTERS AND OTHER OFFICE MACHINERY.(SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/PT
    06-Oct-98 5:17 PM EDT (2117 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/06/98
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10944
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    ////

    EDS: PERISHABLE MATERIAL, DATED AFTER 10 P-M E - D - T ! !

    ////

    INTRO: FOR ONLY THE THIRD TIME IN THIS NATION'S HISTORY, THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES HAS VOTED TO BEGIN A FORMAL IMPEACHMENT HEARING AGAINST THE PRESIDENT. THE NATION'S PRESS IS FILLED WITH COMMENTS ABOUT THE MONDAY PROCEEDINGS. IN ADDITION, THERE ARE COMMENTS ABOUT THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND AND WORLD BANK ANNUAL MEETINGS, WHERE TOP OFFICERS TRY TO FIGURE OUT WHAT TO DO ABOUT THE WORLD'S ECONOMIC ILLS. OTHER EDITORIALS DEAL WITH THE VIOLENCE IN KOSOVO PROVINCE; GERMANY'S NEW LEADER; AND THE AFTERMATH OF A KILLING IN TEXAS. NOW, HERE IS ________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK AND SOME QUOTES IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: AS EXPECTED THE HOUSE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE, CONTROLLED BY THE REPUBLICANS, VOTED TO BEGIN FORMAL IMPEACHMENT PROCEEDINGS AGAINST PRESIDENT CLINTON. THAT DOES NOT MEAN THAT HE WILL - - IN FACT - - BE IMPEACHED, BECAUSE THERE IS A WIDESPREAD BELIEF THAT THE SENATE, WHICH HAS THE FINAL VOTE, WILL NOT IMPEACH HIM. "THE BOSTON GLOBE" IS PLEASED WITH THE FAIRNESS AND PACE OF THE PROCEEDINGS.

    VOICE: AS CHAIR OF THE HOUSE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE, REPRESENTATIVE HENRY ... HYDE OF ILLINOIS IS EARNING HIGH MARKS FOR MOVING THE CLINTON-LEWINSKY INVESTIGATION ALONG WITH BOTH PACE AND INSIGHT. 'YOU HAVE TO LOOK AT THESE THINGS IN CONTEXT,' [MR.] HYDE SAID SUNDAY - - WISE ADVICE FOR EVERYONE ON CAPITOL HILL ... THE KEY POINT HERE IS THAT THE IMPEACHMENT OF A PRESIDENT IS NOT AT ITS CORE A LEGAL ISSUE BUT A POLITICAL ONE, BROADLY DEFINED. ... NOW IT IS UP TO CONGRESS ... TO PUSH INDEPENDENT COUNSEL KENNETH STARR TO FURNISH ANY EVIDENCE HE HAS OF OTHER POTENTIAL OFFENSES AND THEN CLOSE SHOP ..... AND THEN, CALMLY BUT PROMPTLY ... PUT IT ALL IN CONTEXT, ASKING WHETHER THE FACTS ... JUSTIFY ENDING A PRESIDENCY.

    TEXT: TAKING A VERY DIFFERENT VIEW OF THE PROCEEDINGS IS "THE [NEW YORK] DAILY NEWS," COMPARES THE PROCEEDINGS TO AN OVERBLOWN PLAY.

    VOICE: THE PERFORMANCE HAD ALL THE BEFITTING SOUND BITES AND FURY. FISTS POUNDED, RHETORIC RANG, AND SNIPPETS OF FOUNDING FATHER WISDOM ROLLED OFF THE TONGUES OF THE HOUSE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE PLAYERS. BUT IT WAS ALL A BIT ANTICLIMACTIC. WITH REPUBLICANS HOLDING A ... MAJORITY ON THE COMMITTEE, THE OUTCOME WAS KNOWN FROM THE START. ... AT THIS POINT, ONLY CONGRESS SEEMS CONFUSED. THE PUBLIC HAS MADE UP ITS MIND. AT LEAST FOR NOW, NOTHING HAS EMERGED TO CONTRADICT A NEW YORK TIMES / CBS NEWS POLL FROM SEPTEMBER 25 THAT FOUND A STAGGERING 53 PERCENT OF THE ELECTORATE WOULD BE SATISFIED IF NO ACTION WERE TAKEN AGAINST THE PRESIDENT. ... CENSURE IS THE WORD MOST AMERICANS WANT TO HEAR, NOT IMPEACHMENT.

    TEXT: "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" PLEADS IN ITS EDITORIAL HEADLINE, "LET'S NOT DRAG THIS OUT," WHILE "THE WASHINGTON TIMES" HEADLINES ITS COMMENTARY "FIFTEEN SERIOUS COUNTS," REFERRING TO THE CHARGES LAID OUT BY THE REPUBLICAN COUNSEL TO THE COMMITTEE. HOWEVER, IN BALTIMORE, "THE SUN" SAYS THE HOUSE IS MOVING AHEAD CONTRARY TO THE WISHES OF A POPULAR MAJORITY.

    VOICE: /// OPT /// THE PARTISAN DRIVE IN THE HOUSE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE TO INQUIRE INTO POSSIBLE IMPEACHMENT OF PRESIDENT CLINTON IS BILLED BY SOME AS PAYBACK FOR WATERGATE. ... BUT /// END OPT /// THIS INQUIRY IS N O WATERGATE. CRIMES AGAINST PRESIDENT NIXON'S CRITICS AND ELECTION OPPONENTS WERE BEHIND WATERGATE. IT DEALT WITH PRESIDENTIAL CORRUPTION OF FEDERAL AGENCIES TO ACHIEVE THAT PURPOSE. ..... IN THE CURRENT TRAVESTY, INDEPENDENT COUNSEL KENNETH STARR .... DELIVERED ... A SALACIOUS STEW ABOUT A SEX SCANDAL AND IMMORAL BEHAVIOR, GOING WHERE NO INVESTIGATOR HAD GONE BEFORE WITH PAST PRESIDENTS. HIS CHARGES, IF TRUE ..... DO NOT COME CLOSE TO CONSTITUTIONAL HIGH CRIMES AND MISDEMEANORS.

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE WORLD'S ECONOMIC CRISIS, AND THE ANNUAL MEETINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND AND WORLD BANK UNDERWAY HERE IN WASHINGTON, "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" COMMENTS:

    VOICE: FOR MUCH THE SAME REASON THAT RUNAWAY TRAIN MOVIES FASCINATE AUDIENCES, THE SPREADING GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS HAS GRABBED PUBLIC ATTENTION IN A WAY THE DISMAL SCIENCE SELDOM DOES. THE PLOT LOOKS SIMPLE: WILL ALAN GREENSPAN ... CRAWL OVER THE ROOF OF THE ENGINE, NIP IN THE WINDOW, AND APPLY THE BRAKES BEFORE PASSENGER COACHES BRAZIL, EUROPE, AND THE U-S PLUNGE OVER THE BROKEN TRESTLE AFTER THE ORIENT EXPRESS? THAT'S TOO SIMPLE. WHAT'S NEEDED IS TO HALT THE CRISIS IN BRAZIL, THEN STIMULATE GROWTH IN JAPAN, THE U-S, AND EUROPE. ... WE HAVE LONG URGED PLANNING FOR A BETTER GLOBAL SYSTEM - - INCLUDING A REAL CENTRAL BANK FOR CENTRAL BANKS AND A GLOBAL ANTITRUST BODY TO KEEP THE PLAYING FIELD BOTH OPEN AND LEVEL. WE HOPE THE MAJOR FINANCE MINISTERS AND CENTRAL BANKERS WILL PERSIST IN THIS QUEST. BUT FOR THE MOMENT THEIR TASK IS TO HALT THE RUNAWAY [TRAIN].

    TEXT: REGARDING THE VIOLENCE IN KOSOVO PROVINCE, "THE WASHINGTON POST" EXPRESSES ITS FRUSTRATION ABOUT THE SLOW PACE OF ACTION AGAINST YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC.

    VOICE: NATO CANNOT DANCE AT THE END OF A SERBIAN STRING. THE RIGHT HUMANITARIAN COURSE IS TO HELP KOSOVO'S REFUGEES GO HOME. THE RIGHT MILITARY COURSE IS TO BE HARD-NOSED IN JUDGING SERBIAN COMPLIANCE AND TO PREPARE TO DESTROY THE MILITARY INFRASTRUCTURE SUPPORTING GENOCIDAL ATTACKS ON KOSOVARS. THE RIGHT POLITICAL COURSE IS TO PREPARE A NEGOTIATION THAT IN TIME WILL LET DEMOCRATIC KOSOVARS PARTICIPATE IN SHAPING THEIR OWN DESTINY.

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" HAS THESE THOUGHTS ON GERMANY'S NEW CHANCELLOR, GERHARD SCHROEDER.

    VOICE: HE CAME OF AGE WHEN GERMANY WAS ALREADY AN ECONOMIC WONDER, NO LONGER DEPENDENT ON AMERICAN CARE PACKAGES. HIS GENERATION IS ALSO MORE DISTANT FROM THE SHAME OF THE NAZI PAST, FREER TO FOCUS ON THE FUTURE. THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC VICTORY ALSO REFLECTS A GEOGRAPHIC SHIFT, AWAY FROM MR. KOHL'S BASE IN THE CONSERVATIVE RHINELAND SURROUNDING BONN TO THE NEW EASTERN SATES. FITTINGLY, THE NEW GOVERNMENT WILL LEAVE BONN NEXT YEAR AND RE-ESTABLISH THE CAPITAL IN BERLIN.

    TEXT: DOMESTICALLY AGAIN, "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" HAS AN EDITORIAL ABOUT A SMALL TEXAS TOWN WHERE A BLACK MAN WAS KILLED BY A GROUP OF WHITES. THE PAPER SAYS THERE ARE SIGNS THAT SOME GOOD MAY COME OUT OF THE RACIST MURDER.

    VOICE: TERRIBLE EVENTS CAN SOMETIMES LEAD TO PROGRESS, IF PEOPLE ARE READY TO LEARN AND CHANGE. A CASE IN POINT IS THE TEXAS TOWN OF JASPER, POPULATION 85-HUNDRED. ..... THE COMMUNITY, ROUGHLY HALF WHITE, HALF BLACK, HAS ORGANIZED ITSELF INTO AN INTENSE, UNDERSTANDABLY MORE CLEARLY FOCUSED VERSION OF THE RACIAL DIALOGUE SOUGHT BY PRESIDENT CLINTON AND OTHERS AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL. ... THE TOWN HAS BEEN TAKING A HARD LOOK AT ITSELF, AND FROM REPORTS SUCH AS A RECENT FRONT-PAGE ARTICLE IN THE WALL STREET JOURNAL, IT APPEARS MANY RESIDENTS ARE GENUINELY SEARCHING THEIR HEARTS. ... THIS ISN'T AN EASY, OR BLITHELY IDEALISTIC, UNDERTAKING. .... BUT JASPER IS FIGHTING A GOOD FIGHT ON THE SIDE OF COMMUNITY WHOLENESS. ... THEIR EXAMPLE BEARS WATCHING AND SUPPORT.

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF THE EDITORIALS IN TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/KL
    06-Oct-98 10:52 AM EDT (1452 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] EDITORIAL: SLOVAK ELECTIONS

    DATE= OCTOBER 7, 1998
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-07996
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE SECOND OF TWO EDITORIALS BEING RELEASED FOR
    BROADCAST OCTOBER 7, 1998.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    SLOVAKS RECENTLY WENT TO THE POLLS TO ELECT A NEW PARLIAMENT. EIGHTY-FIVE PERCENT OF THE ELECTORATE TURNED OUT. A MAJORITY CAST THEIR BALLOTS FOR ONE OF FOUR PRO-DEMOCRACY PARTIES. PRIME MINISTER VLADIMIR MECIAR'S PARTY WON TWENTY-SEVEN PERCENT OF THE VOTE, MORE THAN ANY OTHER PARTY. BUT MR. MECIAR'S PARTY AND ITS PARTNERS LOST TOO MUCH GROUND TO BE ABLE TO RENEW THEIR COALITION. MR. MECIAR HAS RULED SLOVAKIA WITH AN AUTHORITARIAN HAND FOR VIRTUALLY ALL OF ITS SIX YEARS OF INDEPENDENCE. NOW HE HAS ANNOUNCED THAT HE WILL RESIGN AS PRIME MINISTER. HIS PARTY WILL HOLD ONLY FORTY-THREE SEATS IN THE ONE-HUNDRED-FIFTY SEAT PARLIAMENT. THE OPPOSITION PARTIES WON NINETY-THREE SEATS COMBINED.

    THE ELECTION RESULTS MADE CLEAR THE DESIRE OF MOST SLOVAKS FOR DEMOCRATIZATION AND INTEGRATION INTO WESTERN INSTITUTIONS. UNDER THE MECIAR GOVERNMENT, REFORM STAGNATED. THE GOVERNMENT FLOUTED THE RULE OF LAW AND RESPECT FOR DEMOCRACY. AS A CONSEQUENCE, SLOVAKIA'S APPLICATIONS FOR MEMBERSHIP IN NATO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION WERE PUT ON HOLD.

    THE DEMOCRATS WON AN IMPRESSIVE VICTORY, CONSIDERING THEIR DISADVANTAGE DURING THE CAMPAIGN IN STATE-CONTROLLED MEDIA COVERAGE. ACCORDING TO THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE, VOTING WAS CONDUCTED IN AN ORDERLY MANNER. NONETHELESS, THE U.S. AGREES WITH THE O-S-C-E THAT ASPECTS OF THE OVERALL ELECTORAL PROCESS WERE NOT CONSISTENT WITH INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS. IN PARTICULAR, THE U.S. WAS CONCERNED ABOUT STEPS TAKEN THAT APPEARED TO FAVOR THE INCUMBENT PARTY. THEY INCLUDED PASSAGE OF A NEW ELECTION LAW ONLY SIXTY DAYS BEFORE ELECTIONS; VAGUE RULES ABOUT THE ROLE OF PRIVATE MEDIA DURING THE OFFICIAL CAMPAIGN PERIOD; AND LACK OF PROVISIONS FOR DOMESTIC OBSERVERS. A FINAL ASSESSMENT OF THE ELECTION WILL HAVE TO WAIT UNTIL A NEW GOVERNMENT TAKES OFFICE.

    DESPITE THE PROBLEMS, THE UNITED STATES BELIEVES THE ELECTION WAS A CLEAR STATEMENT OF THE DESIRE OF THE SLOVAK PEOPLE FOR CHANGE. THE U.S. URGES ALL CONCERNED TO MAKE THE TRANSFER OF POWER TO A NEW GOVERNMENT IN AN ORDERLY AND EXPEDITIOUS FASHION.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT. IF YOU HAVE A COMMENT, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, V-O-A, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO COMMENT AT WWW-DOT-VOA-DOT-GOV-SLASH-EDITORIALS, OR FAX US AT (202) 619-1043.
    06-Oct-98 4:47 PM EDT (2047 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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