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Voice of America, 98-11-19

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] SERBS / CHEMICAL WEAPONS (L ONLY) BY LAUREN COMITEAU (THE HAGUE)
  • [02] U-N / KOSOVO (L - ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [03] TURKEY / KURDS / ITALY (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [04] TURKEY / TERRORISM BY CHALLISS MCDONOUGH (WASHINGTON)
  • [05] TURKEY POLITICS (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [06] KEEPING REFUGEES OUT, PART 1: KOSOVARS BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)
  • [07] KEEPING REFUGEES OUT, PART 2: KURDS BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)
  • [08] KEEPING REFUGEES OUT, PART 3: ALGERIANS BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)
  • [09] CZECH / FRANCE (L ONLY) BY ART CHIMES (PRAGUE)
  • [10] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [11] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] SERBS / CHEMICAL WEAPONS (L ONLY) BY LAUREN COMITEAU (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=11/19/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-241907
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A HUMAN RIGHTS GROUP HAS CALLED ON INVESTIGATORS AT THE YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL TO LOOK INTO CHARGES THAT SERBS USED CHEMICAL WEAPONS AGAINST MUSLIMS DURING THE BOSNIAN WAR. LAUREN COMITEAU REPORTS FROM THE HAGUE.

    TEXT: IN ITS REPORT RELEASED THURSDAY, HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH SAYS IT DOES NOT HAVE CONCLUSIVE EVIDENCE THAT CHEMICALS WERE USED SUCH AS PHYSICAL TRACES IN SHELLS OR CLOTHING. THE GROUP SAYS IT NEEDS INTERNATIONAL HELP TO PROVE THAT SERBS USED CHEMICAL WEAPONS AGAINST BOSNIAN MUSLIMS WHO WERE TRYING TO FLEE SREBRENICA.

    THE SO-CALLED U-N SAFE-HAVEN OF SREBRENICA WAS OVERRUN BY SERBS IN 1995. THOUSANDS OF MUSLIM MEN AND BOYS ARE STILL MISSING AND BELIEVED DEAD. THOUSANDS OF OTHERS WERE FORCED TO FLEE.

    AFTER TALKING TO ABOUT 35 SREBRENICA SURVIVORS -- AS WELL AS TO INTERNATIONAL WORKERS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA -- HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH SAYS IT BELIEVES THERE IS ENOUGH CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE TO WARRANT FURTHER INVESTIGATION.

    SPECIFICALLY, IT SAYS, THOSE WHO SURVIVED SERB ATTACKS CONSISTENTLY DESCRIBED MORTAR SHELLS THAT PRODUCED A STRANGE SMOKE, ONE THAT SPREAD OUT SLOWLY. SURVIVORS SAY THAT SOME PEOPLE THEN BEGAN TO HALLUCINATE AND ACT IRRATIONALLY, KILLING THEMSELVES OR THEIR FRIENDS.

    HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH SAYS IT BELIEVES THE CHEMICAL USED WAS B-Z -- A NON-LETHAL AGENT THAT INCAPACITATES PEOPLE. IT IS A CHEMICAL THE GROUP SAYS THE ARMY OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA POSSESSED.

    IN ITS EFFORTS TO PUT PRESSURE ON THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO DO ITS OWN INVESTIGATIONS, REPRESENTATIVES OF HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH MET THIS WEEK WITH DUTCH GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS, CHEMICAL WEAPONS EXPERTS, AND INVESTIGATORS FROM THE YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL.

    A TRIBUNAL SPOKESMAN SAID INVESTIGATORS WOULD LOOK INTO THE INFORMATION AS IT RELATES TO AN ON-GOING INVESTIGATION. TRIBUNAL INVESTIGATORS HAVE BEEN EXHUMING MASS GRAVES WHERE SREBRENICA'S VICTIMS ARE BURIED, GIVING THEM ACCESS TO PHYSICAL EVIDENCE THAT HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH DOES NOT HAVE.

    A HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH REPRESENTATIVE SAID HE IS MORE OPTIMISTIC NOW. HE SAYS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY OWES IT TO SREBRENICA'S VICTIMS TO INVESTIGATE ALLEGATIONS OF CHEMICALS WEAPONS USE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LC/JWH
    19-Nov-98 12:53 PM EST (1753 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] U-N / KOSOVO (L - ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=11/19/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-241913
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL SAYS (THURSDAY) IT REMAINS CONCERNED ABOUT PERSISTING TENSIONS IN AREAS OF YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON REPORTS FROM THE UNITED NATIONS.

    TEXT: SECURITY COUNCIL MEMBERS HELD DISCUSSIONS ON A REPORT ON KOSOVO SUBMITTED TO THEM BY U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN.

    COUNCIL PRESIDENT PETER BURLEIGH OF THE UNITED STATES SAYS COUNCIL MEMBERS WELCOME THE RECENT ACCORDS AND AGREEMENTS AIMED AT ENDING THE VIOLENCE IN KOSOVO. BUT HE SAYS THE COUNCIL REMAINS CONCERNED ABOUT THE SITUATION AND EAGER TO SEE THE DEPLOYMENT IN KOSOVO OF A VERIFICATION TEAM SENT BY THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE, THE O-S-C-E.

    /// BURLEIGH ACT ///

    THE MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL WERE CONCERNED ABOUT PERSISTING TENSIONS IN MANY AREAS AS DESCRIBED IN THE SECRETARY-GENERAL'S REPORT. COUNCIL MEMBERS STRESSED THE IMPORTANCE OF AN EARLY DEPLOYMENT OF THE O-S-C-E KOSOVO VERIFICATION MISSION. IN THIS CONTEXT THEY CALLED UPON ALL PARTIES CONCERNED TO COMPLY FULLY WITH THE SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS, TO COOPERATE WITH THE KOSOVO VERIFICATION MISSION, TO HONOR THEIR COMMITMENT AND TO PROVIDE FOR THE SECURITY OF ALL K-V-M (KOSOVO VERIFICATION MISSION) PERSONNEL.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAS BEEN ACTIVELY INVOLVED IN THE KOSOVO CONFLICT OVER THE LAST FEW MONTHS, URGING ALL PARTIES TO AGREE TO A CEASEFIRE. COUNCIL MEMBERS HAVE BEEN PARTICULARLY CRITICAL OF THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT, AND PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, BECAUSE OF THE ROLE HIS SECURITY FORCES HAVE PLAYED IN THE VIOLENCE IN KOSOVO.

    OVER THE LAST FEW WEEKS, THE COUNCIL'S ATTENTION HAS BEEN DISTRACTED BY THE CRISIS WITH IRAQ. DIPLOMATS SAY THEY NOW HOPE TO RENEW THEIR FOCUS ON KOSOVO. (SIGNED) NEB/UN/MPR/LSF/WFR
    19-Nov-98 3:06 PM EST (2006 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] TURKEY / KURDS / ITALY (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=11/19/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-241898
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKISH PRIME MINISTER MESUT YILMAZ HAS REJECTED A CALL BY ITALY'S PRIME MINISTER FOR TALKS TO HELP RESOLVE THEIR DIPLOMATIC DISPUTE ABOUT KURDISH REBEL CHIEF ABDULLAH OCALAN. MEANWHILE, AS AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA, TURKISH OFFICIALS ARE CRACKING DOWN ON KURDISH POLITICAL GROUPS.

    TEXT: AT LEAST 200 MEMBERS OF THE PRO-KURDISH PEOPLE'S LABOR PARTY KNOWN AS HADEP HAVE BEEN DETAINED FOR QUESTIONING DURING THE PAST TWO DAYS. AND ANTI-TERROR SQUADS ARE CONTINUING RAIDS ON PARTY OFFICES ACROSS TURKEY. PARTY OFFICIALS SAY HADEP LEADER MURAT BOZLAK IS AMONG THOSE DETAINED.

    IT REMAINS UNCLEAR ON WHAT GROUNDS THE HADEP MEMBERS ARE BEING HELD. BUT REPORTS SAY THE CRACKDOWN PROBABLY IS IN RESPONSE TO THE PARTY'S SUPPORT FOR KURDISH REBEL CHIEF ABDULLAH OCALAN AND HIS DEMANDS FOR POLITICAL ASYLUM IN ITALY.

    ABDULLAH OCALAN IS THE LEADER OF THE SEPARATIST REBEL GROUP KNOWN AS THE KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY, THE P-K-K. ITALIAN POLICE ARRESTED HIM LAST WEEK IN ROME AFTER HE ARRIVED ON A FLIGHT FROM MOSCOW. ITALY HAS NOT GRANTED TURKEY'S REQUEST FOR ABDULLAH OCALAN'S EXTRADITION, BUT IS INSTEAD CONSIDERING HIS REQUEST FOR POLITICAL ASYLUM.

    SINCE THEN, ANTI-ITALIAN AND ANTI-KURDISH SENTIMENTS HAVE BEEN RUNNING HIGH IN TURKEY.

    TURKISH PRIME MINISTER MESUT YILMAZ WEDNESDAY SAID ITALY WOULD BE REGARDED AS WHAT HE TERMED AN ACCOMPLICE TO A MASS MURDERER UNLESS IT EXTRADITED THE P-K-K LEADER. MR. YILMAZ ALSO REJECTED AN OFFER BY ITALIAN PRIME MINISTER MASSIMO D'ALEMA TO MEET NEXT WEEK IN ISTANBUL BEFORE A SOCCER GAME BETWEEN TURKEY AND ITALY.

    LEADING TURKISH COMPANIES ARE THREATENING AN ECONOMIC BOYCOTT AGAINST ITALIAN GOODS. ONE MAJOR TURKISH SUPERMARKET CHAIN CALLED MIGROS HAS ALREADY BEGUN A BOYCOTT.

    THE P-K-K HAS BEEN WAGING A VIOLENT SEPARATIST CAMPAIGN OVER THE PAST 14 YEARS FOR SELF RULE FOR TURKEY'S ESTIMATED 12-MILLION KURDS. NEARLY 40-THOUSAND PEOPLE HAVE DIED IN THE CONFLICT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/JWH
    19-Nov-98 11:40 AM EST (1640 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] TURKEY / TERRORISM BY CHALLISS MCDONOUGH (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/19/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-241910
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ITALIAN AUTHORITIES LAST WEEK ARRESTED TURKEY'S MOST WANTED FUGITIVE, THE LEADER OF KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY, THE P-K-K. THE P-K-K SEEKS KURDISH SELF-RULE, AND WAGED A GUERRILLA WAR AGAINST TURKEY FROM NEIGHBORING SYRIA UNTIL DAMASCUS CUT TIES WITH THE GROUP LAST MONTH. P-K-K LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN (OH'-JAH-LAHN) WAS CAUGHT IN ROME NOVEMBER 13TH, AFTER ARRIVING FROM MOSCOW CARRYING A FALSE PASSPORT. V-O-A'S CHALLISS MCDONOUGH REPORTS THE TURKISH AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED STATES BRIEFED REPORTERS IN WASHINGTON (THURSDAY) ABOUT TURKEY'S EFFORTS TO EXTRADITE MR. OCALAN.

    TEXT: THE TURKISH AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED STATES, BAKI ILKIN (BAH-KEE' EEL'-KIHN), SAYS THE THE KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY, THE P-K-K, HAS KILLED MORE THAN 30-THOUSAND PEOPLE SINCE ABDULLAH OCALAN FORMED IT IN 1978.

    MR. ILKIN URGED ITALY TO EXTRADITE THE REBEL LEADER TO TURKEY TO STAND TRIAL ON CHARGES OF TERRORISM AND TREASON.

    // ILKIN ACT //

    WE ALL KNOW THAT ITALY ITSELF HAS SUFFERED TREMENDOUSLY FROM THE SCOURGE OF TERRORISM IN THE RECENT PAST. IT MUST, THEREFORE, SURELY UNDERSTAND HOW TURKS EVERYWHERE FEEL ABOUT THIS BRUTAL TERRORIST. I WOULD LIKE TO REMAIN OPTIMISTIC THAT ITALY WILL EXERCISE SOUND AND WISE JUDGMENT IN RENDERING THE RIGHT DECISION IN THIS MATTER.

    // END ACT //

    MR. OCALAN HAS APPLIED FOR AMNESTY IN ITALY BECAUSE HE COULD FACE THE DEATH PENALTY IF HE IS CONVICTED IN ANKARA. ITALIAN LAW FORBIDS EXTRADITION TO COUNTRIES THAT USE CAPITAL PUNISHMENT. BUT MR. ILKIN SAYS TURKEY HAS NOT EXECUTED ANY PRISONERS SINCE 1984. HE SAYS THE REBEL LEADER WOULD RECEIVE A FAIR TRIAL IN AN INDEPENDENT TURKISH COURT.

    THE AMBASSADOR SAYS REFUSAL TO EXTRADITE MR. OCALAN COULD SERIOUSLY STRAIN TURKISH RELATIONS WITH ITALY.

    // ILKIN ACT //

    COMBATTING TERRORISM IS ON TOP OF TURKEY'S AGENDA, AND WE HAVE SUFFERED ENOUGH. WE WOULD TEST OUR FRIENDS WITH THEIR ATTITUDE TOWARD THE P-K-K, AND THAT WOULD BE THE DETERMINING FACTOR OF OUR FRIENDSHIP WITH COUNTRY A, B, X, Y, BE IT ITALY OR ANY OTHERS. THIS IS AN ISSUE OF UTMOST IMPORTANCE, IT IS A CRUCIAL ISSUE.

    // END ACT //

    // OPT //

    MR. ILKIN SAYS MR. OCALAN'S ARREST HAS THROWN THE P-K-K LEADERSHIP INTO A STATE OF CONFUSION BECAUSE THERE IS NOT ANYONE IN A POSITION TO REPLACE HIM IMMEDIATELY.

    // OPT ILKIN ACT //

    HE DOES NOT ALLOW ANYONE TO REACH A STAGE OR POSITION WITHIN THE P-K-K THAT WOULD CHALLENGE HIS AUTHORITY. SO HE HAS MANAGED TO ELIMINATE -- NOT POLITICALLY, PHYSICALLY -- MOST OF HIS FELLOW -- HOW SHALL I SAY? -- BIRDS OF THE SAME FEATHER ON HIS WAY IN THE LAST 15-YEARS.

    // END ACT & END OPT //

    MR. ILKIN INDICATED SWEDEN MAY WANT TO EXTRADITE THE REBEL LEADER AS WELL.

    ROME HAS ASKED THE EUROPEAN UNION FOR SUPPORT IN RESISTING TURKISH EXTRADITION EFFORTS, BUT THE UNION HAS TRIED TO STAY OUT OF THE DISPUTE. ITS MEMBERS DO NOT AGREE ON WHETHER THE P-K-K IS A TERRORIST ORGANIZATION. THE AMBASSADOR SAYS TURKISH AND ITALIAN OFFICIALS ARE HOLDING HIGH-LEVEL TALKS ABOUT THE ISSUE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/CEM/RAE
    19-Nov-98 2:38 PM EST (1938 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] TURKEY POLITICS (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=11/19/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-241887
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /////

    ED'S: VOTE NOT EXPECTED BEFORE 1700 U-T-C (NOON EST) -- WATCH FOR DEVELOPMENTS ON C-N WIRE AND UPDATE INTRO AS NEEDED

    /////

    INTRO: THE TURKISH PARLIAMENT IS WIDELY EXPECTED TO APPROVE SCHEDULING A VOTE OF NO CONFIDENCE AGAINST THE COUNTRY'S MINORITY COALITION GOVERNMENT. THAT DECISION IS EXPECTED LATER IN THE DAY. AND AMBERIN ZAMAN IN ANKARA REPORTS THE NO-CONFIDENCE VOTE -- PROBABLY NEXT WEDNESDAY (NOVEMBER 25TH) WILL LIKELY BRING DOWN THE CENTER-LEFT GOVERNMENT OF PRIME MINISTER MESUT YILMAZ OVER HIS ALLEGED INVOLVEMENT IN A CORRUPTION SCANDAL.

    TEXT: THE ALLEGATIONS AGAINST MR. YILMAZ EMERGED AFTER AN ISTANBUL BUSINESSMAN CLAIMED THAT THE PRIME MINISTER HAD ENCOURAGED HIM TO BID FOR THE STATE OWNED TURKBANK AND HAD PROMISED TO HELP HIM RAISE THE MONEY TO BUY IT.

    THE ALLEGATIONS PROMPTED THE MAIN OPPOSITION ISLAMIST VIRTUE PARTY TO LODGE A CENSURE MOTION AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT LAST WEEK. THE CONSERVATIVE TRUE PATH PARTY, THE THIRD LARGEST PARTY IN THE 550-MEMBER TURKISH PARLIAMENT, FILED A SIMILAR MOTION THE SAME DAY AIMED AT TOPPLING THE CONSERVATIVE PRIME MINISTER.

    BUT IT WAS THE DEFECTION OF LEFT WING LEADER DENIZ BAYKAL TO THE OPPOSITION THAT HAS SET IN MOTION WHAT NOW APPEARS TO BE THE INEVITABLE COLLAPSE OF MR. YILMAZ'S YEAR OLD GOVERNMENT. MR. BAYKAL'S SUPPORT WAS CRUCIAL IN KEEPING MR. YILMAZ AND HIS COALITION PARTNER, DEMOCRATIC LEFT PARTY LEADER BULENT ECEVIT, IN POWER. TOGETHER THE TWO PARTIES DO NOT COMMAND ENOUGH SEATS TO FORM A MAJORITY GOVERNMENT.

    MR. YILMAZ HAS DENIED ALL THE ALLEGATIONS OF ABUSE AND SAYS HE IS THE VICTIM OF A CONSPIRACY AIMED AT UNDERMINING HIS GOVERNMENT'S BATTLE AGAINST ORGANIZED CRIME.

    THERE IS MOUNTING PUBLIC ANGER ABOUT MR. BAYKAL'S DECISION TO WITHDRAW HIS SUPPORT FROM THE GOVERNMENT AT A TIME WHEN TURKEY IS EMBROILED IN A DIPLOMATIC CRISIS WITH ITALY OVER ITS REFUSAL TO EXTRADITE KURDISH REBEL CHIEF ABDULLAH OCALAN.

    TURKISH PRESIDENT SULEYMAN DEMIREL IS CONSTITUTIONALLY EMPOWERED TO ASK THE POLITICAL LEADER OF HIS CHOICE TO ATTEMPT TO FORM A NEW GOVERNMENT. USUALLY THIS IS THE LEADER OF THE LARGEST PARTY IN THE PARLIAMENT. HOWEVER, OBSERVERS SAY THAT BECAUSE OF THE THE STAUNCHLY PRO-SECULAR TURKISH MILITARY'S AVERSION TO THE ISLAMISTS, THE PRESIDENT IS NOT LIKELY TO ASK THE ISLAMIST VIRTUE PARTY TO FORM THE NEW GOVERNMENT.

    THE MILITARY PLAYED A PIVOTAL ROLE IN PRESSURING TURKEY'S FIRST ISLAMIST-LED GOVERNMENT OUT OF POWER LAST YEAR AND BRINGING MR. YILMAZ'S PRO-SECULAR COALITION IN ITS PLACE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/JWH
    19-Nov-98 10:02 AM EST (1502 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] KEEPING REFUGEES OUT, PART 1: KOSOVARS BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/19/98
    TYPE=ENGLISH PROGRAMS FEATURE
    NUMBER=7-30912
    TELEPHONE=619-3464
    EDITOR=GARY EDQUIST
    CONTENT= (TAPE CUTS IN AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: REPRESENTATIVES FROM THE U.S. COMMITTEE FOR REFUGEES RECENTLY GAVE A BRIEFING [10/9/98] ON THE WAYS IN WHICH THE EUROPEAN UNION IS WORKING TO EXCLUDE DISPLACED

    KOSOVARS, KURDS, AND ALGERIANS. VOA'S JUDITH LATHAM

    TALKED WITH AMERICAN ANALYSTS ABOUT E-U EFFORTS TO LIMIT THE INFLUX OF ASYLUM SEEKERS INTO WESTERN EUROPE. HERE'S _______ WITH THE FIRST OF A SERIES OF THREE REPORTS, WHICH FOCUSES ON THE KOSOVARS.

    TEXT: BILL FRELICK ['FREE-LIK], SENIOR POLICY ANALYST WITH THE U.S. COMMITTEE FOR REFUGEES AND EDITOR OF ITS "REFUGEE REPORT," HAS RETURNED FROM FIELD WORK IN KOSOVO, ALBANIA, AND TURKEY. MR. FRELICK HAS LOOKED AT MAJOR GROUPS OF ASYLUM SEEKERS WHO HAVE BEEN SEEKING PROTECTION IN EUROPE. HE HAS EXAMINED THE BARRIERS TO THEIR ENTRY TO WESTERN EUROPE AS WELL AS RECENT EUROPEAN UNION INITIATIVES TO STEM THEIR FLOW. HE SAYS (IN JANUARY 1998) THE E-U ADOPTED A 46-POINT ACTION PLAN ON THE INFLUX OF REFUGEES FROM IRAQ AND THE NEIGHBORING REGION, WITH AN EMPHASIS ON RESTRICTIVE MEASURES. ACCORDING TO MR. FRELICK, THE E-U NOTION OF ESTABLISHING SO-CALLED "SAFE AREAS WITHIN THE REGION OF ORIGIN" -- AND THEREBY DENYING ASYLUM -- HAS BEEN APPLIED NOT ONLY TO IRAQI KURDS AND BOSNIAN MUSLIMS, BUT MOST RECENTLY TO KOSOVAR ALBANIANS INTERNALLY DISPLACED BY THE FIGHTING IN KOSOVO.

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- FRELICK (0:28) "WHAT WE'VE SEEN IS THAT MAINTAINING SAFE AREAS IS A LOT MORE DIFFICULT THAN WAS PERHAPS INITIALLY SUPPOSED. AND, OVER TIME THE STANDARDS OF SAFETY THAT ARE REQUIRED FOR SUCH AREAS HAS ERODED, AND THE CONCEPT NOW IS BEING TRANSFORMED INTO AN 'INTERNAL FLIGHT' IDEA, WITHOUT A SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO SAFETY, OR EVEN -- AS IN THE CASE OF KOSOVO -- TO THE NOTION OF 'HUMANITARIAN CENTERS' WHERE'S THERE'S NO GLIMMER OF SAFETY ATTACHED TO THEM WHATSOEVER."

    TEXT: THE EUROPEAN UNION, BILL FRELICK SAYS, HAS PRESENTED A FOUR-POINT STRUCTURE FOR DEALING WITH FOR REFUGEE FLOWS.

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- FRELICK (0:15) "FIRST IS SAFE HAVENS AND INTERNAL FLIGHT ALTERNATIVES. SECOND IS REGIONAL HOLDING CENTERS. THIRD IS TEMPORARY PROTECTION. AND FINALLY, MANDATORY RETURN. THERE ARE PARALLEL KINDS OF DEVELOPMENTS WITH RESPECT TO ETHNIC ALBANIANS.

    TEXT: MR. FRELICK SAYS HE RECENTLY MADE A REPORT TO THE U.S. COMMITTEE FOR REFUGEES OPPOSING THE SERBIAN PROPOSAL FOR SO-CALLED "HUMANITARIAN CENTERS" IN KOSOVO FOR DISPLACED PEOPLE.

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- FRELICK (1:07) "[YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN] MILOSEVIC IN LATE AUGUST CAME UP WITH THE IDEA OF ESTABLISHING SERB-RUN, POLICE-RUN 'HUMANITARIAN CENTERS' IN KOSOVO TO PROVIDE FOOD AND HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE TO DISPLACED PEOPLE INSIDE KOSOVO. HE PROPOSED THAT TO SEVERAL AMERICAN DIPLOMATS WHO WARMLY EMBRACED THE IDEA INITIALLY, SAID THEY WOULD SUPPORT IT AND FUND IT. THERE WAS NO GLIMMER OF INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION AND NO SUGGESTION THAT THE U-S WOULD MAKE ANY REQUIREMENTS FOR ANYTHING OTHER THAN THE MOST SUPERFICIAL MONITORING OF THE SAFETY OF PEOPLE IN THE CENTERS. THERE WAS A HUGE OUTCRY FROM N-G-O'S, FROM "THE NEW YORK TIMES" AND "WALL STREET JOURNAL" EDITORIALS, AND THE STATE DEPARTMENT BACKTRACKED FROM THE IDEA. AND THE ARTICLE I WROTE OUTLINES WHAT HAPPENED WITH THAT IDEA. U-N-H-C-R HAS THIS CONTINUING AMBIVALENT RELATIONSHIP WITH THIS AND OTHER CONCEPTS. IT TAKES THE VIEW THAT SOVEREIGN COUNTRIES HAVE A RESPONSIBILITY TO WORK ON BEHALF OF INTERNALLY DISPLACED PEOPLE IN THEIR COUNTRY, AND THEREFORE IT IS A LEGITIMATE YUGOSLAV RESPONSIBILITY, AND THEY [U-N-H-C-R] ARE PROVIDING FUNDS TO BE USED IN THESE HUMANITARIAN CENTERS. AT THE SAME TIME THEY'VE TRIED TO LIST SOME CRITERIA FOR THEIR INVOLVEMENT."

    TEXT: MR. FRELICK SAYS THE SO-CALLED OPTION OF "INTERNAL FLIGHT" NEEDS TO BE REEXAMINED, AS IT OFTEN FAILS TO PROVIDE PROTECTION FOR THOSE FLEEING AREAS OF CONFLICT.

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- FRELICK (0:16) "THERE'S MORE AND MORE WILLINGNESS TO SUBSTITUTE HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE FOR REAL PROTECTION. THERE'S A LACK OF INTERNATIONAL WILL TO PROTECT INSIDE-CONFLICT STATES [STATES WHERE THERE IS CIVIL WAR OR WHERE THE CONFLICT IS INTERNAL]. WE SAW IT IN BOSNIA, WE CERTAINLY SEE IT AGAIN IN KOSOVO. BUT, THERE'S A DEFINITE POLITICAL WILL TO BLOCK THE MIGRATION OF ASYLUM SEEKERS."

    TEXT: (OPT) KAREN ABUZAYD ['AH-BOO-'ZAYD], REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVE IN WASHINGTON, D-C, OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES, SAYS SOME EUROPEAN COUNTRIES SUCH AS GERMANY BELIEVE THEY ARE UNABLE TO ACCEPT MORE REFUGEES AND ASYLUM SEEKERS.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE -- ABUSAYD (0:39) "THEY HAVE BEEN VERY GENEROUS, AND OF COURSE, GERMANY HAS HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF REFUGEES, BOTH OLD ALBANIANS AND OLD KOSOVARS [THAT IS, ALBANIANS AND KOSOVARS WHO HAVE BEEN THERE FOR SOME TIME], AND STILL A LOT OF BOSNIANS. I THINK IT'S A QUESTION PARTLY OF NUMBERS, AND IT'S ALSO A QUESTION OF THE LEVEL OF HOSPITALITY THEY OFFER. THEIR PROGRAMS ARE EXTREMELY EXPENSIVE BECAUSE THEY OFFER SUCH GOOD SERVICES TO THE FOREIGNERS THAT COME IN -- THE IMMIGRANTS AND THE ASYLUM SEEKERS. WITH THE RISE OF MORE RACIST POLITICAL PARTIES AND RACIST POLITICS, I THINK THAT THIS IS WHAT WE FIND TOO, THAT THERE ARE CERTAIN GROUPS IN MANY OF THE SOCIETIES THAT JUST DON'T LIKE FOREIGNERS, ESPECIALLY PEOPLE WHO SEEM TO HAVE DIFFERENT CUSTOMS AND ARE VISIBLE IN THE SOCIETY, DON'T INTEGRATE SO WELL." (END OPT)

    TEXT: IN JULY, BILL FRELICK OF THE U-S COMMITEE FOR REFUGEES SAYS, GERMANY PROPOSED A SO-CALLED "REGIONAL SOLUTION" FOR KOSOVAR REFUGEES FLEEING THE PROVINCE, IN LIEU OF PROVIDING ASYLUM FOR THEM IN THE WEST.

    TAPE: CUT SIX -- FREELICK (1:08) "THERE WAS INTENSE PRESSURE BY THE EUROPEANS TO KEEP THE REFUGEES IN NORTHERN ALBANIA. NORTHERN ALBANIA WAS AN EXTREMELY UNSAFE AREA, ONE OF THE LEAST SAFE PLACES I'VE EVER BEEN. U-N-H-C-R HAS SINCE MOVED ITS PEOPLE OUT OF NORTHERN ALBANIA; IT'S TOO DANGEROUS. WHILE I WAS THERE, THE HEAD OF THE O-S-C-E WAS ROBBED AT GUNPOINT. AND, GETTING INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE TO THESE PEOPLE WAS JUST A JOKE. IN AUGUST, GERMANY ANNOUNCED AGAIN THE NEED FOR A 'REGIONAL SOLUTION.' THEY CALLED FOR RECEPTION CENTERS IN NORTHERN ALBANIA AND IN ITALY AS WELL. THEY REMINDED KOSOVARS THEY WOULD BE EXPELLED FROM GERMANY IF THEY GOT TO GERMANY, AND GERMANY WOULD NOT GIVE THEM TEMPORARY PROTECTION. IN FACT, THERE WAS A READMISSION AGREEMENT WITH YUGOSLAVIA IN EFFECT THROUGH AUGUST. IN AUGUST THEY WERE DEPORTING KOSOVAR ALBANIANS TO BELGRADE. (OPT) THE SUSPENSION OF THE DEPORTATIONS TOOK PLACE NOT AT THE INITIATIVE OF THE GERMANS, BUT OF THE YUGOSLAVS, BECAUSE GERMANY HAD JOINED WITH THE E-U IN THE SANCTIONS AGAINST SERBIA FOR ITS ATROCITIES IN KOSOVO AND HAD BANNED FLIGHTS BY THE YUGOSLAV NATIONAL AIRLINES." (END OPT)

    TEXT: ACCORDING TO BILL FRELICK OF THE U-S COMMITTEE FOR REFUGEES, MOST KOSOVAR ALBANIANS MADE HOMELESS BY THE WAR IN KOSOVO REMAIN IN "INTERNAL FLIGHT" STATUS WITHIN KOSOVO. AND, HE ADDS, INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN AGENCIES WILL TRY TO ASSUME RESPONSIBILITY FOR THEIR CARE, ALTHOUGH IT IS STILL UNCLEAR WHETHER THEY BE ABLE TO PROTECT THE KOSOVARS. (OPT) THE SECOND REPORT IN THIS SERIES WILL FOCUS ON KURDISH REFUGEES AND ASYLUM SEEKERS. (END OPT)
    19-Nov-98 11:29 AM EST (1629 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] KEEPING REFUGEES OUT, PART 2: KURDS BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/19/98
    TYPE=ENGLISH PROGRAMS FEATURE
    NUMBER=7-30913
    TELEPHONE=619-3464
    EDITOR=GARY EDQUIST
    CONTENT= (TAPE CUTS IN AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: REPRESENTATIVES FROM THE U.S. COMMITTEE FOR REFUGEES RECENTLY GAVE A BRIEFING [10/9/98] ON THE WAYS IN WHICH THE EUROPEAN UNION IS WORKING TO EXCLUDE DISPLACED

    KOSOVARS, KURDS, AND ALGERIANS. VOA'S JUDITH LATHAM

    TALKED WITH AMERICAN ANALYSTS ABOUT E-U EFFORTS TO LIMIT THE INFLUX OF ASYLUM SEEKERS INTO WESTERN EUROPE. HERE'S _______ WITH THE SECOND OF A SERIES OF THREE REPORTS, WHICH FOCUSES ON THE KURDS.

    TEXT: BILL FRELICK ['FREE-LIK], A SENIOR POLICY ANALYST WITH THE U.S. COMMITTEE FOR REFUGEES AND EDITOR OF ITS "REFUGEE REPORT," HAS RETURNED FROM FIELD WORK IN TURKEY, KOSOVO, AND ALBANIA. MR. FRELICK EXAMINED MAJOR GROUPS OF ASYLUM SEEKERS WHO HAVE BEEN SEEKING PROTECTION IN WESTERN EUROPE AS WELL AS THE BARRIERS TO THEIR ENTRY. IN JANUARY (1998), HE SAYS, THE EUROPEAN UNION ADOPTED A 46-POINT ACTION PLAN ON THE INFLUX OF REFUGEES FROM IRAQ AND THE NEIGHBORING REGION.

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- FRELICK (0:30) "THE EMPHASIS WAS ON RESTRICTIVE MEASURES, AND I'LL JUST HIGHLIGHT A FEW OF THEM -- CARRIER SANCTIONS ON PLANES ARRIVING WITH KURDS AND OTHERS FROM THAT AREA, FINGERPRINTING, CRACKDOWN ON SMUGGLING, TRAINING AND DETECTING FALSE DOCUMENTS, RETURN OF PERSONS BACK TO THE REGION, INCLUDING INCREASED COOPERATION WITH TURKEY, WHICH IS ANOTHER ELEMENT OF THESE VARIOUS PLANS TO CREATE A TIER OF BUFFER-ZONE COUNTRIES BETWEEN THE AREAS PRODUCING REFUGEES AND THE E-U ITSELF."

    TEXT: IN 1990, FOLLOWING IRAQ'S DEFEAT IN THE GULF WAR, IRAQI LEADER SADDAM HUSSEIN LAUNCHED AN ATTACK ON THE KURDISH POPULATION IN THE NORTH. MR. FRELICK SAYS THIS CRACKDOWN LED TO A HUGE MOVEMENT OF IRAQI KURDS TO THE TURKISH BORDER, BUT IN 1991 TURKEY REPELLED THESE WOULD-BE KURDISH REFUGEES AT THE BORDER.

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- FRELICK (1:14) "THE WORLD COMMUNITY CAME UP WITH A NEW SOLUTION, WHICH IS THAT YOU COULD DENY ASYLUM BECAUSE YOU WOULD CREATE A 'SAFE AREA' IN THE COUNTRY OF ORIGIN. THAT WAS THE IMPACT OF SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 688, WHICH INVOLVED AMERICAN, BRITISH, AND OTHER TROOPS AS A COALITION ALLIANCE COMING INTO NORTHERN IRAQ AND PROVIDING A SAFETY UMBRELLA FOR THE KURDS THERE SO THEY WOULDN'T COME UNDER ATTACK. WE JUMP AHEAD TO SEPTEMBER '96, AND YOU HAD THE LIMITS OF THE MODEL SAFE HAVEN FINALLY REVEALED. BAGHDAD FORCES MOVED INTO ERBIL, THEY KILLED AT LEAST 100 PEOPLE. THERE WAS A MOVEMENT AGAIN TO TRY TO GET INTO TURKEY, AND TURKEY AGAIN CLOSED ITS BORDER COMPLETELY. SO, WE WERE LEFT WITH THIS VERY TROUBLING PHENOMENON WHERE THERE'S NO LONGER A COUNTRY OF FIRST ASYLUM, AND WE CREATED A PRECEDENT WHERE WE NO LONGER HOLD COUNTRIES OF FIRST ASYLUM RESPONSIBLE FOR PROVIDING AT LEAST TEMPORARY PROTECTION, AND THERE'S NO SAFE HAVEN EITHER. WHAT DO YOU DO? THE UNITED STATES WAS ABLE TO EVACUATE 6,500 PEOPLE OF PARTICULAR INTEREST TO THE UNITED STATES, BUT WHAT ABOUT THE REST? AND WHAT HAPPENS THE NEXT TIME THAT SADDAM'S TROOPS MOVE IN? THAT'S AN OPEN QUESTION STILL."

    TEXT: BILL FRELICK SAYS THAT, IN APRIL 1998, THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSION FOR REFUGEES, OR U-N-H-C-R, PRESENTED TWO QUITE DIFFERENT DOCUMENTS TO THE EUROPEAN UNION CONCERNING THE TREATMENT OF THE KURDISH REFUGEES.

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- FRELICK (0:47) "BOTH DOCUMENTS WERE PRESENTED ALMOST SIMULTANEOUSLY, WHICH IS INTERESTING, SINCE THEY CONTRADICT EACH OTHER. THE FIRST IS A PUBLIC DOCUMENT, AND THE OTHER IS A PRIVATE, SECRET DOCUMENT. THE PUBLIC DOCUMENT WAS BEFORE THE U-N-H-C-R STANDING COMMITTEE, AND U-N- H-C-R MADE FIVE POINTS. NUMBER 1, THE MOVEMENT OF IRAQIS WAS NOT A MASS INFLUX. NUMBER 2, IT INCLUDED -- QUOTE -- AN 'IMPORTANT PROPORTION OF PEOPLE LEAVING IRAQ FOR VALID REFUGEE-RELATED REASONS WHO ARE IN NEED OF INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION.' NUMBER 3, INTERNAL FLIGHT IS NOT A REALISTIC ALTERNATIVE TO CROSSING INTERNATIONAL BORDERS. NUMBER 4, ASYLUM OPTIONS WITHIN THE REGION ARE CURRENTLY NOT FEASIBLE. AND, NUMBER 5, IRAQI ASYLUM SEEKERS NEED TO BE AFFORDED PROTECTION OUTSIDE THE IMMEDIATE REGION."

    TEXT: BUT, MR. FRELICK SAYS, U-N-H-C-R'S SECRET COMMUNICATION -- IN CONTRAST -- INDICATED THAT AN "INTERNAL FLIGHT ALTERATIVE" COULD BE APPLIED IN CERTAIN CASES. AND, THESE CASES RELATED TO THE TWO WARRING POLITICAL FACTIONS WITHIN THE KURDISH COMMUNITY -- THE PATRIOTIC UNION OF KURDISTAN (P-U-K) AND THE KURDISTAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY (K-D-P).

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- FRELICK (0:47) "THE CERTAIN CASES INCLUDED BOTH P-U-K AND K-D-P MEMBERS AND SYMPATHIZERS WHO COULD FIND PROTECTION IN THE AREA CONTROLLED BY THEIR OWN PARTY, EVEN IF THEY WOULD STILL BE AT RISK IN AREAS CONTROLLED BY THE OTHER PARTY. SO YOU HAVE NOW AN INTERNAL FLIGHT WITHIN AN INTERNAL FLIGHT. AND ALTHOUGH TURKEY IS NOT A SAFE THIRD COUNTRY, THE U-N-H-C-R, QUOTE, 'WELCOMES THE IDEA OF ESTABLISHING RECEPTION CENTERS TO BETTER MANAGE THE FLOW OF MIGRANTS AND REFUGEES TO AND THROUGH TURKEY,' END QUOTE. THERE'S A QUESTION OF THE REASONABLENESS OF TRYING TO STAY WITHIN THE COUNTRY WHERE YOU HAVE A WELL-FOUNDED FEAR OF PERSECUTION. THE SITUATION IS VOLATILE. THERE'S NO RULE OF LAW IN NORTHERN IRAQ, NO INDEPENDENT JUDICIARY, EXTENSIVE HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS. QUITE A NUMBER OF IRAQI ASYLUM SEEKERS ARE DENIED ON THE GROUNDS OF SUPPOSEDLY BEING 'ECONOMIC MIGRANTS.' AND, FINALLY, TURKEY CONTINUES TO BOMB THE AREA."

    TEXT: KAREN ABUZAYD ['AH-BOO-'ZAYD], REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVE IN WASHINGTON, D-C, OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES, SAYS THERE WAS A MISUNDERSTANDING ABOUT THE SO-CALLED 'SECRET' DOCUMENT.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE -- ABUZAYD (0:51) "IT WAS LABELED 'SECRET' BY THE E-U, NOT BY U-N-H-C-R. THAT ISN'T ONE OF THE THINGS WE DO. THE REASON THE E-U LABELED IT 'PRIVATE' IS BECAUSE IT WAS VERY LONG, A 29-PAGE DOCUMENT, AND IT COVERED A LOT OF HISTORY OF THE PROBLEM. AND IT ALSO MADE REFERENCES TO NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES SUCH AS JORDAN AND SYRIA, AND IT WAS NOT SOMETHING THAT HAD BEEN DISCUSSED WITH THOSE COUNTRIES, AND SO IN DEFERENCE TO OUR RELATIONSHIPS WITH THOSE COUNTRIES, THE E-U AND OURSELVES AGREED THAT IT SHOULD BE A DOCUMENT BETWEEN US AND THEM. (OPT) WE KNOW THAT ANY SUCH DOCUMENT WILL BE LEAKED, SO IT WASN'T REALLY SOMETHING THAT WE WERE SAYING THAT WAS SECRET BECAUSE IT DIFFERED FROM THE OTHER STATEMENTS WE WERE MAKING. THIS WAS A DOCUMENT AS IT WAS DEVELOPED WITH THE N-G-O'S OF EUROPE, WHO WERE QUITE HAPPY WITH IT, WHO FELT THAT IT WAS AN IMPROVEMENT ON PREVIOUS POSITIONS, AND IT WAS AN ADVANCEMENT OF SORTS FOR THE KURDS AND KOSOVARS IN EUROPE AND FOR ASYLUM IN EUROPE. (END OPT)

    TEXT: BILL FRELICK SAYS A BASIC FACTOR CONSIDERED IN GRANTING ASYLUM IS WHETHER AN INDIVIDUAL CAN BE INTEGRATED MORE SMOOTHLY, QUOTE, 'UNDER NORMAL CIRCUMSTANCES' IN HIS OWN COUNTRY THAN ABROAD.

    TAPE: CUT SIX -- FRELICK (0:34) "OF COURSE, ANYONE CAN MORE SMOOTHLY INTEGRATE UNDER NORMAL CIRCUMSTANCES, WHICH IS WHAT THEY SAY HERE, IN THEIR OWN COUNTRY THAN ABROAD. THE VERY REFUGEE REASONS FOR FLIGHT ARE NOT RECOGNIZED HERE. THESE ARE THE FACTORS I WOULD SUGGEST: IF THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT SEEKS TO PERSECUTE YOU, AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY RECOGNIZES ITS [GOVERNMENT] SOVEREIGNTY OVER THE ENTIRE TERRITORY AND IT SEEKS TO RETAKE THAT TERRITORY, THERE'S NO INTERNAL FLIGHT ALTERNATIVE. IF THE SITUATION IS VOLATILE, UNSTABLE, AND UNPREDICTABLE, THERE'S NO REASONABLE FLIGHT ALTERNATIVE. IF THERE'S A LACK OF STATE ACCOUNTABILITY AND RULE OF LAW, THERE'S NO INTERNAL FLIGHT ALTERNATIVE."

    TEXT: THE EUROPEAN UNION, MR. FRELICK SAYS, EFFECTIVELY CREATES A TIER OF BARRIERS TO PREVENT THE KURDS FROM GAINING ASYLUM IN WESTERN EUROPE.

    TAPE: CUT SEVEN -- FRELICK (0:15) "FIRST, YOU TRY THE 'SAFE AREA.' OR, IF THAT DOESN'T WORK, YOU TRY THE 'INTERNAL FLIGHT' ALTERNATIVE. AND, IF SOME PEOPLE MANGE TO GET THROUGH THAT, THEN YOU CREATE THE 'RECEPTION CENTER' IN A COUNTRY THAT'S RECOGNIZED AS NOT BEING SAFE, LIKE TURKEY, SORT OF A HOLDING PEN FOR THEM, BUT A PLACE TO MANAGE MIGRATION FLOWS."

    TEXT: THE MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION SAY THEY ARE UNABLE TO ABSORB LARGE NUMBERS OF ASYLUM SEEKERS, BILL FRELICK SAYS. SO, THE E-U IS EXERTING INTENSE PRESSURE ON THE U-N-H-C-R WHICH, HE SAYS, MUST OFTEN BALANCE PRINCIPLE AND PRAGMATISM AS IT TRIES TO HELP THOSE FLEEING VIOLENCE AND OPPRESSION.

    TAPE: CUT EIGHT -- FRELICK (0:31) "I'M VERY SYMPATHETIC TO THE REAL SOUL-SEARCHING THAT IS GOING ON IN U-N-H-C-R, AND I'VE TALKED TO THE FRONTLINE PEOPLE INVOLVED IN THOSE DECISIONS. THEY SPECIFICALLY TALKED ABOUT PRAGMATISM, AND BASICALLY SAID, 'IF WE TOOK YOUR POSITION AND WERE MORE LENIENT IN OUR APPROVAL RATES, WE'D HAVE TO ACCEPT ALL THESE IRANIANS AND IRAQIS. AS IT IS NOW, WE ACCEPT A FRACTION OF THEM, AND THAT'S ACCEPTABLE TO THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT.' THEY'RE SEEING THEIR OWN REGIONAL CONTEXT AND MAKING THE COMPROMISES THEY FEEL THEY NEED TO MAKE TO FUNCTION AT ALL."

    TEXT: MR. FRELICK SAYS, BECAUSE THE EUROPEAN UNION IS COMPRISED OF POWERFUL DONOR COUNTRIES, THE REFUGEE AGENCY MUST OFTEN SETTLE FOR WHAT HE CALLS "THE BEST IT CAN DO IN BAD CIRCUMSTANCES." (OPT) OUR THIRD, AND FINAL, REPORT WILL FOCUS ON ALGERIAN REFUGEES AND ASYLUM SEEKERS. (END OPT)
    19-Nov-98 11:29 AM EST (1629 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] KEEPING REFUGEES OUT, PART 3: ALGERIANS BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/19/98
    TYPE=ENGLISH PROGRAMS FEATURE
    NUMBER=7-30914
    TELEPHONE=619-3464
    EDITOR=GARY EDQUIST
    CONTENT= (TAPE CUTS IN AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: REPRESENTATIVES FROM THE U.S. COMMITTEE FOR REFUGEES RECENTLY GAVE A BRIEFING [10/9/98] ON THE WAYS IN WHICH THE EUROPEAN UNION IS WORKING TO KEEP OUT KOSOVARS,

    KURDS, AND ALGERIANS. VOA'S JUDITH LATHAM TALKED WITH

    AMERICAN ANALYSTS ABOUT E-U EFFORTS TO LIMIT THE INFLUX OF ASYLUM SEEKERS INTO WESTERN EUROPE. HERE'S _______ WITH THE LAST OF A SERIES OF THREE REPORTS, WHICH FOCUSES ON THE ALGERIANS.

    TEXT: ANALYST STEVE EDMINSTER COVERS ASYLUM AND REFUGEE ISSUES IN EUROPE AND THE MIDDLE EAST FOR THE U.S. COMMITTEE FOR REFUGEES. HE RECENTLY RETURNED FROM FIELD WORK IN GERMANY AND FRANCE. MR. EDMINSTER SAYS THE EUROPEAN UNION EMPLOYS A COMBINATION OF STRATEGIES TO LIMIT REFUGEE ACCESS TO WESTERN EUROPE. THESE INCLUDE SO-CALLED 'SAFE HAVENS' IN THE COUNTRY OF ORIGIN, INTERNAL FLIGHT ALTERNATIVES, VISA RESTRICTIONS, INCREASED BORDER CONTROLS, AND SANCTIONS ON CARRIERS TRANSPORTING INSUFFICIENTLY DOCUMENTED ASYLUM SEEKERS.

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- EDMINSTER (0:26) "A REFUGEE HAS TO SURMOUNT ALL THESE BARRIERS TO REACH WESTERN EUROPE, BUT ONCE THEY DO SO, IF THEY HAVE THE MISFORTUNE TO BE PERSECUTED BY THE WRONG GROUP, IF THEY HAVE THE MISFORTUNE TO BE PERSECUTED BY A REBEL GROUP, AS IS THE CASE IN ALGERIA, THEN THEY MAY BE OUT OF LUCK AND MAY RISK RETURN TO THEIR HOME COUNTRIES. THE FORMER SECRETARY-GENERAL OF THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL ON REFUGEES-IN-EXILE SAID, IN REFERENCE TO THIS, 'THE EUROPEAN UNION IS IN MANY RESPECTS DEFINING REFUGEES OUT OF EXISTENCE.'"

    TEXT: THE GENEVA CONVENTION SAYS A REFUGEE IS A "PERSON WHO HAS A WELL-FOUNDED FEAR OF BEING PERSECUTED FOR REASONS OF RACE, RELIGION, MEMBERSHIP IN A PARTICULAR SOCIAL GROUP, OR POLITICAL OPINION." HOWEVER, MR. EDMINSTER SAYS THE DEFINITION IS CONTROVERSIAL.

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- EDMINSTER (0:41) "WHAT'S CONTROVERSIAL ABOUT THIS DEFINITION IS THAT CERTAIN COUNTRIES -- MOST NOTABLY GERMANY, FRANCE, AND SWITZERLAND -- INTERPRET THIS REFUGEE DEFINITION TO INCLUDE PERSECUTION PERPETRATED ONLY BY GOVERNMENTS OR SO-CALLED 'STATE-LIKE AUTHORITIES.' THEY DO NOT CONSIDER THE HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES COMMITTED BY NON-STATE ACTORS, OR THIRD PARTIES, TO RISE TO THE LEVEL OF 'PERSECUTION,' UNLESS THESE ABUSES ARE KNOWINGLY TOLERATED OR ENCOURAGED BY THE AUTHORITIES IN THE COUNTRY CONCERNED. IN OTHER WORDS, THE HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SUFFERED BY THE REFUGEE AND THE REFUGEE'S NEED FOR PROTECTION ARE SECONDARY TO THE INCIDENTAL IDENTITY OF THE PERSECUTOR IN DETERMINING WHETHER THAT PERSON WILL RECEIVE ASYLUM."

    TEXT: THE IMPACT OF THIS RESTRICTIVE INTERPRETATION OF WHO CONSTITUTES A "REFUGEE," STEVE EDMINSTER SAYS, IS TO EXCLUDE THE VICTIMS OF PERSECUTION COMMITTED BY OPPOSITION GROUPS DURING CIVIL WARS. THE RESTRICTION, HE ADDS, ADVERSELY AFFECT THOSE ATTEMPTING TO FLEE CIVIL WAR IN ALGERIA, SOMALIA, LIBERIA, AND AFGHANISTAN.

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- EDMINSTER (0:46) "THE CASE OF ALGERIA I FIND PARTICULARLY COMPELLING. THE CRISIS BEGAN THERE IN 1992 WHEN THE MILITARY-DOMINATED GOVERNMENT CANCELED ELECTIONS THAT THE ISLAMIC SALVATION FRONT -- IT'S THE MAIN ISLAMIC OPPOSITION PARTY IN ALGERIA -- WAS POISED TO WIN. AFTER CANCELLING THESE ELECTIONS, THE GOVERNMENT OUTLAWED THIS GROUP AND ARRESTED THOUSANDS OF ITS MEMBERS AND SUPPORTERS. SINCE THEN, THE ISLAMIC OPPOSITION HAS SPLINTERED INTO MANY FACTIONS, AND HAS WAGED A WAR AGAINST THE ALGERIAN GOVERNMENT AND INCREASINGLY AGAINST THE ALGERIAN POPULATION ITSELF. THE ALGERIAN GOVERNMENT OFTEN HAS NOT INTERVENED TO PREVENT THESE ATTACKS. IN TERMS OF LOOKING AT THE ASYLUM SITUATION IN EUROPE, IT CLEARLY DEMONSTRATES THE ALGERIAN GOVERNMENT IS INCAPABLE OF PROTECTING MANY OF ITS CITIZENS."

    TEXT: CERTAIN GROUPS, SAYS MR. EDMINSTER, ARE PARTICULARLY AT RISK IN ALGERIA -- WOMEN WHOSE LIFE STYLE IS CONSIDERED TO BE IN CONFLICT WITH ISLAMIC VALUES, POLITICAL ACTIVISTS, JOURNALISTS, AND YOUNG MEN OF DRAFT AGE. (OPT) MR. EDMINSTER SAYS HE DID AN ANALYSIS OF THE CASE LOAD OF ALGERIANS WHO ARE SEEKING ASYLUM IN GERMANY.

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- EDMINSTER (0:15) "ABOUT A THIRD FEAR PERSECUTION BY RADICAL ISLAMIC GROUPS. A LITTLE LESS THAN A THIRD FEARS PERSECUTION BY BOTH THE GOVERNMENT AND OPPOSITION GROUPS. THIS IS A WAR THAT HAS FORCED PEOPLE TO CHOOSE SIDES. AND, A LITTLE LESS THAN A THIRD OF THE APPLICANTS FEARED PERSECUTION BY THE GOVERNMENT." (END OPT)

    TEXT: MR. EDMINSTER ILLUSTRATES THE PROBLEM WITH THE CASE OF A PUBLIC HEALTH WORKER IN ALGIERS. FIRST, SHE RECEIVED THREATENING LETTERS FROM RADICAL ISLAMIC GROUPS BECAUSE SHE DID NOT WEAR A VEIL, AND SHE WAS TOLD TO STOP ADVOCATING THE USE OF CONTRACEPTION TO PREVENT THE SPREAD OF AIDS. THEN, HER CAR WAS BLOWN UP WHILE SHE WAS WORKING IN HER OFFICE NEARBY. FINALLY, SHE WAS ATTACKED ON THE STREET BY ASSAILANTS WHO LEFT HER WITH YET ANOTHER DEATH THREAT. MR. EDMINSTER SAYS THE WOMAN WAS DENIED ASYLUM IN GERMANY.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE -- EDMINSTER (0:24) "TEMPORARY PROTECTION IS NOT POSSIBLE FOR SUCH PEOPLE IN GERMANY EITHER. GERMANY HAS RAISED THE STANDARD FOR TEMPORARY PROTECTION TO BASICALLY THE SAME UNOBTAINABLE LEVEL AS REFUGEE STATUS ITSELF. THE GROUNDS FOR GRANTING TEMPORARY PROTECTION ARE INDIVIDUAL IN NATURE, AND THE STATE HAS TO BE THE PERSECUTOR. IN 1997, JUST NINE ALGERIAN APPLICANTS WERE GRANTED TEMPORARY PROTECTION OUT OF MORE THAN 2,400 PEOPLE."

    TEXT: (OPT) KAREN ABUZAYD ['AH-BOO-'ZAYD], REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVE IN WASHINGTON, D-C, OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES, SAYS THERE ARE BARRIERS IN SOME EUROPEAN COUNTRIES TO ALGERIANS AND OTHERS WHO SEEK ASYLUM.

    TAPE: CUT SIX -- ABUZAYD (0:15) "I THINK THE PROBLEM IS MAINLY IN FRANCE, WHICH HAS, AS THEY SEE IT, TOO MANY ALGERIANS. AND THERE ARE A LOT OF ALGERIANS WHO THEY THINK CAUSE PROBLEMS, BOTH POLITICAL AND OF ANOTHER NATURE, SO THEY'RE VERY UNFRIENDLY TOWARD NEW ASYLUM SEEKERS, ESPECIALLY ALGERIANS."

    TEXT: STEVE EDMINSTER OF THE U-S COMMITTEE FOR REFUGEES SAYS FRANCE HAS BEGUN TO GRANT REFUGEE STATUS IN SOME CASES WHERE ALGERIANS ARE UNABLE TO SEEK PROTECTION FROM THEIR GOVERNMENT.

    TAPE: CUT SEVEN -- EDMINSTER (0:52) "THE TREND DOES NOT REPRESENT A STATED CHANGE IN POLICY, AND IT REMAINS DISCRETIONARY, AND IT DOESN'T APPLY TO ANY OTHER GROUPS THAT MAY BE TARGETED BY NON-STATE ACTORS. THERE ARE ALSO CLEAR PROBLEMS IN FRANCE -- THE LARGE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE WHO REMAIN UNDOCUMENTED THERE AND HAVE NO STATUS WHATSOEVER. OFTEN PEOPLE ARE ARRESTED ON THE STREETS, IF THEY DON'T HAVE PAPERS, THEY'RE PUT IN JAIL. IF THEY'RE RELEASED AND NOT DEPORTED, IT'S MADE VERY CLEAR TO THEM THAT IT WAS BECAUSE THE OFFICIAL WHO ARRESTED THEM WAS IN A GOOD MOOD. FROM BOTH THESE COUNTRIES, GERMANY AND FRANCE, THEY CONTINUE TO DEPORT ALGERIANS. OBVIOUSLY IT WOULD BE BEST IF COUNTRIES LIKE GERMANY, FRANCE, AND SWITZERLAND WOULD RECOGNIZE THERE IS A CLEAR PROTECTION NEED AND REVERSE THEIR POLICIES, BUT BECAUSE THIS HASN'T HAPPENED, WE HAVE RECOMMENDED TO THE U-N-H-C-R AND TO THE U-S STATE DEPARTMENT THAT THEY CONSIDER OTHER OPTIONS."

    TEXT: STEVE EDMINSTER OF THE U.S. COMMITTEE FOR REFUGEES SAYS IN EARLY OCTOBER THE U-N-H-C-R IN GERMANY BEGAN TO REFER A FEW ALGERIAN ASYLUM SEEKERS FOR RESETTLEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
    19-Nov-98 11:30 AM EST (1630 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] CZECH / FRANCE (L ONLY) BY ART CHIMES (PRAGUE)

    DATE=11/19/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-241902
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FRENCH PRIME MINISTER LIONEL JOSPIN HAS BEEN LEADING A VISIT BY SENIOR GOVERNMENT MINISTERS TO PRAGUE FOR TALKS ON EUROPEAN UNION EXPANSION AND OTHER ISSUES. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES IN PRAGUE REPORTS THE FRENCH LEADER HAD SOME ENCOURAGING WORDS FOR HIS CZECH HOSTS.

    TEXT: PRIME MINISTER JOSPIN SAID MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION WILL DEPEND ON WHEN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND OTHER CANDIDATE COUNTRIES ARE READY. HE OFFERED HELP IN AREAS INCLUDING THE TRAINING OF JUDGES, AND HE URGED THE CZECHS NOT TO COMPETE, BUT RATHER TO COOPERATE WITH OTHER PROSPECTIVE MEMBERS, INCLUDING NEIGHBORS POLAND AND HUNGARY.

    THE CZECH PRIME MINISTER, MILOS ZEMAN, HEADS A CENTER-LEFT GOVERNMENT THAT CAME TO POWER ONLY FOUR MONTHS AGO. MR. ZEMAN TOLD REPORTERS THE CZECH REPUBLIC HOPES FRANCE WILL HELP IN PRAGUE'S BID FOR MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    /// ZEMAN ACT - IN CZECH - FADE UNDER ///

    HE SAYS THE NEW CZECH FOREIGN POLICY PUTS A GREAT EMPHASIS ON FRANCE'S IMPORTANCE AS BOTH A WORLD POWER AND IN THE EUROPEAN UNION THAT THE CZECH REPUBLIC WANTS TO JOIN.

    MR. ZEMAN SAID THEY ALSO DISCUSSED COOPERATION ON NUCLEAR ENERGY, WHICH IS A MAINSTAY OF FRENCH ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, AND EVEN A CZECH BID FOR OBSERVER STATUS IN THE ORGANIZATION OF FRENCH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES ("LA FRANCOPHONIE"). PRIME MINISTER JOSPIN SAID FRANCE WOULD WARMLY RECOMMEND THAT THE ORGANIZATION APPROVE THE CZECH REQUEST, AND HE DESCRIBED THE VISIT TO PRAGUE AS "A GREAT SUCCESS."

    MR. JOSPIN SAID THE THREE CENTRAL EUROPEAN APPLICANTS FOR E-U MEMBERSHIP -- POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC -- SHOULD MOVE FORWARD ON THEIR OWN TIMETABLE. THE THREE MIGHT OR MIGHT NOT COME IN TOGETHER. BUT HE SAID THE EUROPEAN UNION WILL NOT SPECIFY A TIMETABLE.

    /// JOSPIN ACT - IN FRENCH - FADE UNDER ///

    NOW, IT ALL DEPENDS ON THEM, HE SAYS, AND IT IS IMPORTANT TO GET PAST THE IDEA OF A DEADLINE. EACH COUNTRY, HE SAYS, WILL FREELY DETERMINE FOR THEMSELVES WHEN THEY ARE READY.

    MANY OBSERVERS BELIEVE THE THREE COUNTRIES WILL NOT BE ADMITTED FOR MEMBERSHIP UNTIL 2002 OR 2003, OR POSSIBLY EVEN LATER AS THEY WORK TO BRING LAW, ECONOMIC POLICY, AND OTHER FACTORS INTO COMPLIANCE WITH E-U RULES.

    THE CZECH REPUBLIC IS ALSO EXPECTING TO JOIN NATO, AND FRENCH DEFENSE MINISTER ALAIN RICHARD OFFERED ASSISTANCE IN BRINGING THE CZECH MILITARY UP TO NATO STANDARDS. MR. RICHARD MENTIONED COMMUNICATIONS AND OTHER TECHNICAL SYSTEMS, BUT FRENCH HELP COULD INCLUDE OTHER FIELDS AS WELL. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/JWH
    19-Nov-98 12:02 PM EST (1702 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=11/19/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-241917
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP TODAY (THURSDAY)

    REFLECTING CONTINUED CONFIDENCE ABOUT THE U-S ECONOMY. VOA

    CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT NINE THOUSAND 56, UP 15 POINTS. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 11 HUNDRED 52, UP EIGHT POINTS.

    STOCK PRICES WERE GENERALLY IN POSITIVE TERRITORY BUT MANY TECHNOLOGY ISSUES SOARED. SOME ANALYSTS SAY TALK OF A SLOWDOWN IN COMPUTER-RELATED SALES HAS BEEN EXAGGERATED.

    ///BEGIN OPT///

    JOE BATTAPAGLIA OF THE GRUNTAL INVESTMENT COMPANY REMAINS OPTIMISTIC THAT STOCK PRICES WILL CONTINUE TO MOVE HIGHER.

    ///BATTAPAGLIA ACT///

    WE BELIEVE IN THE FUNDAMENTALS OF THE ECONOMY, LOW INFLATION, LOWER INTEREST RATES. THAT IS BEING PLAYED OUT HERE IN RISING EQUITY (STOCK) PRICES WHICH WILL CONTINUE WELL INTO NEXT YEAR.

    ///END ACT & OPT ///

    THE GOVERNMENT REPORTS HOUSING STARTS IN THE UNITED STATES JUMPED BY MORE THAN SEVEN PERCENT LAST MONTH, THE BIGGEST INCREASE IN MORE THAN A YEAR. ANALYSTS SAY LOW MORTGAGE INTEREST RATES AND A REVIVED STOCK MARKET HELPED TO FUEL CONFIDENCE IN THE HOUSING SECTOR.

    ///REST OPT///

    BARNES AND NOBLE, THE LARGEST BOOKSELLER IN THE UNITED STATES, REPORTED A FOUR AND ONE-HALF MILLION DOLLAR QUARTERLY LOSS, LARGELY BECAUSE OF COSTS RELATED TO THE START-UP OF ITS ON-LINE SALES OPERATION ON THE COMPUTER INTERNET. FLUOR, THE U-S-BASED ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION FIRM, REPORTED BETTER-THAN-EXPECTED QUARTERLY EARNINGS. FLUOR CITED EXTENSIVE COST CUTTING AS THE MAIN REASON FOR THE RESULT.

    AMERICAN AIRLINES WILL PAY 124 MILLION DOLLARS TO ACQUIRE RENO AIR, A REGIONAL CARRIER IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES.

    TWO OF THE WORLD'S LEADING ENERGY EXCHANGES ARE IN MERGER TALKS. THE NEW YORK MERCANTILE EXCHANGE AND THE INTERNATIONAL PETROLEUM EXCHANGE IN LONDON ARE TALKING ABOUT SETTING UP A COMBINED OPERATION.

    UNION AND MANAGEMENT NEGOTIATORS ARE BACK AT THE BARGAINING TABLE AT THE WALT DISNEY WORLD THEME PARK IN FLORIDA. WORKERS REJECTED A PROPOSED CONTRACT WHICH THEY SAY WOULD MAKE THEM WORK LONGER HOURS IN STUFFY MICKEY MOUSE AND DONALD DUCK COSTUMES IN THE SOMETIMES OPPRESSIVE FLORIDA HEAT.(SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/WFR
    19-Nov-98 5:20 PM EST (2220 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/19/98
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11013
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    ////

    EDS: PERISHABLE MATERIAL, DATED AFTER 10 P-M E - S - T ! !

    ////

    INTRO: THIS IS AN HISTORIC DAY IN THE UNITED STATES, AS THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES FORMALLY BEGINS IMPEACHMENT HEARING AGAINST PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON FOR THE MONICA LEWINSKY MATTER.

    THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS REFLECT THE IMPORTANCE WITH SEVERAL COMMENTS ABOUT THE PROCEEDINGS. THERE ARE EDITORIALS ABOUT /// OPT /// THE NEW REPUBLICAN LEADERSHIP IN THE HOUSE, AS WELL AS

    /// END OPT ///

    THE CONTROVERSY ABOUT VICE PRESIDENT GORE'S PRO-DEMOCRACY REMARKS IN MALAYSIA. /// OPT /// ROUNDING OUT THE EDITORIALS ARE COMMENTS ABOUT THE ARREST IN ROME OF A KURDISH LEADER FROM TURKEY, AND THOUGHTS ON THE TOBACCO DEAL BETWEEN THE CIGARETTE MAKERS AND THE STATES. /// END OPT /// NOW, HERE IS _________________ WITH SOME EXCERPTS AND A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE APPEARANCE OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL KENNETH STARR AT THE IMPEACHMENT HEARING BRINGS OUT MUCH OF THE PRO AND CON OF THE DEBATE OVER THE ISSUE OF IMPEACHMENT, WHICH HAS RAGED IN THE PRESS FOR MOST OF THE YEAR. "THE WASHINGTON TIMES," LONG A SEVERE CRITIC OF THE PRESIDENT, WRITES THAT MANY OF THE PEOPLE, INCLUDING MONICA LEWINSKY, INVOLVED IN THIS INVESTIGATION ARE BADLY FLAWED, BUT THE PAPER GOES ON TO NOTE:

    VOICE: ... NONE OF IT [THEIR CHARACTER FLAWS] CHANGES ONE WHIT (I.E. BIT) THE FACTS INVOLVING MR. CLINTON'S LIES. NOR DOES ANY OF IT NEGATE THE PRESIDENT'S VARIOUS CONSPIRACIES TO OBSTRUCT JUSTICE. MR. CLINTON LIED UNDER OATH IN HIS PAULA JONES DEPOSITION. /// OPT /// HARD AS IT MAY BE FOR SOME TO BELIEVE, MR. CLINTON WAS NOT COMPELLED TO LIE. IT WAS HIS CHOICE. IT WAS ALSO A MATTER OF CHOICE, OF DELIBERATION, WHEN THE PRESIDENT LIED BEFORE THE GRAND JURY (AND, FOR THAT MATTER, WHEN HE WAGGED HIS LYING FINGER AT THE AMERICAN PUBLIC). /// END OPT /// ... LYING UNDER OATH AND CONSPIRING TO OBSTRUCT JUSTICES ARE CRIMES. NO AMOUNT OF CHANGING THE SUBJECT WILL CHANGE THAT FACT. TODAY'S HEARINGS COULD GO A LONG WAY TO SETTLE THE QUESTION: IS IT OK TO COMMIT CRIMES WHILE IN HIGH OFFICE?.

    TEXT: LOOKING AT THE PROCEEDINGS WITH A DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVE, "THE MIAMI HERALD" COMMENTS:

    VOICE: TODAY KENNETH ... STARR'S OBSESSIVE PURSUIT OF PRESIDENT CLINTON AND THE WHITEWATER SCANDAL TAKES THE RELENTLESS 'INDEPENDENT' COUNSEL TO CAPITOL HILL. /// OPT /// THERE, THE HOUSE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE BEGINS IMPEACHMENT HEARINGS. AS IF TO SET THE TONE, THE PANEL WILL USE A FORMAT THAT PUTS MR. CLINTON AT AN UNFAIR DISADVANTAGE. FIRST, MR. STARR WILL HAVE TWO FULL HOURS TO LAY OUT HIS BILL OF PARTICULARS AGAINST THE PRESIDENT ..... MR. CLINTON'S TEAM WAS GRANTED ONLY 30 MINUTES FOR REBUTTAL QUESTIONING OF MR. STARR. WHITE HOUSE PRESS SECRETARY JOE LOCKHART WAS RIGHT TO TERM SUCH A PROCEEDING A 'PARTISAN ADVENTURE .... FUNDAMENTALLY UNFAIR AND DISTURBING.' /// END OPT /// .... AT A TIME OF SPREADING FINANCIAL CRISES, ESCALATING TERRORISM, NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION, AND POLITICAL INSTABILITY IN THE FORMER SOVIET EMPIRE AND IN THE MIDDLE EAST, AN INCREDULOUS WORLD WATCHES AS THE GOVERNMENT OF THE ONLY REMAINING SUPERPOWER WALLOWS IN THE MUD OF A TITILLATING DISTRACTION.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: STILL WITH WASHINGTON POLITICS, SEVERAL PAPERS HAVE COMMENTS ON THE NEW REPUBLICAN LEADERSHIP IN THE HOUSE, WHICH WAS SELECTED WEDNESDAY, AND AMONG THEM IS "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" WHICH CALLS THE TEAM "LEAN AND MEAN."

    VOICE: A COUPLE WEEKS AFTER VOTERS GAVE THEM A WAKE-UP CALL, HOUSE REPUBLICANS YESTERDAY (WEDNESDAY) SHOOK UP THEIR TEAM. THEY TABBED (SELECTED) A GRAY EMINENCE (I.E. RESPECTED LEGISLATOR), LOUISIANA'S ROBERT LIVINGSTON, TO TAKE NEWT GINGRICH'S PLACE AS SPEAKER; THEY REPLACED THEIR TEAM-PLAYING CONFERENCE CHAIRMAN WITH A CHARISMATIC AFRICAN AMERICAN, J-C WATTS OF OKLAHOMA. FOR THE OTHER TOP JOBS - - MAJORITY LEADER AND WHIP - - THEY REELECTED TWO TEXANS: DICK ARMEY AND TOM DELAY. THIS DOES NOT PORTEND A PHILOSOPHICAL SHIFT ... BUT IT PUTS REPUBLICANS IN A BETTER POSITION TO COMMUNICATE AND PASS THEIR AGENDA - - AN AGENDA THAT MUST BE BEEFED UP [MADE MORE SUBSTANTIVE] AFTER A COTTON-CANDY [LACKING IN SUBSTANCE] YEAR.

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON POST" SAYS OF THE CHANGE IN LEADERSHIP:

    VOICE: ..... IT WASN'T CLEAR WHAT EFFECT THE CHANGES WILL HAVE ON THE POSTURE OF THE PARTY IN THE NEXT CONGRESS. THE FAMILIAR PHILOSOPHICAL RIFTS THAT AFFLICTED THE PARTY IN THE LAST CONGRESS REMAIN, AND ITS ALREADY NARROW MAJORITY IS DUE TO BECOME EVEN MORE SO.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: TURNING TO INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, THERE IS MORE RESPONSE TO VICE PRESIDENT GORE'S TOUGH COMMENTS ABOUT THE ANTI-DEMOCRATIC ACTIONS OF MALAYSIA'S PRIME MINISTER MAHATHIR MOHAMAD IN JAILING HIS FORMER DEPUTY ANWAR IBRAHIM. TODAY'S "ATLANTA CONSTITUTION" APPLAUDS THE COMMENTS MADE IN WHAT IT CALLS "BRUTISH MALAYSIA."

    VOICE: [MR.] GORE WAS FORTUNATE TO BE AN OFFICIAL GUEST. OTHERWISE, HE COULD HAVE BEEN TEAR-GASSED AND HOSED WITH A WATER CANNON OR AT THE VERY LEAST THROWN IN JAIL ON BOGUS CHARGES. THAT'S THE WAY [MR.] MAHATHIR USUALLY DEALS WITH CRITICS OF HIS REGIME'S HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES OR ITS ECONOMIC INEPTNESS AND CRONYISM. A FEW OTHER ASIAN LEADERS WERE TAKEN ABACK BY [MR.] GORE'S BLUNTNESS, BUT HE WAS NOT OUT OF LINE, NOT IN THE SLIGHTEST.

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON TIMES" AGREES, NOTING:

    VOICE: HIS [GORE'S] REMARKS WERE RIGHT ON TARGET. ... THE TRUTH HURTS. LIKE MOST BULLIES, DR. MAHATHIR CAN DISH IT OUT, BUT HE CAN'T TAKE IT.

    TEXT: MORE CONTROVERSY ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE WORLD AS THE ITALIAN GOVERNMENT STRUGGLES TO FIND THE RIGHT WAY TO DEAL WITH THE ARRESTED ABDULLAH OCALAN - - LEADER OF THE KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY, THE P-K-K, A MARXIST GROUP ACCUSED OF WIDESPREAD TERRORISM IN SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY. TURKEY WANTS HIM EXTRADITED TO STAND TRIAL FOR TREASON AND TERRORISM, BUT MR. OCALAN IS ASKING FOR POLITICAL ASYLUM. THAT REQUEST, SAYS "THE WASHINGTON POST," PROVIDES THE NEW ITALIAN GOVERNMENT WITH A NEW POSSIBILITY.

    VOICE: NOW ... MR. OCALAN IS AT LEAST TEMPORARILY IN A DEMOCRATIC COUNTRY RULED BY LAW. ... IF ANY STRATEGY OF DOMESTICATING THE KURDS LOYAL TO MR. OCALAN IS TO BE TAKEN SERIOUSLY, THE ITALIAN GOVERNMENT WOULD HAVE TO EXACT A HEAVY PRICE FOR OFFERING THE KURDISH LEADER PROVISIONAL ASYLUM: THE PROMPT TOTAL REPUDIATION OF TERRORISM AND A COMMITMENT TO AUTONOMY NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE TURKISH AUTHORITIES. OTHERWISE, HE'S OUT. [EXTRADITED] ..... HANDLED CAREFULLY, IT COULD OFFER A PROSPECT OF SOFTENING THE UNRELIEVEDLY BLEAK VISTA THAT NOW REACHES OUT BEFORE TURKS AND KURDS ALIKE.

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS, "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" RESPONDS, WITH SOME RESERVATIONS, TO THE AGREEMENT BY THE ISRAELI PARLIAMENT OF THE WYE PEACE ACCORD.

    VOICE: TOO BAD THAT TUESDAY'S KNESSET VOTE WAS DEVOID OF JOY AND CELEBRATION AT WHAT SHOULD HAVE BEEN SEEN AS ANOTHER MILESTONE TOWARD PEACE IN THE MIDDLE EAST. BUT, SO BE IT. THE COMFORTABLE MAJORITY WHO VOTED TO APPROVE THE DEAL BROKERED LAST MONTH BY THE UNITED STATES AT THE WYE PLANTATION SENT A CLEAR MESSAGE THAT THE LAND-FOR-SECURITY CONCEPT UNDERGIRDING THE OSLO PEACE ACCORDS IS STILL THE WILL OF THE ISRAELI PEOPLE. SO MANY TIMES DURING THE LAST FEW WEEKS, HOWEVER, THAT MESSAGE HAS BEEN LOST IN BITTER AND HURTFUL LANGUAGE, INCESSANT QUARRELING AND UNNECESSARY PROVOCATIONS BETWEEN ISRAELI AND PALESTINIAN LEADERS.

    /// REMAINDER OPT ///

    TEXT: A PAIR OF TOBACCO-RELATED ITEMS BRING THIS SAMPLING TO A CLOSE. "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" COMMENTS ON THE RECENTLY ANNOUNCED DEAL BETWEEN THE BIG U-S TOBACCO COMPANIES AND SEVERAL STATE GOVERNMENTS.

    VOICE: THE DEAL ... WILL INEVITABLY BE COMPARED TO THE MUCH TOUGHER TOBACCO LEGISLATION THAT FAILED IN CONGRESS LAST SPRING AFTER THE INDUSTRY LOBBIED HEAVILY FOR ITS DEFEAT. SOME ELEMENTS OF THAT EARLIER PACKAGE ARE GLARINGLY ABSENT. THE INDUSTRY WILL NOT FACE REGULATION OF ITS PRODUCTS BY THE FEDERAL FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (F-D-A). IT WILL NOT HAVE TO PAY ADDED FINES IF YOUTH SMOKING DOESN'T DECREASE. ... FOR ALL ITS SHORTCOMINGS, HOWEVER, THIS NEW AGREEMENT IS A STEP WORTH TAKING. THE TOBACCO COMPANIES ARE BEING FORCED TO SHOULDER A SIGNIFICANT SHARE OF THE BURDEN THEIR PRODUCTS HAVE PLACED ON SOCIETY. ... THIS DEAL MAY COOL THE ZEAL OF STATE ATTORNEYS GENERAL TO PURSUE TOBACCO LITIGATION. BUT IT SHOULD MARK A BEGINNING, NOT AN END.

    TEXT: THE OTHER TOBACCO-RELATED ISSUE IS A PLEA FROM "THE ORLANDO SENTINEL" TO QUIT SMOKING TODAY, ON THIS, THE AMERICAN CANCER SOCIETY'S 22ND ANNUAL GREAT AMERICAN SMOKEOUT.

    VOICE: LAST YEAR, ELEVEN MILLION PEOPLE QUIT SMOKING DURING THE GREAT AMERICAN SMOKEOUT. MAKE THE DECISION TODAY TO JOIN THEM OR HELP SOMEONE OVER THE HURDLE TO HEALTH.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF SOME OF THE EDITORIALS TO BE FOUND IN TODAY'S U-S NEWSPAPERS.
    NEB/ANG/GE
    19-Nov-98 11:15 AM EST (1615 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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