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Voice of America, 99-03-12

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] BRITAIN-FRANCE / KOSOVO (L-O) BY JOHN PITMAN (ABIDJAN)
  • [02] RUSSIA/KOSOVO (L-ONLY) BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)
  • [03] RUSSIA/KOSOVO UPDATE (L-ONLY) BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)
  • [04] MACEDONIAN KEY TO PEACE IN THE BALKANS BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)
  • [05] E-U-ENLARGEMENT (L ONLY) (BRUSSELS)
  • [06] GERMAN GOVERNMENT (L-ONLY) BY JONATHAN BRAUDE (BERLIN)
  • [07] AFRICA/EUROPE BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [08] BRITAIN/CONGO (L-ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [09] NATO / NEW MEMBERS UPDATE BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)
  • [10] NATO CEREMONY (S&L) BY MICHAEL LELAND (INDEPENDENCE, MISSOURI)
  • [11] ALBRIGHT / NATO FUTURE BY MICHAEL LELAND (INDEPENDENCE, MISSOURI)
  • [12] HUNGARY/NATO BY STEFAN BOS (BUDAPEST)
  • [13] NATO/REACT (L-ONLY) BY ALENA KENCLOVA (PRAGUE)
  • [14] NATO PREVIEW ONITE (S/L) BY MICHAEL LELAND (INDEPENDENCE, MISSOURI)
  • [15] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [16] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY GARY EDQUIST (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] BRITAIN-FRANCE / KOSOVO (L-O) BY JOHN PITMAN (ABIDJAN)

    DATE=3/11/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-246530
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE FOREIGN MINISTERS OF BRITAIN AND FRANCE HAVE WARNED THE WARRING SIDES IN THE KOSOVO CONFLICT THAT THERE WILL BE SERIOUS CONSEQUENCES IF EITHER SIDE FAILS TO ATTEND PEACE TALKS IN PARIS NEXT WEEK. THE FOREIGN MINISTERS ISSUED THE WARNING IN WEST AFRICA, AT THE END OF A JOINT TOUR OF FORMER BRITISH AND FRENCH COLONIES. V-O-A'S JOHN PITMAN REPORTS FROM ABIDJAN.

    TEXT: FRENCH FOREIGN MINISTER HUBERT VEDRINE SAID THE AIM OF NEXT WEEK'S PEACE TALKS IN PARIS IS TO COMPLETE THE WORK DONE LAST MONTH AT TALKS BETWEEN SERBS AND KOSOVO'S ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN RAMBOUILLET, FRANCE.

    READING A JOINT STATEMENT ON BEHALF OF HIMSELF AND BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY ROBIN COOK, MR. VEDRINE SAID PARIS AND LONDON EXPECT THE WARRING SIDES TO REACH A FULL AGREEMENT NEXT WEEK, ONE THAT WOULD INCLUDE AN IMPLEMENTATION MECHANISM.

    /// OPT ///

    NEGOTIATING EFFORTS HAVE BOGGED DOWN RECENTLY OVER THE IMPLEMENTATION ISSUE. THE U-S HAS PROPOSED DEPLOYING NATO TROOPS TO KOSOVO TO HELP OVERSEE IMPLEMENTATION OF A PEACE AGREEMENT, HOWEVER THIS PROPOSAL HAS BEEN REJECTED BY YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODON MILOSEVIC./// END OPT ///

    MR. VEDRINE SAID BOTH PARTIES WERE EXPECTED TO ATTEND THE TALKS. SPEAKING THROUGH A TRANSLATOR, HE WARNED OF UNSPECIFIED CONSEQUENCES IF ANYONE FAILS TO SHOW UP.

    /// VEDRINE ACT IN FRENCH, W/ ENGLISH TRANSLATOR OVERLAY///(FRENCH ACT-ESTABLISH AND FADE UNDER)

    IF A PARTY OR THE PARTIES POSE ANY OBSTACLE TO THE HOLDING OR THE POSITIVE CONCLUSION OF THE CONFERENCE, THEY WILL BE ACCOUNTABLE FOR THEIR ACTIONS. AND WE ARE DETERMINED TO DRAW ANY NECESSARY CONSEQUENCES.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE NEXT ROUND OF KOSOVO PEACE TALKS IS SCHEDULED TO BEGIN IN PARIS ON MONDAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JP/WDC/PT
    11-Mar-99 7:35 PM EST (0035 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] RUSSIA/KOSOVO (L-ONLY) BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)

    DATE=3/12/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-246555
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV WAS IN BELGRADE ON FRIDAY/TODAY TO MEET WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO ENCOURAGE A PEACE SETTLEMENT BETWEEN SERBS AND ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO. VOA'S EVE CONANT REPORTS FROM MOSCOW ON HOW RUSSIA IS TAKING CONTROL OF DIPLOMACY IN THE BALKANS.

    TEXT: FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV SAYS SERBS AND ETHNIC ALBANIANS SHOULD FIRST SIGN A POLITICAL ACCORD TO GRANT AUTONOMY FOR KOSOVO, BEFORE DISCUSSING THE INTRODUCTION OF AN INTERNATIONAL MILITARY FORCE TO MONITOR THE DEAL.

    MR. IVANOV'S COMMENTS WERE MADE IN BELGRADE PRIOR TO HIS MEETING WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC.

    THE WEST IS HOPING RUSSIA CAN USE ITS GOOD RELATIONS WITH SERBIA TO AT LEAST ENCOURAGE IT TO SIGN THE PEACE AGREEMENT. UNITED STATES NEGOTIATORS HAVE FAILED TO PERSUADE PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC TO AGREE TO A PEACE DEAL. AN EFFORT BY U-S ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE EARLIER IN THE WEEK FAILED TO CHANGE PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC'S POSITION.

    MOSCOW POLITICAL ANALYST VIKTOR KREMENYUK SAYS TIMING MAY BE PERFECT FOR UNILATERAL RUSSIAN DIPLOMACY, AND THAT MR. IVANOV'S TRIP MAY BE A SUCCESSFUL ONE.

    ///ACT KREMENYUK IN RUSSIAN IN FULL AND FADE UNDER TRANSLATOR///

    FIRST OF ALL, HIS ADDRESSEE WOULD BE THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT WHO IS CURRENTLY ABSOLUTELY DISSATISFIED WITH THE RESULTS OF MR. HOLBROOKE'S MISSION AND MAY BE WILLING TO LISTEN TO SOME OTHER SOURCES.

    ///END ACT///

    THE RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER STRESSED THE IMPORTANCE OF UPCOMING PEACE TALKS IN PARIS NEXT MONDAY. MR. IVANOV ALSO REITERATED MOSCOW'S STANCE THAT IT MIGHT CONTRIBUTE MILITARY FORCES TO A INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING MISSION IN KOSOVO, BUT ONLY WITH BELGRADE'S APPROVAL. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EC/PCF
    12-Mar-99 9:53 AM EST (1453 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] RUSSIA/KOSOVO UPDATE (L-ONLY) BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)

    DATE=3/12/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-246565
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    //UPDATES WITH MEETING BETWEEN IVANOV AND MILOSEVIC CONCLUDING///

    INTRO: RUSSIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV MET WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IN BELGRADE FRIDAY, HOPING TO ENCOURAGE A PEACE SETTLEMENT BETWEEN SERBS AND ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO. BUT AS V-O-A'S EVE CONANT REPORTS FROM MOSCOW, RUSSIA'S ATTEMPT TO TAKE CONTROL OF DIPLOMACY IN THE BALKANS FAILED TO BRING ABOUT AN AGREEMENT FOR STATIONING INTERNATIONAL MILITARY PEACEKEEPING FORCES IN THE REGION.

    TEXT: RUSSIAN NEWS AGENCIES REPORT YUGOSLAVIA HAS AGAIN REJECTED PLANS FOR NATO-LED PEACEKEEPING TROOPS IN KOSOVO.

    AFTER A MEETING WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV TOLD REPORTERS BELGRADE "DECISIVELY AND FINALLY" REJECTS A FOREIGN POLICE PRESENCE ON ITS TERRITORY.

    MR. IVANOV TOLD REPORTERS THE YUGOSLAV LEADER DID APPROVE STATIONING UNARMED STAFF FROM THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE TO MONITOR ANY KOSOVO PEACE DEAL THAT MAY BE REACHED.

    THE WEST HAD BEEN HOPING RUSSIA COULD USE ITS GOOD RELATIONS WITH SERBIA TO ENCOURAGE BOTH A PEACE DEAL AND PERMISSION FOR THE NATO-LED PEACEKEEPING TROOPS WITH RUSSIAN REINFORCEMENTS TO OPERATE IN KOSOVO.

    UNITED STATES NEGOTIATORS HAVE FAILED TO PERSUADE PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC TO APPROVE A PEACE DEAL. AN EFFORT BY U-S ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE EARLIER IN THE WEEK FAILED TO CHANGE PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC'S POSITION.

    FOREIGN MINISTER IVANOV TOLD A RUSSIAN NEWS AGENCY THAT PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC ASSURED HIM THE YUGOSLAV DELEGATION WOULD ARRIVE IN PARIS NEXT MONDAY TO CONTINUE PEACE NEGOTIATIONS.

    MR. IVANOV FRIDAY REITERATED MOSCOW'S POSITION THAT IT WOULD ONLY CONTRIBUTE TROOPS TO A PEACEKEEPING MISSION, IF BELGRADE SANCTIONED IT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EC/PCF
    12-Mar-99 12:49 PM EST (1749 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] MACEDONIAN KEY TO PEACE IN THE BALKANS BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=3/12/99
    TYPE=ENGLISH PROGRAMS FEATURE
    NUMBER=7-31623
    TELEPHONE=619-3464
    EDITOR=SUSAN CLARK
    CONTENT= (TAPE CUTS IN AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: MACEDONIA IS THE ONE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC WHERE PEACE HAS BEEN PRESERVED SINCE THE VIOLENT BREAKUP OF YUGOSLAVIA, BEGINNING IN 1991. MANY ANALYSTS CREDIT THE UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING FORCE WITH PREVENTING THE VIOLENCE, WHICH HAS PLAGUED OTHER PARTS OF THE BALKANS, FROM SPREADING TO MACEDONIA. BUT, CHINA RECENTLY VETOED RENEWING THE FORCE'S MANDATE, RAISING QUESTIONS ABOUT REGIONAL SECURITY. V-O-A'S JUDITH LATHAM HAS TALKED WITH REGIONAL SPECIALISTS ABOUT MACEDONIA AS A KEY TO PEACE IN THE BALKANS. HERE'S _____ WITH A REPORT.

    TEXT: THE U-N PREVENTIVE DEPLOYMENT FORCE WAS SENT TO MACEDONIA IN 1993 TO PREVENT THE VIOLENCE IN NEIGHBORING BOSNIA FROM SPREADING FURTHER. FOR THE PAST SIX YEARS, THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL HAS EXTENDED THE FORCE'S MANDATE EACH TIME IT CAME UP FOR REVEWAL. BUT, TWO WEEKS AGO [FEBRUARY 25], CHINA VETOED THE RESOLUTION TO EXTEND THE U-N PEACEKEEPING FORCE. IT WAS THE FIRST VETO TO BE CAST IN THE SECURITY COUNCIL IN NEARLY A YEAR. U-S REPRESENTATIVE TO THE UNITED NATIONS PETER BURLEIGH:

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- BURLEIGH (0:17) "MY GOVERNMENT VERY MUCH REGRETS THE DECISION BY ONE MEMBER OF THE COUNCIL TO EXERCISE ITS VETO WITH RESPECT TO THIS RESOLUTION. WE BELIEVE THE OVERALL INTEREST OF SECURITY IN THE REGION -- PARTICULARLY DURING THIS SENSITIVE PERIOD -- SHOULD BE SUFFICIENTLY COMPELLING TO OUTWEIGH OTHER CONSIDERATIONS."

    TEXT: DIPLOMATS FROM OTHER NATIONS OF THE COUNCIL SAY CHINA'S VETO WAS AIMED AT PUNISHING MACEDONIA FOR ESTABLISHING DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH TAIWAN.

    THE U-N PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN MACEDONIA IS COMPOSED OF ABOUT ELEVEN HUNDRED TROOPS, MAINLY FROM THE UNITED STATES, THE NETHERLANDS, AND INDONESIA. DIPLOMATS SAY THE PEACEKEEPING FORCE IS PLAYING A PARTICULARLY IMPORTANT ROLE AT THIS TIME, PREVENTING UNREST IN THE NEIGHBORING YUGOSLAV PROVINCE OF KOSOVO FROM SPILLING INTO MACEDONIA.

    LAST WEEK U-S DEFENSE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN KENNETH BACON WAS ASKED ABOUT THE FAILURE TO RENEW THE U-N FORCE'S MANDATE.

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- BACON (0:10) "WE'VE BEEN THERE SINCE 1993. THINGS ARE MORE UNSTABLE THAN EVER IN KOSOVO ALONG THE BORDER, SO IT SEEMS LIKE AN ODD TIME TO PULL OUT THE TROOPS."

    TEXT: IN FACT, THE U-N TROOPS HAVE STAYED ON IN MACEDONIA, EVEN THOUGH THEIR AUTHORIZATION EXPIRED ON FEBRUARY 28. U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN HAS RECOMMENDED THAT THE SECURITY COUNCIL EXTEND ITS MANDATE FOR AN ADDITIONAL SIX MONTHS. DIPLOMATS SAY THEY ARE CONSIDERING TRANSFERRING THE PEACEKEEPING FORCE TO NATO OR SOME OTHER INSTITUTION TO ENSURE IT CONTINUES ITS WORK. AND, THEY ARE TRYING TO FIND A WAY TO KEEP THE FORCE THERE IN THE MONTHS TO COME. ROBERT HUNTER, WHO WAS THE U-S AMBASSADOR AT NATO HEADQUARTERS IN BRUSSELS FROM JULY 1993 TO JANUARY 1998, SAYS A WAY WILL BE FOUND TO CONTINUE FULFILLING THE U-N FORCE'S TWO IMPORTANT MISSIONS IN MACEDONIA.

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- HUNTER (0:20) "ONE IS TO INSPECT THE BORDER BETWEEN MACEDONIA AND THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA. THE OTHER IS PROBABLY MORE IMPORTANT. IT'S TO SIGNAL THE INTENTIONS OF THE OUTSIDE POWERS TO PRESERVE THE INTEGRITY OF MACEDONIA. IT'S A WAY ALMOST OF DETERRING ANY INCURSION AGAINST THIS TERRITORY FROM WHEREVER IT MIGHT COME."

    TEXT: (OPT) AMBASSADOR HUNTER SAYS, DESPITE THE CHINESE VETO, HE DOES NOT EXPECT THE TROOPS TO BE PULLED OUT OF MACEDONIA IMMEDIATELY.

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- HUNTER (0:40) "I SUSPECT THE FORCE CAN STAY THERE AS LONG AS THE MACEDONIAN GOVERNMENT IS WILLING TO HAVE THEM. AFTER ALL, IT'S A SOVEREIGN COUNTRY AND CAN INVITE ANYONE FROM OUTSIDE THAT IT WANTS TO. IN FACT, IF IT WANTED THESE FORCES TO CONTINUE TO FULFILL THE ROLE THEY HAVE NOW, THEY COULD DO SO. WHETHER THE OUTSIDERS WOULD BE WILLING TO DO SO WITHOUT A U-N MANDATE IS ANOTHER QUESTION. BUT, WHAT IS HAPPENING, I THINK, IS AN EFFORT TO CREATE AN ALTERNATIVE MANDATE. FOR EXAMPLE, IF INDEED THERE IS SUCCESS IN THE TALKS TO TRY TO END THE CONFLICT IN KOSOVO, THEN A NATO-LED FORCE WOULD GO INTO KOSOVO, AND THE UNPREDEP FORCES IN MACEDONIA WOULD BE ASKED TO STAY RIGHT WHERE THEY ARE." (END OPT)

    TEXT: LAST WEEK GENERAL TODOR ATANASOVSKI [TOH-DER AH-TAH-NAH-ZOF-SKEE], A RETIRED GENERAL WHO IS NOW A MEMBER OF MACEDONIA'S SECURITY COUNCIL, TOLD V-O-A THAT U-N FORCES HAVE HAD NO ORDERS TO WITHDRAW AS YET. AMBASSADOR HUNTER SAYS HE'S NOT AT ALL SURPRISED THAT THE TROOPS ARE STAYING.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE -- HUNTER (0:16) "AFTER ALL, IF THEY WERE TO WITHDRAW, THEY MIGHT SIMPLY HAVE TO GO BACK AGAIN, ALONG WITH A NATO-LED FORCE GOING INTO NEIGHBORING KOSOVO. I THINK EVERYBODY IN EUROPE REALLY WANTS THIS FORCE TO BE THERE. NOW IT'S JUST A MATTER OF FINDING A LEGAL BASIS FOR IT."

    TEXT: MOST OF THE TROOP-CONTRIBUTING NATIONS, AMBASSADOR HUNTER SAYS, WOULD PREFER TO BE OPERATING UNDER SOME KIND OF LEGAL AUTHORITY. BUT, IF IT SHOULD NO LONGER POSSIBLE TO OPERATE UNDER U-N AUTHORITY, THEN HE BELIEVES EITHER NATO OR THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE MIGHT STEP IN.

    TAPE: CUT SIX -- HUNTER (0:39) "CLEARLY, IF THE KOSOVO WAR COMES TO AN END, ON THE BASIS OF THE NEGOTIATIONS THAT WENT ON IN RAMBOUILLET IN FRANCE RECENTLY, THERE WILL BE A NATO-LED FORCE IN KOSOVO. THAT WILL BE MELDED WITH THE SO-CALLED 'EXTRACTION FORCE' THAT'S ALREADY IN MACEDONIA TO RESCUE, IF NEED BE, THE VERIFICATION MISSION THAT HAS BEEN IN KOSOVO FOR SOME TIME. AS PART OF THAT EFFORT, I EXPECT THEY WOULD FIND A WAY TO HAVE THE CURRENT UNPREDEP FORCE SIMPLY STAY IN MACEDONIA. SO, ON THE ONE HAND, YOU HAVE THE QUESTION OF WHO PAYS FOR IT. AND THAT WOULD BE IN GENERAL THE COUNTRIES PROVIDING THE FORCE. AND THE OTHER IS A LEGAL BASIS. AND THAT SHOULDN'T BE TOO DIFFICULT TO FIND."

    TEXT: (OPT) THERE HAVE BEEN RECENT REPORTS THAT YUGOSLAVIA HAS MINED THE BRIDGES BETWEEN MACEDONIA AND KOSOVO, WHICH COULD COMPLICATE TROOP MOVEMENTS. BUT, AMBASSADOR HUNTER SAYS THE WEST IS UNLIKELY TO BE DETERRED.

    TAPE: CUT SEVEN -- HUNTER (0:14) "WELL, I'VE HEARD THE REPORTS. I DON'T KNOW WHETHER THEY'RE TRUE OR NOT. IF TRUE, I EXPECT IT'S PART OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL GAME THAT GOING ON -- THE SERBS TRYING TO INCREASE THEIR BARGAINING LEVERAGE IN THE TALKS THAT TOOK PLACE IN RAMBOUILLET AND THAT ARE SUPPOSED TO START AGAIN ON MARCH 15."

    TEXT: AS OF LAST MONDAY, THE U-S STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN ANNOUNCED THAT THE KOSOVAR ALBANIANS HAVE AGREED TO THE TERMS OF THE PROPOSED PEACE PLAN. HOWEVER, THE KOSOVAR NEGOTIATING TEAM HAS NOT YET SIGNED THE AGREEMENT. AND, THE GOVERNMENT IN BELGRADE HAS REFUSED TO SIGN. YUGOSLAV LEADER SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC REMAINS STRONGLY OPPOSED TO THE DEPLOYMENT OF A NATO-LED FORCE IN KOSOVO AS PART OF A PEACE SETTLEMENT. AMBASSADOR HUNTER SAYS IT IS DOUBTFUL WHETHER HE WILL COMPLY.

    TAPE: CUT EIGHT -- HUNTER (0:54) "THE REAL QUESTION IS: WHAT KIND OF OUTSIDE PRESSURE CAN BE BROUGHT, PARTICULARLY ON MR. MILOSEVIC IN BELGRADE, TO GET THE SERBIANS TO COMPLY? NATO HAS IN THE PAST THREATENED THE USE OF AIR POWER AGAINST SERBIAN MISBEHAVIOR. BUT, I MUST SAY, I'M QUITE SKEPTICAL THAT ALL 16, AND SOON TO BE 19, ALLIES WOULD BE PREPARED TO USE AIRPOWER SIMPLY BECAUSE SOMEBODY WASN'T ACCEPTING SOMETHING AT A BARGAINING TABLE. AND I THINK THE CHALLENGE FOR WESTERN LEADERSHIP IS TO FIND A WAY OF EXERTING SUFFICIENT PRESSURE ON BELGRADE TO COMPLY, AND THAT IS NOT GOING TO BE AN EASY TASK. BUT THIS IS A MAJOR CHALLENGE TO WESTERN LEADERSHIP, INCLUDING AMERICAN LEADERSHIP, LEADING UP TO THE NATO SUMMIT IN WASHINGTON AT THE END OF APRIL. AT THE SAME TIME, IT'S VERY IMPORTANT THAT MACEDONIA BE CERTAIN OF ITS OWN SECURITY. I THINK ALL THE WESTERN COUNTRIES ARE COMMITTED TO A FREE, INDEPENDENT, SOVEREIGN, AND SECURE MACEDONIA, WHICH IS NO MORE THAN IT DESERVES." (END OPT)

    TEXT: FORMER U-S AMBASSADOR TO NATO, ROBERT HUNTER, IS CURRENTLY SENIOR ADVISOR AT THE RAND CORPORATION, A POLICY INSTITUTE IN WASHINGTON, D-C.
    12-Mar-99 10:18 AM EST (1518 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] E-U-ENLARGEMENT (L ONLY) (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=3/12/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-246556

    CORRESPONDENT=RON PEMSTEIN CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ON THE DAY THAT NATO IS EXPANDING MEMBERSHIP TO THREE FORMER COMMUNIST COUNTRIES IN CENTRAL EUROPE, THE EUROPEAN UNION IS DEFENDING ITS SLOWER MOVING ENLARGEMENT PROCESS. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS THAT THE EUROPEAN UNION BELIEVES INTEGRATING INTO A CONTINENTAL COMMON MARKET IS MORE COMPLICATED THAN EXPANDING THE MILITARY ALLIANCE.

    TEXT: THE EUROPEAN UNION HAS BEEN CRITICIZED FROM WASHINGTON TO SOFIA ABOUT THE SLOW PACE OF ITS ENLARGEMENT NEGOTIATIONS. NO DATE HAS BEEN GIVEN FOR COMPLETION OF (MEMBERSHIP) NEGOTIATIONS WITH SIX CANDIDATE COUNTRIES THAT BEGAN LAST YEAR. ONLY VAGUE PROMISES HAVE BEEN MADE ABOUT INCLUDING MORE COUNTRIES IN NEGOTIATIONS BY THE END OF THIS YEAR.

    THE EUROPEAN UNION CONTENDS ITS OWN ENLARGEMENT PROCESS IS PROCEEDING ON SCHEDULE. ITS COMMISSIONER FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS, HANS VAN DEN BROEK, TELLS REPORTERS THAT WHILE THE TWO BRUSSELS-BASED ORGANIZATIONS AGREE ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF STABILITY IN EUROPE, THEY HAVE DIFFERENT STANDARDS.

    ///VAN DEN BROEK ACT///

    INTEGRATING INTO A SINGLE MARKET, JUST TO TAKE ONE ELEMENT, IS DIFFERENT FROM PREPARING FOR JOINING NATO IN SPITE OF THE FACT THAT THERE ARE A LOT OF INDICATIONS THAT THE MILITARY PREPARATION FOR NATO BY THESE THREE COUNTRIES CANNOT BE CONSIDERED ENTIRELY COMPLETED AT THIS VERY POINT IN TIME.

    ///END ACT///

    THE EUROPEAN UNION WANTS THE LEADING NEW MEMBER CANDIDATES -- POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC PLUS CYPRUS, ESTONIA AND SLOVENIA -- TO CHANGE THEIR LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN 31 AREAS TO CONFORM TO EUROPEAN UNION STANDARDS. //OPT// SO FAR, THE EUROPEAN UNION HAS DECLARED TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL POLICY AS THE ONLY TWO AREAS THAT HAVE BEEN COMPLETED WITH ALL SIX COUNTRIES. IT IS EXPECTED THAT STATISTICS AND CONSUMER AFFAIRS MAY BE COMPLETED BY MID-YEAR. //END OPT//

    UNDER THE EUROPEAN UNION'S SCHEDULE, NEW INDIVIDUAL REPORTS ON THE CANDIDATES WILL BE GIVEN IN OCTOBER. AT THE EUROPEAN UNION SUMMIT MEETING IN HELSINKI FINLAND IN DECEMBER, THE HEADS OF GOVERNMENT WILL DETERMINE IF NEGOTIATIONS SHOULD BE OPENED WITH ANY MORE COUNTRIES. SLOVAKIA, LATVIA AND LITHUANIA ARE BELIEVED TO BE THE NEXT CANDIDATES IN LINE FOR STARTING (MEMBERSHIP) NEGOTIATIONS.

    //REST OPT//

    MR. VAN DEN BROEK ESTIMATES NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE SIX LEADING COUNTRIES MAY BE VIRTUALLY COMPLETED BY THE MIDDLE OF NEXT YEAR. INDIVIDUAL JUDGMENTS WILL BE MADE BY THE EUROPEAN UNION AT THAT TIME.

    BULGARIAN PRIME MINISTER IVAN KOSTOV HAS CRITICIZED THE SLOW PACE OF HIS COUNTRY'S RELATIONS WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION. MR. VAN DEN BROEK SAYS BOTH BULGARIA AND LITHUANIA MUST DEAL WITH SOVIET-STYLE NUCLEAR REACTORS ON THEIR TERRITORY BEFORE THEIR MEMBERSHIP CAN BE CONSIDERED.

    ///SECOND VAN DEN BROEK ACT///

    NOTABLY THE QUESTION OF KOZLODUI IN BULGARIA AND THE QUESTION OF IGNALINA IN LITHUANIA ARE COMPLEX ISSUES WHERE, ON THE ONE HAND, WE HAVE TO INSIST ON ADHERING TO COMMITMENTS BY THOSE TWO COUNTRIES THAT HAVE BEEN MADE EARLIER TO CLOSE CERTAIN UNITS WHICH NUCLEAR SAFETY EXPERTS FEEL THAT THEY CANNOT CONTINUE TO OPERATE IN PERFECTLY SECURE CONDITIONS -- EVEN THROUGH UPGRADING THAT SITUATION CANNOT BE ACHIEVED. SO THAT IS THE SECURITY ELEMENT ON WHICH WE CANNOT BE TOO FLEXIBLE.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. VAN DEN BROEK ACKNOWLEDGES BOTH BULGARIA AND LITHUANIA DEPEND ON THESE REACTORS FOR A HIGH PERCENTAGE OF THEIR ELECTRIC ENERGY. MEMBERSHIP NEGOTIATIONS ARE EXPECTED TO BE DELAYED FOR BOTH COUNTRIES UNTIL THIS DILEMMA IS RESOLVED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RDP/PCF
    12-Mar-99 9:57 AM EST (1457 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] GERMAN GOVERNMENT (L-ONLY) BY JONATHAN BRAUDE (BERLIN)

    DATE=3/12/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-246560
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: GERMANY'S CHANCELLOR GERHARD SCHROEDER HAS ASSERTED HIS LEADERSHIP OF THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY, FOLLOWING THE RESIGNATION THURSDAY OF FINANCE MINISTER AND PARTY-PRESIDENT OSKAR LAFONTAINE. CHANCELLOR SCHROEDER HAS ALSO SIGNALED HIS INTENTION TO STEER A MORE BUSINESS-FRIENDLY COURSE IN FUTURE. JONATHAN BRAUDE REPORTS FROM BERLIN.

    TEXT: MR. LAFONTAINE'S DEPARTURE CAUGHT THE RULING COALITION OF SOCIAL DEMOCRATS AND GREENS BY SURPRISE. HIS RESIGNATION CAME IN THE MIDST OF AN ARGUMENT WITH INDUSTRY OVER DOMESTIC TAX CUTS -- AND JUST DAYS BEFORE HE WAS DUE TO CHAIR A MEETING OF EUROPEAN UNION FINANCE MINISTERS TO THRASH OUT SENSITIVE BUDGET REFORMS.

    YET LESS THAN A DAY LATER, CHANCELLOR SCHROEDER HAS TAKEN CONTROL. AT A PRESS CONFERENCE FRIDAY, HE ANNOUNCED HE HAD ACCEPTED THE JOB OF PARTY PRESIDENT -- DESPITE THE EXTRA WORKLOAD AND DENIED THE PARTY OR THE COALITION WERE IN CRISIS.

    HE CONFIRMED NEWSPAPER REPORTS THAT THE NEW FINANCE MINISTER WOULD BE HANS EICHEL -- THE OUTGOING CHIEF MINISTER OF THE GERMAN STATE OF HESSE AND A MAN WIDELY SEEN AS FRIENDLY TO BUSINESS.

    PRAISING MR. EICHEL FOR HIS YEARS OF EXPERIENCE AT THE HEAD OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT, MR. SCHROEDER POINTED TO HIS ROLE IN THE SUCCESS OF FRANKFURT AS THE EUROPEAN CONTINENT'S LEADING FINANCIAL CENTER.

    MR. SCHROEDER HAD PREVIOUSLY HINTED HE WOULD BE READY TO REVERSE SOME OF MR. LAFONTAINE'S CONTROVERSIAL TAX REFORMS. BUT HE TOLD THE PRESS CONFERENCE THE TAX PACKAGE WOULD STAY.

    NEVERTHELESS, HE LEFT THE DOOR OPEN TO FURTHER DISCUSSION -- AND ANALYSTS SAY HIS APPOINTMENT OF MR. EICHEL WAS A CLEAR SIGN THE MODERNIZING, PRO-BUSINESS FUNCTION OF THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATS WAS NOW ON THE RISE.

    ON THE FOREIGN EXCHANGE AND STOCK MARKETS, INVESTORS HAD STARTED CELEBRATING MR. LAFONTAINE'S DEPARTURE EVEN BEFORE THE CHANCELLOR SPOKE. THE EURO REVERSED ITS DECLINE AGAINST THE DOLLAR AND THE DAX, THE GERMAN STOCK MARKET INDEX, PICKED UP SHARPLY DURING THE MORNING'S TRADING.

    BUT SOME COMMENTATORS SUGGESTED THE EUPHORIA MIGHT BE OVERDONE. MR. EICHEL CANNOT TAKE OVER AS FINANCE MINISTER UNTIL HIS PRESENT TERM OF OFFICE IN HESSE EXPIRES NEXT MONTH. IN THE MEANTIME, THE EUROPEAN REFORM DISCUSSIONS WILL BE CHAIRED BY A JUNIOR MINISTER JUST AT A TIME WHEN TOUGH NEGOTIATIONS ARE NEEDED TO MAKE GERMANY'S SIX MONTH PRESIDENCY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION A SUCCESS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JB/PCF/JO
    12-Mar-99 10:39 AM EST (1539 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] AFRICA/EUROPE BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=3/12/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-42840
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FRANCE AND BRITAIN HAVE LAUNCHED A JOINT DIPLOMATIC INITIATIVE IN AFRICA. BUT V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM LONDON THEIR LONG HISTORY OF COMPETING INTERESTS ON THE CONTINENT HAVE SOME SKEPTICS WONDERING HOW LONG THE INITIATIVE WILL LAST.

    TEXT: BRITAIN'S FOREIGN SECRETARY ROBIN COOK AND FRENCH FOREIGN MINISTER HUBERT VEDRINE TOLD REPORTERS IN IVORY COAST THE OLD DAYS OF BRITISH FRENCH RIVALRY ARE OVER.

    AFRICA WATCHERS LIKE HISTORIAN KEVIN SHILLINGTON -- WHO HAS AUTHORED THREE BOOKS ON AFRICA -- WROTE IN BRITAIN'S "INDEPENDENT" NEWSPAPER THAT THE JOINT DIPLOMATIC INITIATIVE IS AN OPPORTUNITY TO BURY THE SO-CALLED "FASHODA" SYNDROME ONCE AND FOR ALL. IT WAS AT THE EGYPTIAN FORT OF FASHODA ON THE NILE RIVER WHERE BRITAIN AND FRANCE BATTLED IN 1898 FOR CONTROL OF THE REGION.

    BUT AFRICAN SCHOLAR DAVID ANDERSON OF LONDON'S SCHOOL FOR ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES IS NOT SO SURE THE NEW RAPPROCHEMENT WILL LAST. HE SAYS THE LONG ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL RIVALRY REFLECTS FUNDAMENTALLY COMPETING INTERESTS.

    /// ANDERSON ACT ///

    WHAT MAKES IT PUZZLING IS THAT IN MANY WAYS BRITISH AND FRENCH BUSINESS INTERESTS, WHERE THEY OVERLAP, HAVE BEEN ANTAGONISTIC. IN FACT, IF YOU TALK WITH BRITISH BUSINESSMEN WHO HAVE INTERESTS IN AFRICA, THEY WILL ASSERT THAT FRENCH INFLUENCE HAS BEEN PERNICIOUS AT BEST AND DOWNRIGHT MISCHIEVOUS AT WORST. AND THEY WOULD NOT WELCOME, I THINK, CLOSER COLLABORATION BETWEEN BRITISH AND FRENCH GOVERNMENTS IN COMMERCIAL MATTERS.

    /// END ACT ///

    SINCE THE 1960'S, HISTORIAN SHILLINGTON SAYS BRITAIN HAS PURSUED ITS ECONOMIC INTERESTS THROUGH THE PRIVATE SECTOR. FRENCH BUSINESS HAS MONOPOLIZED FRANCOPHONE WEST AFRICA SINCE THE FRENCH FRANC WAS ESTABLISHED AS THE COMMON CURRENCY THERE IN 1946.

    MR ANDERSON SUGGESTS AFRICA'S GREAT LAKES REGION ALSO HAS BEEN AN AREA OF OPPOSING POLICIES.

    /// SECOND ANDERSON ACT ///

    AND INDEED THERE WAS A GREAT FALLING-OUT IN THE WAKE OF THE GENOCIDE A FEW YEARS BACK IN RWANDA WHERE THE FRENCH AND BRITISH BLAMED EACH OTHER FOR MISINTERPRETING AND MISJUDGING THE SITUATION. SO I THINK THERE HAS BEEN A RECENT HISTORY OF A GREAT DEAL OF ACRIMONY OVER AFRICAN POLICY AND THE GREAT LAKES AREA IS WHERE IT IS MOST PRONOUNCED.

    /// END ACT //

    //OPT//

    MR. ANDERSON PREDICTS MOST AFRICAN STATES WILL VIEW THE NEW PARTNERSHIP WITH SKEPTICISM.

    /// THIRD ANDERSON ACT ////// OPT ACT ///

    AND I THINK THEY WILL BE RATHER SURPRISED TO SEE THE TWO GETTING TOGETHER BECAUSE THEIR TECHNIQUES AND THE THINGS THEY TRY TO ACHIEVE IN AFRICA ARE SO RADIALLY DIFFERENT. I DON'T THINK THEY'LL TAKE IT VERY SERIOUSLY BECAUSE OF THE HISTORY OF BRITISH AND FRENCH RELATIONS, I DOUBT THAT MANY SENSIBLE AFRICAN STATESMEN WILL THINK THIS WILL LAST VERY LONG.

    /// END ACT /////END OPT//

    FRANCE AND BRITAIN INSIST THEY CAN AND WILL WORK TOGETHER IN AFRICA. THE INITIATIVE WAS LAUNCHED LAST YEAR WITH A FORMAL DECLARATION CALLING FOR COMMON POLICIES TO PROMOTE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, POLITICAL REFORMS, HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEBT RELIEF FOR AFRICA. IT INCLUDES SHARING INFORMATION AND, IN SOME CASES, EVEN EMBASSIES.

    DIPLOMATS IN LONDON SAY THE JOINT PROGRAM WOULD ALSO BOLSTER THE OVERALL EUROPEAN UNION GOAL OF A COMMON FOREIGN POLICY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/PCF
    12-Mar-99 10:52 AM EST (1552 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] BRITAIN/CONGO (L-ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=3/12/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-246547
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITAIN IS RECALLING ITS AMBASSADOR FROM THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO TO EXPRESS ITS OUTRAGE AFTER KINSHASA EXPELLED FIVE BRITISH DIPLOMATS EARLIER THIS WEEK. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM LONDON THAT THE KINSHASA GOVERNMENT HAD ACCUSED THE DIPLOMATS OF SPYING -- A CHARGE BRITAIN DENIES.

    TEXT: THE FOREIGN OFFICE SAYS THE BRITISH AMBASSADOR IN KINSHASA IS BEING RECALLED FOR CONSULTATIONS WHILE LONDON DECIDES HOW TO RESPOND TO KINSHASA'S EXPULSION ORDER FOR THE BRITISH DIPLOMATS.

    THE FIVE BRITONS AND AN AMERICAN DIPLOMAT, WHO WAS ALSO EXPELLED, ARE ACCUSED OF SPYING. NEWSPAPERS IN KINSHASA SAY THE MEN WERE DETAINED NEAR THE AIRPORT WITH CAMERAS AND MAPS OF THE CITY, INDICATING THE LOCATION OF CONGOLESE SOLDIERS.

    THE FOREIGN OFFICE SAYS THE DIPLOMATS WERE SCOUTING EVACUATION ROUTES AS PART OF EMBASSY SECURITY ROUTINES. THE BRITISH AND U-S GOVERNMENTS BOTH HAVE DENIED KINSHASA'S CHARGES OF ESPIONAGE.

    THE BRITISH MINISTER IN CHARGE OF AFRICAN AFFAIRS SAYS HIS GOVERNMENT WOULD BE CONSIDERED IRRESPONSIBLE IF IT DID NOT MAKE PLANS TO PROTECT ITS NATIONALS IN CASE THE CONGO'S WAR SPREAD TO THE CAPITAL.

    THE EXPULSIONS COINCIDE WITH FOREIGN SECRETARY ROBIN COOK'S TOUR OF AFRICA WITH HIS FRENCH COUNTERPART AS PART OF A JOINT MISSION AIMED AT CONSOLIDATING THEIR ONCE-COMPETITIVE INTERESTS IN THE REGION.

    THE TWO GOVERNMENTS HAVE AGREED TO JOIN FORCES TO PROMOTE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, DEBT RELIEF, POLITICAL REFORMS AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN AFRICA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/PCF
    12-Mar-99 7:07 AM EST (1207 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] NATO / NEW MEMBERS UPDATE BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=3/12/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-42842
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    // RE-ISSUING FROM THURSDAY'S FILE TO TAKE NOTE, IN INTRO, OF INDEPENDENCE, MO., NATO CEREMONY. NO OTHER CHANGES //

    INTRO: FOR THE FIRST TIME IN 17 YEARS, NATO IS EXPANDING ITS MEMBERSHIP, THIS TIME TO THREE FORMER MEMBERS OF THE SOVIET-LED WARSAW PACT. THERE IS A CEREMONY ON FRIDAY IN INDEPENDENCE, MISSOURI, AT THE HARRY TRUMAN PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY -- MR. TRUMAN WAS THE U-S PRESIDENT WHEN NATO WAS CREATED. AND THERE IS ANOTHER CEREMONY NEXT WEEK IN BRUSSELS, WHERE NATO HEADQUARTERS IS LOCATED. FROM BRUSSELS, V-O-A CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN HAS A PREVIEW OF WHAT WILL HAPPEN NEXT WEEK AT THE ALLIANCE HEADQUARTERS AND A LOOK AT HOW THE NEW MEMBERS WILL AFFECT THE ALLIANCE.

    TEXT: THE CEREMONY WILL TAKE PLACE AT NATO HEADQUARTERS ON TUESDAY MORNING (MARCH 16TH). THE WHITE AND RED FLAG OF POLAND, THE GREEN, RED, AND WHITE HUNGARIAN FLAG, AND THE RED WHITE, AND BLUE BANNER OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC WILL BE RAISED TO FLY ALONGSIDE THE FLAGS OF NATO'S EXISTING 16 MEMBERS .

    THE MOVE TO 19 NATIONS IS THE FIRST EXPANSION OF THE WESTERN MILITARY ALLIANCE SINCE SPAIN JOINED NATO IN 1982. POLAND, HUNGARY, AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC WERE, UNTIL 1990, MEMBERS OF THE SOVIET-LED WARSAW PACT. THEIR MILITARY EQUIPMENT WAS COUNTED AGAINST NATO'S WHEN THE TWO ALLIANCES AGREED TO MAKE CONVENTIONAL ARMS REDUCTIONS IN THAT YEAR.

    WITH THE CHANGES IN EASTERN EUROPE, THE THREE COUNTRIES IN 1994 JOINED NATO'S PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE, A COOPERATION PROGRAM THAT INCLUDED ALL PROSPECTIVE MEMBERS FROM FORMERLY COMMUNIST COUNTRIES.

    JOURNALIST FREDERICK BONNART RECALLS THAT NATO ENLARGEMENT MET INITIAL RESISTANCE.

    /// BONNART ACT ///

    THERE WAS CONSIDERABLE OPPOSITION TO FURTHER EXPANSION OF NATO FOR A NUMBER OF REASONS WHICH WERE QUITE VALID AT THE TIME, PARTLY TO DO WITH THE SITUATION WITH RUSSIA, PARTLY TO DO ALSO WITH THE CORE STRENGTH OF NATO BECAUSE BY CONTINUING TO INCREASE THE NUMBER OF MEMBERS QUITE A NUMBER OF COMMENTATORS, INCLUDING MYSELF, CONSIDERED THAT ONE WAS INVITING A WEAKNESS, A WEAKENING OF THE ORGANIZATION.

    /// END ACT ///

    TO SOFTEN RUSSIAN OPPOSITION TO NATO'S EXPANSION INTO CENTRAL EUROPE, NATO PLEDGED THAT IT SEES NO NEED NOR HAS ANY INTENTION TO STATION NUCLEAR WEAPONS ON THE TERRITORY OF ANY NEW MEMBER.

    MR. BONNART HAS REPORTED ON NATO SINCE IT MOVED TO BRUSSELS IN THE 1960'S. HE SAYS HE BELIEVES THE ADDITION OF THE THREE COUNTRIES WILL NOT AFFECT NATO'S BASIC MISSION.

    /// BONNART ACT ///

    THE MAIN PURPOSE REMAINS WHAT IS CALLED THE CORE PURPOSE WHICH IS THE DEFENSE AND INTEGRITY OF THE MEMBER COUNTRIES OF WHICH THERE ARE NOW THREE MORE, BUT THAT ALTHOUGH IT IS THE UNDERLYING CORE PURPOSE, IT IS OF SECONDARY IMPORTANCE BECAUSE THERE IS NO THREAT TO ANY OF THEM INCLUDING THE THREE NEW ONES .

    /// END ACT ///

    THE CHAIRMAN OF NATO'S MILITARY COMMITTEE, GENERAL KLAUS NAUMANN, SAYS THE NEW MEMBERS CANNOT BE EXPECTED TO BE READY TO OPERATE FULLY WITH THE EXISTING MEMBERS AS SOON AS THEY JOIN.

    /// NAUMANN ACT ///

    THIS IS A PROCESS WHICH WILL GO ON FOR A COUPLE OF MONTHS IF NOT YEARS. WE SHOULD NEVER FORGET IT TOOK ALL THE ALLIANCE NATIONS ALSO QUITE A TIME TO GET USED TO AN INTEGRATED COMMAND STRUCTURE AND TO THE PECULIARITIES OF INTERGRATED MILITARY FORCES WHICH AS I FAR AS I KNOW IS A FIRST TIME EVENT CREATED BY NATO. I AM NOT AWARE OF ANY COALITION BEFORE THAT HAS CREATED A PEACE TIME STANDING INTEGRATED MILITARY STRUCTURE.

    /// END ACT ///

    HE SAYS ALL THREE COUNTRIES HAVE FULFILLED THEIR COMMITMENTS TO INCREASE DEFENSE SPENDING DESPITE THEIR OTHER PRESSING ECONOMIC NEEDS.

    GENERAL NAUMANN -- WHO IS GERMAN -- SAYS THE ADVANTAGE OF NATO MEMBERSHIP FOR POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC IS THE ALLIANCE'S RESTRAINT ON NATIONALISM.

    /// NAUMANN ACT ///

    YOUNG OFFICERS LEARN HERE THAT IT IS MORE IMPORTANT TO FIND THE COMMON DENOMINATOR OF 19 DEMOCRATIC NATIONS THAN TO PURSUE NARROWLY DEFINED NATIONAL INTERESTS. AND THIS IS A FACTOR OF INTEGRATION WHICH COULD HELP US EUROPEANS IN PARTICULAR TO OVERCOME MANY LEGACIES OF THE PAST.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE ENTRY OF POLAND, HUNGARY, AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC TO NATO HAS ENCOURAGED SLOVENIA, ROMANIA, AND THE BALTIC COUNTRIES TO HOPE THEY WILL BE INCLUDED IN THE NEXT ROUND OF NATO EXPANSION. MR. BONNART FEELS THE NATO SUMMIT MEETING NEXT MONTH IN WASHINGTON TO CELEBRATE THE ALLIANCE'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY WILL BE TOO SOON TO OPEN NATO'S DOOR AGAIN.

    /// BONNART ACT ///

    THERE IS MUCH TALK INSIDE NATO NOW ABOUT CONSOLIDATION, IN OTHER WORDS TO ABSORB THESE THREE COUNTRIES TO MAKE CERTAIN THAT THIS IS GOING TO WORK, WELL, TO SHOW THAT IT WILL WORK AND TO SHOW THEM HOW IT WILL WORK AND THAT WILL TAKE QUITE A CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT OF TIME. SO I DO NOT EXPECT A FURTHER INVITATION TO ENLARGEMENT TO ANY OTHER COUNTRY TO BECOME A MEMBER OR EVEN TO PREPARE IMMEDIATELY FOR MEMBERSHIP.

    /// END ACT ///

    INSTEAD, NATO WILL BE TRYING AT THE WASHINGTON SUMMIT TO DEVISE A NEW FORMULA TO HELP PREPARE PROSPECTIVE MEMBERS SO THEIR FLAGS TOO MAY SOMEDAY FLY AT NATO HEADQUARTERS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RDP/JWH
    12-Mar-99 11:03 AM EST (1603 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [10] NATO CEREMONY (S&L) BY MICHAEL LELAND (INDEPENDENCE, MISSOURI)

    DATE=3/12/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-246567
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION HAS THREE NEW MEMBERS -- THE CZECH REPUBLIC, HUNGARY AND POLAND. THEY ARE THE FIRST OF THE NATIONS OF THE FORMER SOVIET BLOC TO JOIN THE WESTERN MILITARY ALLIANCE. THE CEREMONY TOOK PLACE (FRIDAY) IN THE MIDWEST U-S CITY OF INDEPENDENCE, MISSOURI. V-O-A'S MICHAEL LELAND HAS MORE.

    TEXT: AT A TABLE ONCE USED BY U-S PRESIDENT HARRY TRUMAN, ONE OF NATO'S CREATORS NEARLY 50 YEARS AGO, AND WHO LIVED IN THIS COMMUNITY, U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT ACCEPTED THE INSTRUMENTS OF NATO ACCESSION FROM THE FOREIGN MINISTERS OF THE ALLIANCE'S THREE NEWEST MEMBERS.

    /// FIRST ALBRIGHT ACT ///

    NEVER AGAIN WILL YOUR FATES BE TOSSED AROUND LIKE POKER CHIPS ON A BARGAINING TABLE. WHETHER YOU ARE HELPING TO REVISE THE ALLIANCE'S STRATEGIC CONCEPT OR ENGAGING IN NATO'S PARTNERSHIP WITH RUSSIA, THE PROMISE OF "NOTHING ABOUT YOU WITHOUT YOU" IS NOW FORMALIZED.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE WESTERN MILITARY ALLIANCE NOW HAS 19 MEMBERS, AND MS. ALBRIGHT SUGGESTS THERE WILL BE MORE ONE DAY. SHE SAYS NATO EXPANSION IS NOT AN EVENT, BUT A PROCESS.

    /// REST OPT FOR LONG ///

    THE FOREIGN MINISTER OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC, JAN KAVAN, RECALLED BEING JUST A FEW KILOMETERS FROM HERE, IN KANSAS CITY (MISSOURI), WHEN RUSSIAN TANKS ROLLED INTO PRAGUE IN 1968. HE SAYS THE CZECH REPUBLIC APPRECIATES THE MEANING OF NATO MEMBERSHIP.

    /// KAVAN ACT ///

    WE ARE DETERMINED NOT TO BECOME A BURDEN TO THE ALLIANCE. JUST THE CONTRAR: WE ARE PREPARED TO FULFILL OUR PART OF THE RESPONSIBILITIES AND COMMITMENTS OF MEMBER STATES, AND TO MEET ALL OF THE OBLIGATIONS AND DUTIES WHICH STEM FROM THIS MEMBERSHIP.

    /// END ACT ///

    LIKE SECRETARY ALBRIGHT, THE FOREIGN MINISTER OF HUNGARY, JANOS MARTONYI, SPOKE IN FAVOR OF EXPANDING THE ALLIANCE'S MEMBERSHIP FURTHER. BUT HE SAYS BECOMING A NATO MEMBER IS ABOUT MORE THAN CONTRIBUTING TO REGIONAL SECURITY.

    /// MARTONYI ACT ///

    NATO ACCESSION IS ALSO ABOUT RETURNING HUNGARY TO HER NATURAL HABITAT. IT HAS BEEN OUR MANIFEST DESTINY TO JOIN THOSE WITH WHOM WE SHARE THE SAME VALUES, INTERESTS AND GOALS.

    /// END ACT ///

    AND THE FOREIGN MINISTER OF POLAND, BRONISLAW GEREMEK, PROMISED HIS COUNTRY WOULD BE A FAITHFUL ALLY -- AS HE PUT IT, IN GOOD WEATHER AS WELL AS BAD.

    /// GEREMEK ACT ///

    POLAND FOREVER RETURNS WHERE SHE HAS ALWAYS BELONGED: THE FREE WORLD. POLAND IS NO LONGER ALONE IN THE DEFENSE OF HER FREEDOM.

    /// END ACT ///

    // OPT //

    ALL 19 NATO NATIONS WILL JOIN 25 PARTNER COUNTRIES NEXT MONTH FOR A WASHINGTON SUMMIT, TO DISCUSS THE ALLIANCE'S ROLE DURING THE NEXT CENTURY. MS. ALBRIGHT SAYS THE CZECH REPUBLIC, HUNGARY AND POLAND WILL BRING IMPRESSIVE CREDENTIALS TO THAT GATHERING. SHE SAYS THE CITIZENS OF ALL THREE COUNTRIES HAVE A TRADITION OF PUTTING THEIR LIVES ON THE LINE FOR FREEDOM.

    /// SECOND ALBRIGHT ACT ///

    WITNESS HUNGARY'S COURAGEOUS FREEDOM FIGHTERS IN 1956, THE STUDENTS WHO FACED DOWN TANKS IN THE STREETS OF PRAGUE 12 YEARS LATER, AND THE WORKERS OF GDANSK, WHOSE MOVEMENT FOR SOLIDARITY USHERED IN EUROPE'S NEW DAWN.

    /// END ACT ////// END OPT ///

    MS. ALBRIGHT SAYS NATO WILL CONTINUE STRENGTHENING ITS PARTNERSHIP WITH RUSSIA, UKRAINE AND EUROPE'S OTHER DEMOCRACIES. SHE SAYS ITS PURPOSE TODAY IS ERASING THE LINES DRAWN BY SOVIET LEADER JOSEF STALIN, WITHOUT REPLACING THEM. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MJL/WTW
    12-Mar-99 3:45 PM EST (2045 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] ALBRIGHT / NATO FUTURE BY MICHAEL LELAND (INDEPENDENCE, MISSOURI)

    DATE=3/12/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-42848
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN A FEW WEEKS, THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION WILL MARK ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY. THE NATO ALLIANCE WAS CREATED TO RESIST SOVIET EXPANSIONISM IN EUROPE, BUT NEARLY TEN YEARS AFTER THE FALL OF THE BERLIN WALL, THE ALLIANCE'S SUPPORTERS SAY IT IS STILL VERY MUCH RELEVANT IN TODAY'S WORLD. AS VOA'S MICHAEL LELAND TELLS US, U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELINE ALBRIGHT IS AMONG THOSE WHO SAY NATO STILL HAS AN IMPORTANT ROLE TO PLAY.

    TEXT: IN A CEREMONY WELCOMING THE CZECH REPUBLIC, HUNGARY AND POLAND INTO NATO, SECRETARY ALBRIGHT SAID THE THREE NEW MEMBERS WOULD HELP STRENGTHEN TRANS-ATLANTIC TIES, AND BUILD A COMMUNITY OF PROSPERITY AND PEACE IN THE REGION. SPEAKING IN THE MIDWEST U-S STATE OF MISSOURI, AT THE PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY OF HARRY TRUMAN, ONE OF NATO'S CREATORS, MS. ALBRIGHT SAID THE ALLIANCE HAS ALLOWED A GENERATION TO GROW UP UNDER DEMOCRATIC RULE. BUT SHE SAYS THERE IS A POTENTIAL DANGER AHEAD.

    // ALBRIGHT ACT #1 //

    FOR THERE IS A RISK THAT TO PEOPLE WHO HAVE NEVER KNOWN TYRANNY, AN ALLIANCE FORGED BEFORE THEY WERE BORN TO COUNTER AN ENEMY THAT NO LONGER EXISTS, TO DEFEND FREEDOMS SOME BELIEVE ARE NO LONGER IN DANGER, MAY APPEAR NO MORE RELEVANT THAN THE FATE OF CENTRAL EUROPE DID TO SOME OF OUR PREDECESSORS 60 YEARS AGO.

    // END ACT //

    SHE SAYS THE SUCCESS OF NATO IS MEASURED NOT IN WARS WON, BUT IN WARS PREVENTED AND FREEDOMS PRESERVED. SHE SAYS THE ENLARGEMENT OF NATO IS NOT A SIGN THE ALLIANCE IS BECOMING MORE AGGRESSIVE, BUT RATHER IS SERIOUS ABOUT SECURING FREEDOM AND STABILITY FOR EASTERN EUROPE, AS IT HAS DONE FOR 50 YEARS IN THE WEST.

    // ALBRIGHT ACT #2 //

    WE MUST NEVER FALL BACK INTO COMPLACENCY OR PRESUME THAT TOTALITARIANISM IS FOREVER DEAD OR RETREAT IN THE FACE OF AGGRESSION. WE MUST LEARN FROM HISTORY, NOT REPEAT IT AND MUST NEVER FORGET THAT THE DESTINIES OF EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA ARE INSEPARABLE.

    // END ACT //

    BUT WITH THE COLD WAR OVER, MS. ALBRIGHT SAYS THREATS TO REGIONAL SECURITY ARE NOT AS CLEAR AS THEY ONCE WERE, BUT DO STILL EXIST -- BOSNIA AND KOSOVO, FOR EXAMPLE. SHE SAYS NATO MEMBERS' OFFER OF HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE ALONG WITH THE THREAT OF FORCE HAVE COMPLEMENTED DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS IN THE REGION, AND THAT THE PROPOSED INTERIM POLITICAL SETTLEMENT MEETS THE NEEDS, AND RESPECTS THE RIGHTS, OF ALL INVOLVED.

    // ALBRIGHT ACT #3 //

    WHEN TALKS RESUME NEXT WEEK, WE MUST BE FIRM IN SECURING THIS AGREEMENT. WE MUST BE CLEAR IN EXPLAINING THAT A SETTLEMENT WITHOUT NATO-LED ENFORCEMENT IS NOT ACCEPTABLE BECAUSE ONLY NATO HAS THE CREDIBILITY AND CAPABILITY TO MAKE IT WORK. AND WE MUST BE RESOLUTE IN SPELLING OUT THE CONSEQUENCES OF INTRANSIGENCE.

    // END ACT //

    IN APRIL, NATO'S NOW 19 MEMBER NATIONS WILL JOIN 25 PARTNER COUNTRIES ( EDS : IN THE PARNERSHIP FOR PEACE PROGRAM) FOR A SUMMIT IN WASHINGTON. THEY'LL DISCUSS THE ALLIANCE'S FUTURE AND DEVELOP A REVISED STRATEGIC CONCEPT, TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE VARIETY OF FUTURE DANGERS NATO MAY FACE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MJL/PT
    12-Mar-99 4:39 PM EST (2139 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [12] HUNGARY/NATO BY STEFAN BOS (BUDAPEST)

    DATE=3/11/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-42838
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AS THE FIRST FORMER WARSAW PACT COUNTRIES TO JOIN NATO TAKE UP THEIR MEMBERSHIP (TODAY/FRIDAY) IN THE WESTERN MILITARY ALLIANCE, HUNGARY'S PRIME MINISTER IS CALLING ON NATO TO EXPAND EVEN FURTHER INTO EASTERN EUROPE. NOT EVERYONE IN THE REGION AGREES, SINCE NATO'S THREE NEWCOMERS -- THE CZECH REPUBLIC, HUNGARY AND POLAND -- HAVE A DIFFICULT TASK AHEAD, AS THEY UPGRADE THEIR MILITARY TO NATO'S STANDARDS. STEFAN BOS REPORTS FROM BUDAPEST.

    TEXT:

    /// SFX: MARCHING SOLDIERS -- ESTABLISH, FADE UNDER ///

    AT A MILITARY AIRFIELD NEAR LAKE BALATON, HUNGARIAN SOLDIERS MARCH PROUDLY DURING A NATO EXERCISE. BUT THEIR OFFICERS SAY PRIVATELY THERE IS LITTLE TO SMILE ABOUT. THEY AGREE WITH WESTERN MILITARY EXPERTS THAT HUNGARY'S ARMY IS NOT YET READY TO MARCH INTO THE NEW MILLENNIUM AS A RELIABLE, MODERN NATO FORCE.

    WHAT WAS ONCE AN ARMY OF MORE THAN 100-THOUSAND SOLDIERS, NOW HAS BARELY 60-THOUSAND TROOPS. AND MOST OF THE OFFICERS ONLY SPEAK RUSSIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE.

    DURING THE YEARS HUNGARY WAS ALLIED WITH THE SOVIET UNION IN THE WARSAW PACT, RUSSIAN WAS NECESSARY, TO COMMUNICATE WITH THE RED ARMY LEADERSHIP. NOW THESE SAME HUNGARIAN OFFICERS ARE TURNING TO THE WEST -- TO NATO AND TO THE UNITED STATES -- AND ENGLISH-LANGUAGE SKILLS ARE NEEDED.

    PRIME MINISTER VIKTOR ORBAN EXPLAINS THE DEFENSE PRIORITIES OF HIS (CENTER-RIGHT) GOVERNMENT:

    /// FIRST ORBAN ACT ///

    WE SHOULD CONTINUE TO REFORM OUR EDUCATION FOR THE MILITARY PERSONS. SO LET'S SAY THE SOFTWARE OF THE HUNGARIAN ARMY SHOULD BE IMPROVED, [AS WELL AS] COMMUNICATION ABILITIES, LANGUAGE CAPABILITIES AND EDUCATION -- ESPECIALLY IN ENGLISH, BECAUSE THAT IS THE LANGUAGE OF NATO NOW. SO WE PUT THE EMPHASIS ON THESE ISSUES.

    /// END ACT ///

    TO TAKE A FULL ROLE IN NATO, HUNGARY MUST UPGRADE ITS MILITARY EQUIPMENT TO WESTERN STANDARDS. EXPERTS ESTIMATE THE COST AT HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS OF DOLLARS.

    THIS WILL BE TOUGH FOR HUNGARY, WHICH IS ALREADY STRUGGLING WITH THE BURDEN OF TRANSITION TO A FREE-MARKET ECONOMY.

    AT THE SAME TIME, DEFENSE INDUSTRIES ACROSS HUNGARY, POLAND AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC ARE SUFFERING AS A RESULT OF THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM, WHICH ENDED GOVERNMENT-FINANCED WEAPONS PROGRAMS.

    ANALYSTS SAY THAT IS WHY OPINION POLLS SHOW ONLY 60 PERCENT OF HUNGARIANS NOW FAVOR THEIR COUNTRY'S MEMBERSHIP IN NATO -- DOWN FROM 80 PERCENT A YEAR EARLIER.

    HUNGARIAN CRITICS ARGUE THAT NATO SHOULD HAVE EXPANDED MORE SLOWLY, BUT GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS HERE SAY THE FORMER WARSAW PACT COUNTRIES WANTED TO JOIN THE ALLIANCE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE, BECAUSE OVER CONCERN ABOUT THE CONFLICT IN KOSOVO.

    RUSSIA SAYS NATO EXPANSION WILL ONLY LEAD TO NEW DIVISIONS IN EUROPE, BUT PRIME MINISTER ORBAN DISAGREES:

    /// SECOND ORBAN ACT ///

    IT WAS NOT POSSIBLE TO ACCEPT ALL THE COUNTRIES WHO ASKED FOR MEMBERSHIP OF NATO. THEY [THE NATO ACOUNCIL] ACCEPTED THOSE COUNTRIES WHICH WERE IN THE PROPER FORM. BUT AT THE SAME TIME, THEY KEEP THE DOOR OPEN FOR THE OTHER COUNTRIES. THEREFORE THERE IS NO DANGER OF CREATING NEW DIVISION-LINES, [BECAUSE] OF THE ENLARGEMENT PROCESS.

    /// END ACT ///

    DESPITE HUNGARY'S MILITARY SHORTCOMINGS, MR. ORBAN BELIEVES HIS COUNTRY WILL BE ABLE TO FULFILL ITS NATO OBLIGATIONS. HUNGARY WILL BE PART OF NATO'S SOUTHERN COMMAND, AND MAY HAVE TO PARTICIPATE IN PEACE OPERATIONS IN THE YUGOSLAV PROVINCE OF KOSOVO AND OTHER TROUBLED BALKAN REGIONS.

    /// REST OPT ///

    /// SFX: SOUND OF HELICOPTERS -- ESTABLISH AND FADE UNDER ///

    ARMY HELICOPTERS CIRCLED ABOVE SNOW-BOUND HUNGARIAN VILLAGES THIS WINTER AS THE COUNTRY EXPERIENCED ITS WORST BLIZZARDS IN DECADES. PILOTS DROPPED HEALTH SUPPLIES AND FOOD, AND AIRLIFTED MANY SERIOUSLY-ILL PATIENTS TO SAFETY. HUNGARIAN COMMANDERS SAY THEY COULD PROVIDE SIMILAR ASSISTANCE IN KOSOVO, BUT THEY WOULD PREFER TO AVOID ANY MILITARY INVOLVEMENT IN THAT CONFLICT.

    FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESMAN GABOR HORVATH EXPLAINS:

    /// HORVATH ACT ///

    A CONSIDERABLE HUNGARIAN NATIONAL MINORITY IS LIVING IN THE NORTH ERN PART OF YUGOS LAVIA , IN VOJVO DINA. AND FROM THERE YOUNG ETHNI

    HUNGA RIANS ARE DRAFT ED INTO THE YUGOS LAV ARMY. SO I THINK IT IS CLEAR THAT HUNGA RY WOULD LIKE TO AVOID

    SITUA TION WHERE ONE HUNGA RIAN SOLDI ER WOULD FACE ANOTH ER HUNGA RIAN SOLDI ER IN KOSOV O.

    /// END ACT ///

    ANALYSTS SAY DEFINING HUNGARY'S ROLE IN THE NATO ALLIANCE WILL TAKE TIME. HOWEVER, NATO OFFICIALS BELIEVE THAT EXPANDING THE ALLIANCE EASTWARD IS STILL THE BEST WAY TO HEAL THE WOUNDS OF HISTORY.

    PRIME MINISTER ORBAN SAYS HE HOPES SLOVAKIA -- HOME TO A LARGE ETHNIC-HUNGARIAN MINORITY -- WILL BE ABLE TO JOIN NATO SOON. ITALY'S PRIME MINISTER MASSIMO D'ALEMA, APPEARING WITH MR. ORBAN AT A NEWS CONFERENCE IN BUDAPEST THURSDAY, SAID NATO'S NEXT MEMBERS SHOULD INCLUDE SLOVENIA, ROMANIA AND -- AT A LATER STAGE BULGARIA. ALTHOUGH THEY DISAGREED ON PRIORITIES, THE TWO LEADERS AGREED THAT NATO EXPANSION SHOULD CONTINUE INTO THE NEXT CENTURY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/SB/WDC/WTW
    11-Mar-99 8:01 PM EST (0101 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] NATO/REACT (L-ONLY) BY ALENA KENCLOVA (PRAGUE)

    DATE=3/12/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-246557
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: POLITICIANS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC, POLAND AND HUNGARY SAY THAT TODAY, FRIDAY -- THE DAY ON WHICH THEY ARE JOINING NATO -- IS ONE OF THE CRUCIAL MOMENTS IN THE HISTORY OF THEIR NATIONS. ALENA KENCLOVA REPORTS FROM PRAGUE ABOUT CELEBRATIONS UNDER WAY IN THE THREE NEW NATO MEMBER STATES.

    TEXT: SPEECHES BY PRESIDENTS, POLITICAL LEADERS, ARMY CEREMONIES, LOCAL MEETINGS AND FESTIVITIES MARKING THE WIDENING OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC ALLIANCE ARE BEING HELD IN THE CAPITALS AND TOWNS OF THE THREE COUNTRIES. IN PRAGUE, CZECH PRESIDENT VACLAV HAVEL CALLED HIS COUNTRY'S NATO MEMBERSHIP A GUARANTEE OF SECURITY AS WELL AS A COMMITMENT TO DEFEND THE JOINTLY SHARED VALUES. HIS REMARKS WERE IN A RADIO ADDRESS.

    //HAVEL ACT IN CZECH -- IN FULL, THEN UNDER//

    TAK PEVNE BEZPECNOSTNE ZAKOTVENI JAKO NYNI JSME VLASTNE NEBYLI NIKDY... DAVA NAM TO SKUTECNE VELIKOU NADEJI, ZE UZ NEBUDME ENIKDY OKUPOVANI NEBO OBETOVANI NEJAKEMU AGRESOROVI.

    //ACT FADE//

    PRESIDENT HAVEL SAYS WITH NATO MEMBERSHIP, CZECH SECURITY HAS NEVER BEFORE BEEN SO SECURE. "IT GIVES A REALLY GREAT HOPE," HE SAYS, "THAT WE WILL NEVER AGAIN BE OCCUPIED OR SACRIFICED TO AN AGGRESSOR." //OPT// MR. HAVEL RECALLED THAT THE 60TH ANNIVERSARY OF HITLER'S TROOPS MARCHED INTO PRAGUE TO OCCUPY BOHEMIA AND MORAVIA IS JUST THREE DAYS FROM NOW. AND THAT EIGHT YEARS AGO, THE CZECHS WERE STILL MEMBERS OF THE WARSAW PACT, WHICH, UNLIKE NATO, HE SAYS, WAS NOT AN ALLIANCE OF EQUAL PARTNERS. //END OPT// IN WARSAW, PRIME MINISTER JERZY BUZEK ADDRESSED THE POLISH NATION ON THE EVE OF THE NEW MEMBERS ADMISSION. HE SAID THAT JOINING NATO CLOSED A DIFFICULT CHAPTER IN POLAND'S HISTORY IN WHICH INDEPENDENCE, PEACE AND SECURITY WERE UNATTAINABLE FOR MANY GENERATIONS.

    MEDIA IN THE THREE NEW MEMBER COUNTRIES HAVE PUBLISHED SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTS ON THE DEFENSE ALLIANCE. THEY QUOTE POLITICIANS AND CITIZENS, INCLUDING THOSE OPPOSED TO JOINING NATO. LATEST OPINION SURVEYS INDICATE THAT ABOUT THREE-FIFTHS OF POLES, HUNGARIANS AND CZECHS SUPPORT NATO MEMBERSHIP, WHILE BETWEEN 11 AND 22 PERCENT ARE AGAINST IT.

    //REST OPT//

    TELEVISION, RADIO AND NEWSPAPERS HAVE REPORTED RUSSIA'S REPEATED CRITICISM OF THE ALLIANCE'S EXPANSION, AND EVEN THREATS OF AN ECONOMIC BLOCKADE BY ITS NATIONALISTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AK/PCF
    12-Mar-99 9:58 AM EST (1458 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [14] NATO PREVIEW ONITE (S/L) BY MICHAEL LELAND (INDEPENDENCE, MISSOURI)

    DATE=3/11/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-246532
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: LATER TODAY (FRIDAY), THREE FORMER SOVIET BLOC NATIONS BECOME MEMBERS OF THE WESTERN MILITARY ALLIANCE THAT OPPOSED THEM FOR DECADES. THE CZECH REPUBLIC, HUNGARY AND POLAND WILL JOIN THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION IN A CEREMONY IN THE MIDWEST U-S CITY OF INDEPENDENCE, MISSOURI. MORE FROM VOA'S MICHAEL LELAND.

    TEXT: THE CEREMONY WILL INCLUDE U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELINE ALBRIGHT AND THE FOREIGN MINISTERS FROM THE THREE EUROPEAN NATIONS. IT IS BEING HELD AT THE HARRY TRUMAN PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY. MR. TRUMAN WAS THE U-S PRESIDENT WHEN NATO WAS CREATED NEARLY 50 YEARS AGO. LIBRARY DIRECTOR LARRY HACKMAN SAYS IT IS FITTING THE CEREMONY SHOULD BE HELD HERE.

    // HACKMAN ACT //

    HARRY TRUMAN ALWAYS ARGUED THAT THIS PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY SHOULD NOT BE A MONUMENT TO HIM, BUT OUGHT TO BE A PLACE WHERE PEOPLE COME TO BETTER UNDERSTAND GOVERNMENT, POLITICS AND INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS.

    // END ACT

    THERE WERE ORIGINALLY 12 MEMBERS OF THE NATO MILITARY ALLIANCE. THE ADDITION OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC, HUNGARY AND POLAND BRING THE MEMBERSHIP TO 19 NATIONS.

    // REST OPT FOR LONG //

    AT FRIDAY'S CEREMONY, THE PARTICIPANTS WILL USE A TABLE PRESIDENT TRUMAN KEPT IN HIS OFFICE AT A HOTEL IN DOWNTOWN KANSAS CITY, JUST A FEW KILOMETERS FROM HIS HOMETOWN OF INDEPENDENCE. IT WAS ON THAT TABLE IN 1952 THAT MR. TRUMAN SIGNED A PROTOCOL EXTENDING THE ALLIANCE TO THE EUROPEAN DEFENSE COMMUNITY, WHICH INCLUDED WEST GERMANY. THAT PROTOCOL WAS NEVER RATIFIED, BUT WEST GERMANY DID JOIN NATO IN 1955.

    THE ARCHIVIST OF THE TRUMAN LIBRARY, RAY GESELBRACHT, SAYS MR. TRUMAN PROBABLY WOULD NOT HAVE BEEN SURPRISED TO SEE FORMER EASTERN BLOC NATIONS JOINING NATO. HE READS PART OF MR. TRUMAN'S FAREWELL ADDRESS TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE AT THE END OF HIS PRESIDENCY IN 1953, IN WHICH HE PREDICTED THE EVENTUAL FALL OF THE IRON CURTAIN.

    // GESELBRACHT ACT //

    WHETHER THE COMMUNIST RULERS SHIFT THEIR POLICIES OF THEIR OWN FREE WILL OR WHETHER THE CHANGE COMES ABOUT IN SOME OTHER WAY, I HAVE NOT A DOUBT IN THE WORLD THAT A CHANGE WILL OCCUR. I HAVE A DEEP AND ABIDING FAITH IN THE DESTINY OF FREE MEN.

    // END ACT //

    MR. TRUMAN CONSIDERED HIS ROLE IN NATO'S CREATION AMONG HIS MOST SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS AS PRESIDENT. HE SAID IF THE ALLIANCE HAD EXISTED EARLIER THIS CENTURY, TWO WORLD WARS PROBABLY WOULD HAVE BEEN PREVENTED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MJL/PT
    11-Mar-99 7:49 PM EST (0049 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [15] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=3/12/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-246568
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE DOWN TODAY (FRIDAY), DISAPPOINTING MANY ON WALL STREET AND ELSEWHERE WHO WERE HOPING TO SEE HISTORY MADE. VOA BUSINESS CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 98 HUNDRED 76, DOWN 21 POINTS. FOR THE WEEK, THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE GAINED 140 POINTS, ONE AND ONE-HALF PERCENT. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED FRIDAY AT 12 HUNDRED 94, DOWN THREE POINTS. THE NASDAQ INDEX LOST MORE THAN ONE PERCENT

    THE DAY BEGAN WITH HIGH OPTIMISM THAT THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE WOULD CROSS THE 10 THOUSAND MARK FOR THE FIRST TIME IN HISTORY. BUT HOPES FOR THAT BEGAN TO FADE IN MID-SESSION WHEN THE INDEX BEGAN TO MOVE UP AND DOWN IN A NARROW RANGE WHERE IT STAYED FOR THE REST OF THE DAY.

    MOST ANALYSTS THOUGH SAY IT IS NOT A QUESTION OF IF BUT WHEN THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE WILL GO ABOVE 10 THOUSAND.

    ///REST OPT///

    AL GOLDMAN OF THE A-G EDWARDS INVESTMENT COMPANY SAYS, WITH THE RECENT RISE IN U-S STOCK PRICES, INVESTORS SHOULD BE SELECTIVE IN WHAT THEY BUY, BUT SHOULD NOT BE AFRAID OF GREAT LOSSES IN THE NEAR-TERM.

    ///GOLDMAN ACT///

    THIS MAY BE A MORE SELECTIVE, TOUGHER MARKET. BUT I SEE NO REASON TO FORESEE ANY SERIOUS DOWNSIDE RISK IN THE MARKET AT THIS TIME.

    ////END ACT///

    THERE WAS ANOTHER SIGN THAT INFLATION HAS ALL BUT DISAPPEARED FROM THE U-S ECONOMY. THE GOVERNMENT REPORTS WHOLESALE PRICES DROPPED FOUR-TENTHS OF ONE PERCENT IN FEBRUARY, THE LARGEST DROP IN MORE THAN A YEAR.

    CATERPILLAR, THE HUGE FARM AND CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT COMPANY, SAID ITS QUARTERLY PROFITS WILL FALL ABOUT 50 PERCENT BELOW ANALYSTS' FORECASTS DUE TO WEAK DEMAND FROM THE U-S AGRICULTURAL AND ENERGY INDUSTRIES. CATERPILLAR'S STOCK DROPPED ABOUT 10 PERCENT.

    THE STOCK OF THE RITE AID DRUG STORE CHAIN FELL ALMOST 40 PERCENT AFTER THE COMPANY SAID IT EXPECTS QUARTERLY EARNINGS WILL FALL WELL BELOW WALL STREET EXPECTATIONS. RITE AID CITED THE COSTS OF OPENING ALMOST 300 NEW STORES BUT SAID THOSE NEW OUTLETS WILL HELP INCREASE PROFITS IN THE LONG TERM.

    THE STOCK OF THE ORACLE CORPORATION FELL MORE THAN 20 PERCENT AFTER SEVERAL ANALYSTS DOWNGRADED THE COMPUTER SOFTWARE COMPANY'S PROSPECTS FOR EARNINGS GROWTH.

    THE PRESIDENT OF THE FORD MOTOR COMPANY SAYS HIS FIRM MUST BECOME MORE CONSUMER FRIENDLY IF IT HOPES TO BUILD CUSTOMER LOYALTY TO ITS PRODUCTS. IN A MEMO TO FORD EMPLOYEES, JAC NASSER SAID THAT, HISTORICALLY, AUTO COMPANIES NEVER WANTED TO HEAR FROM A CUSTOMER AFTER A VEHICLE WAS SOLD. HOWEVER, TO COMPETE IN TODAY'S MARKET, MR. NASSER SAYS FORD MUST DEVELOP ONGOING RELATIONSHIPS WITH CUSTOMERS WHICH ENDURE LONG AFTER THE SALE.(SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/PT
    12-Mar-99 5:34 PM EST (2234 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [16] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY GARY EDQUIST (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=03/12/99
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11188
    TELEPHONE=619-2702
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// EDS: MATERIAL DATED AFTER 10 P-M EST ////

    INTRO: NATO EXPANSION; A NARROW VOTE IN CONGRESS SUPPORTING A PLAN TO SEND U-S TROOPS TO KOSOVO; MORE EDITORIAL COMMENT ABOUT WHAT IS BEING CALLED THE CHINA SPY CASE; AND A FAREWELL TO GERMANY'S FINANCE MINISTER. NOW, HERE WITH SOME EXCERPTS ON THESE AND OTHER COMMENTARIES FROM FRIDAY'S U-S PRESS IS _________________ AND THE EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: "TODAY IS A GOOD DAY FOR THE WEST," WRITES "THE WASHINGTON POST," EXPLAINING THAT THREE NATIONS ARE JOINING (HAVE JOINED) NATO. THE "POST" EDITORIAL CONTINUES:

    VOICE: ...THE MILITARY ALLIANCE THAT KEPT ITS MEMBERS STABLE, PROSPEROUS AND FREE THROUGH THE COLD WAR TAKES IN POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC, LONG INVOLUNTARY MEMBERS OF NATO'S NOW-EXTINCT COMMUNIST COUNTERPART. ... POLES, HUNGARIANS AND CZECHS WERE CONSENSUS CHOICES FOR FURTHER ENLARGEMENT. BUT THE CONSENSUS FOR FURTHER ENLARGEMENT HAS FRACTURED ON A CONTINUING RELUCTANCE TO PROVOKE A RESISTING RUSSIA AND ON A GENERAL INCLINATION TO 'DIGEST' THE FIRST THREE FIRST. ... THE CENTRAL REQUIREMENT REMAINS TO GIVE THOSE RESTORED EUROPEAN DEMOCRACIES -- SOME TIME CONCEIVABLY RUSSIA, TOO -- A GOOD CHANCE FOR A WESTERN-STYLE LIFE.

    TEXT: THE "LOS ANGELES TIMES" WRITES THAT EVEN WITH THE ADDITION OF POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC TO NATO, "QUESTIONS ABOUT ITS PURPOSES AND ITS FUTURE LOOM LARGE." THE "LOS ANGELES TIMES" ALSO NOTES THAT THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES REJECTED (THURSDAY) A NON-BINDING RESOLUTION OPPOSING THE USE OF U-S TROOPS IN ANY NATO MISSION IN KOSOVO.

    VOICE: IN OUR VIEW, CONGRESS IS RIGHT TO BE SKEPTICAL. NATO'S EUROPEAN MEMBER SHOULD BE ABLE TO MANAGE KOSOVO BY THEMSELVES, WITH, AT MOST, SOME U-S LOGISTICAL HELP. INTERVENING IN KOSOVO HAS BEEN FOOLISHLY PROMOTED AS A TEST OF NATO'S RESOLVE AND CREDIBILITY. BUT AN ANCIENT CONFLICT IN WHICH MILITANTS ON BOTH SIDES REJECT COMPROMISE AND SHUN PEACE IS NOT THE PLACE FOR NATO TO TRY TO PROVE ITS VALIDITY. ...

    TEXT: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS DEFENDED (THURSDAY) HIS ADMINISTRATION'S HANDLING OF REPORTS OF CHINESE NUCLEAR ESPIONAGE. MR. CLINTON WAS RESPONDING TO REPUBLICAN CRITICISM OF U-S / CHINA TIES FOLLOWING REVELATIONS THAT BEIJING MAY HAVE STOLEN THE DESIGN OF A MINIATURIZED U-S NUCLEAR WARHEAD. "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR HAS THIS COMMENT ABOUT THE SITUATION.

    VOICE: THE LATEST BURST OF CONCERN ABOUT THE LOSS OF U-S MILITARY TECHNOLOGY TO CHINA CALLS FOR A DUAL RESPONSE: TIGHTEN SECURITY, BUT DON'T PUSH ANY PANIC BUTTONS. ... U-S INTERESTS DEMAND CONTINUED ENGAGEMENT WITH BEIJING, CEMENTING ALREADY-STRONG ECONOMIC TIES WHILE NEGOTIATING SOLUTIONS TO A WIDE RANGE OF PROBLEMS.... MOST IMPORTANT, CHINA AND THE U-S MUST UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER'S SECURITY NEEDS AND OBLIGATIONS, PARTICULARLY REGARDING TAIWAN. ... BOTH COUNTRIES MUST SEIZE THE CURRENT MOMENT TO FIX THE DAMAGE TO THEIR RELATIONS -- AND POTENTIALLY TO THE WORLD.

    TEXT: "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE, MARYLAND ADVISES THAT THE "U-S MUST DEAL WITH ASIA'S GREAT POWER, NOT MAKE IT MILITARILY STRONGER."

    VOICE: OF COURSE CHINA SPIES ON THE UNITED STATES. SO DO OTHER NATIONS. THE U-S SPIES BACK. REMAINING IN DIALOGUE WITH CHINA, IN HOPES OF SLOWING THE ARMS RACE AND WEAPONS TECHNOLOGY TRANSFERS, IS IN THE U-S INTEREST. LETTING CHINA STRENGTHEN ITSELF MILITARILY BY BUYING OR STEALING U-S SECRETS IS NOT.

    TEXT: "THE WALL STREET JOURNAL" WRITES "NOBODY WILL BE QUICKER TO CELEBRATE OSKAR LAFONTAINE'S PASSING THAN THE GERMAN BUSINESS COMMUNITY." IN A SURPRISE MOVE, MR. LAFONTAINE RESIGNED (THURSDAY) AS GERMANY'S FINANCE MINISTER AND CHAIRMAN OF CHANCELLOR GERHARD SCHROEDER'S SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY. THE JOURNAL ADDS:

    VOICE: WHAT THAT (RESIGNATION) MEANS IS THAT GERMANY IS NOW LIKELY TO VEER AWAY FROM THE (ECONOMIC) PRECIPICE AND STEER A SANER COURSE. WHEW. THAT WAS A CLOSE ONE. ... MR. LAFONTAINE'S PLAN TO PILE NEW TAXES ON BUSINESS TO FINANCE YET MORE SOCIALISM WAS CREATING A REBELLION AMONG GERMAN INDUSTRIALISTS. ... HIS SURPRISE RESIGNATION MARKS THE PASSING OF A CLOUD OVER EUROPE'S ECONOMIC FUTURE.

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" WRITES THAT IN LESS THAN FIVE MONTHS IN OFFICE, MR. LAFONTAINE "OFTEN SEEMED TO BE RUNNING A GOVERNMENT OF HIS OWN."

    VOICE: (THE GOVERNMENT WAS) ONE THAT WAS DETERMINED TO RAISE CORPORATE TAXES AND RESIST PRESSURES FROM INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL MARKETS. IT WAS A STRUGGLE HE WAS LIKELY TO LOSE IN ANY CASE, AND IT IS PROBABLY BEST THAT HE CHOSE TO RESIGN.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: THAT CONCLUDES THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENT FROM FRIDAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/GE/KL
    12-Mar-99 10:21 AM EST (1521 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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