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Voice of America, 99-03-24

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] BRITAIN / KOSOVO (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [02] U-N / KOSOVO (L) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [03] U-N / KOSOVO (L-UPDATE) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [04] U-N-H-C-R / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [05] SENATE KOSOVO(S & L ONITER) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)
  • [06] CLINTON / KOSOVO (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [07] KOSOVO / WARNING (S-ONLY) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [08] U-S / TRAVEL WARNING (S-ONLY) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [09] RUSSIA / NATO / L-O BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)
  • [10] RUSSIA/NATO REACTION (L-ONLY) BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)
  • [11] RUSSIANS / REACT (L ONLY) BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)
  • [12] CLINTON/YELTSIN (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [13] RUSSIA / YELTSIN (L) BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)
  • [14] KOSOVO REACT BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [15] THE NATO AIR ATTACKS ON YUGOSLAVIA BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [16] NATO ATTACKS (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [17] KOSOVO STRIKE (L-ONLY) BY SABINA CASTELFRANCO (AVIANO AIRBASE, ITALY)
  • [18] PENTAGON / KOSOVO STRIKES (S) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [19] PENTAGON KOSOVO SITREP - L BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [20] KOSOVO: WHAT NEXT? BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPT.)
  • [21] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY LAUREN COMITEAU (THE HAGUE)
  • [22] E-U / SERB RADIO (L ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [23] E-U LEADERS (S) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BERLIN)
  • [24] E-U LEADERS (S UPDATE) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BERLIN)
  • [25] EUROPEAN LEADERS (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BERLIN)
  • [26] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [27] PINOCHET RULING (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

  • [01] BRITAIN / KOSOVO (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247075
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AMERICAN B-52 BOMBERS HAVE LEFT THEIR BASES IN BRITAIN AS NATO PREPARES FOR AIR STRIKES AGAINST SERB MILITARY INSTALLATIONS. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN IN LONDON ALSO REPORTS BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR SAYS NOW THAT THE DECISION HAS BEEN MADE, NATO MUST ACT WITH RESOLVE.

    TEXT: PRIME MINISTER BLAIR SAYS TIME HAS RUN OUT FOR APPEALS TO YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC.

    /// BLAIR ACT ///

    MR. MILOSEVIC KNOWS WHAT HE HAS TO DO. IF HE WANTS PEACE, HE HAS TO ABIDE BY THE AGREEMENTS HE'S ENTERED INTO AND STOP THE REPRESSION OF THE CIVILIAN POPULATION OF KOSOVO.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE BRITISH LEADER TOLD REPORTERS AT THE EUROPEAN UNION SUMMIT IN BERLIN THAT NATO WILL ACT WITH RESOLVE NOW THAT THE DECISION HAS BEEN MADE TO GO AHEAD WITH AIR STRIKES. HE CONSIDERS THE NATO ACTION WITHIN ITS LEGAL RIGHTS IN RESPONSE TO U-N RESOLUTIONS DEMANDING YUGOSLAVIA'S ADHERENCE TO THE OCTOBER CEASEFIRE.

    PRIME MINISTER BLAIR ALSO TOLD BRITISH RADIO THE NATO ACTION DOES NOT NEED FURTHER U-N APPROVAL.

    /// BLAIR ACT ///

    THE RESOLUTION VERY SPECIFICALLY DECLARES THAT MILOSEVIC MUST ABIDE BY THE UNDERTAKING, THE AGREEMENT HE ENTERED INTO LAST OCTOBER TO CEASE REPRESSION IN KOSOVO AND THE BASIS OF OUR ACTION IN INTERNATIONAL LAW IS VERY CLEAR INDEED. IT IS TO AVERT A HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE IN KOSOVO.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA WOULD BE THE FIRST NATO ATTACK ON A SOVEREIGN STATE IN EUROPE. BUT PRIME MINISTER BLAIR SAYS NATO ALLIES ARE UNITED IN THEIR SUPPORT FOR THE ACTION SINCE EFFORTS TO PERSUADE MR MILOSEVIC TO CURB SERB MILITARY OFFENSIVES IN KOSOVO HAVE FAILED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH
    24-Mar-99 7:13 AM EST (1213 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] U-N / KOSOVO (L) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247107
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL IS PREPARING TO HOLD AN EMERGENCY MEETING LATER TODAY (WEDNESDAY) AS NATO CARRIES THROUGH WITH ITS THREAT OF MILITARY STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A'S UNITED NATIONS CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON REPORTS.

    TEXT: RUSSIA IS EXPECTED TO CALL FOR THE EMERGENCY MEETING TO VOICE ITS OBJECTIONS TO THE USE OF FORCE AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. THAT ISSUE IS ALREADY DIVIDING THE COUNCIL -- WITH RUSSIA AND CHINA FIRMLY AGAINST STRIKES, AND THE UNITED STATES, BRITAIN AND FRANCE IN SUPPORT OF NATO ACTION.

    YUGOSLAVIA'S REPRESENTATIVE TO THE UNITED NATIONS, VLADISLAV JOVANOVIC, SAYS THERE IS NO SECURITY COUNCIL AUTHORIZATION FOR NATO STRIKES AGAINST HIS COUNTRY. HE IS ASKING COUNCIL MEMBERS TO DENOUNCE THE STRIKES.

    /// JOVANOVIC ACT ///

    SECURITY COUNCIL SHOULD REMIND NATO AND OTHERS SUPPORTING NATO MILITARY ACTIVITIES IN THE BALKANS THAT NATO IS NOT AUTHORIZED TO MAINTAIN PEACE AND STABILITY OUTSIDE OF ITS TERRITORY, THAT THERE IS NO AUTHORIZATION BY THE SECURITY COUNCIL, ANY TRANSFER OF ITS PREROGATIVES TO NATO, WHICH CAN JUSTIFY SUCH NATO BEHAVIOR.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. JOVANOVIC SAYS HIS GOVERNMENT ALSO REJECTS ANY SORT OF A PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN KOSOVO, WHETHER IT IS ORGANIZED BY THE UNITED NATIONS OR SOME OTHER ORGANIZATION. HE SAYS YUGOSLAVIA'S CITIZENS ARE PREPARED TO DEFEND THEMSELVES AGAINST ANY OUTSIDE INTERVENTION.

    BUT SOME U-N SECURITY COUNCIL MEMBERS SAY NATO STRIKES ON YUGOSLAVIA DO NOT NECESSARILY VIOLATE COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS. SLOVENIA'S AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS, DANILO TURK:

    /// TURK ACT ///

    WE HAVE TO APPRECIATE THE FACT THAT THIS IS THE MATTER OF AN EXTREME EMERGENCY, THAT A HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE IS UNFOLDING, AND THAT THERE IS A VERY GREAT POTENTIAL FOR WIDESPREAD DESTABILIZATION, SO AN ACT IN A SITUATION OF EMERGENCY WOULD BE UNDERSTANDABLE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. TURK SAYS YUGOSLAVIA HAS ALREADY VIOLATED SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS CALLING FOR AN END TO ALL HOSTILITIES AGAINST ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO PROVINCE.

    WITH SUCH DEEP DIVISIONS OVER THE ISSUE AMONG THE COUNCIL'S FIVE PERMANENT MEMBERS -- CHINA, RUSSIA, FRANCE, BRITAIN AND THE UNITED STATES -- IT IS NOT LIKELY ANY RESOLUTIONS CONCERNING YUGOSLAVIA WILL BE APPROVED. (SIGNED) NEB/UN/MPR/LSF/GE
    24-Mar-99 2:17 PM EST (1917 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] U-N / KOSOVO (L-UPDATE) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247128
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// EDS: UPDATES CR 2-247107 -- ANNAN COMMENTS ///

    INTRO: U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN REPRIMANDED NATO WEDNESDAY FOR LAUNCHING STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA WITHOUT PRIOR SECURITY COUNCIL APPROVAL. BUT HE ALSO INDICATED HE UNDERSTANDS THE REASONS FOR THE STRIKES. V-O-A'S U-N CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON HAS THE STORY.

    TEXT: IN A BRIEF PUBLIC STATEMENT, MR. ANNAN PRESENTED TWO SOMEWHAT CONTRADICTORY MESSAGES REGARDING THE ABSENCE OF SECURITY COUNCIL APPROVAL FOR THE NATO STRIKES ON YUGOSLAVIA.

    ON ONE HAND, HE REPRIMANDED NATO FOR CARRYING OUT THE STRIKES WITHOUT SECURITY COUNCIL APPROVAL. HE SAID THE COUNCIL HAS PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY FOR MAINTAINING INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY.

    /// ANNAN ACT ///

    THEREFORE THE COUNCIL SHOULD BE INVOLVED IN ANY DECISION TO RESORT TO THE USE OF FORCE.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT MR. ANNAN ALSO EXPRESSED REGRET ABOUT THE UNREST IN KOSOVO, SAYING YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES HAVE REJECTED A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT THAT WOULD HAVE AVERTED FURTHER BLOODSHED.

    /// ANNAN ACT ///

    I DEEPLY REGRET THAT, IN SPITE OF ALL THE EFFORTS MADE BY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY, THE YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES HAVE PERSISTED IN THEIR REJECTION OF A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT, WHICH WOULD HAVE HALTED THE BLOODSHED IN KOSOVO AND SECURED AN EQUITABLE PEACE FOR THE POPULATION THERE. IT IS INDEED TRAGIC THAT DIPLOMACY HAS FAILED, BUT THERE ARE TIMES WHEN THE USE OF FORCE MAY BE LEGITIMATE IN THE PURSUIT OF PEACE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. ANNAN'S STATEMENT REFLECTS THE DIVISIONS WITHIN THE COUNCIL OVER THE NATO STRIKES, WITH RUSSIA AND CHINA EXPRESSING STRONG OPPOSITION, AND THE UNITED STATES, BRITAIN AND FRANCE SPEAKING OUT IN SUPPORT OF THE NATO ACTION.

    /// REST OPT ///

    SHORTLY AFTER MR. ANNAN MADE HIS STATEMENT, THE SECURITY COUNCIL BEGAN A MEETING ON THE NATO STRIKES ON YUGOSLAVIA. RUSSIA AND CHINA ARE EXPECTED TO CALL FOR CONDEMNATION OF THE AIR STRIKES, AS INTERFERENCE IN YUGOSLAVIA'S INTERNAL AFFAIRS. THE UNITED STATES, BRITAIN AND FRANCE DEFEND THE STRIKES AS NECESSARY FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF REGIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/UN/MPR/WTW
    24-Mar-99 6:16 PM EST (2316 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] U-N-H-C-R / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247081
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE TOP U-N REFUGEE OFFICIAL HAS APPEALED TO YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO END THE MILITARY OFFENSIVE IN SERBIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE. LISA SCHLEIN REPORTS FROM GENEVA.

    TEXT: THE HEAD OF THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY, SADAKO OGATA, ACCUSES SERBIAN FORCES IN KOSOVO OF RUTHLESSLY TARGETING ETHNIC ALBANIAN CIVILIANS, INCLUDING THE ELDERLY, WOMEN .AND CHILDREN.

    MS. OGATA SAYS THAT TO A MORE LIMITED EXTENT, THE REBEL KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY IS INTIMIDATING AND ATTACKING ETHNIC SERBS. AND SHE SAYS THE SITUATION IN KOSOVO IS QUICKLY APPROACHING THE LEVEL OF HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE.

    /// OGATA ACT ONE ///

    TERRIFIED CIVILIANS CONTINUE TO FLEE THE SHELLING OF VILLAGES BY FORCES THAT HAD BEEN REQUIRED TO WITHDRAW. THE PRESENCE OF GOVERNMENT SECURITY FORCES IN THE PROVINCE IS INCREASING UNDER THE IMMINENT THREAT OF NATO INTERVENTION. THE RESULTS OF THIS SITUATION, IN TERMS OF DISPLACEMENT ARE APPALLING.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY SAYS MORE THAN 80-THOUSAND PEOPLE HAVE BEEN DISPLACED FROM THEIR HOMES SINCE KOSOVO PEACE TALKS BEGAN IN FRANCE AT THE END OF FEBRUARY. IT SAYS MORE THAN 260-THOUSAND PEOPLE ARE NOW HOMELESS WITHIN KOSOVO. AND, IT SAYS AT LEAST 200-THOUSAND HAVE SOUGHT ASYLUM IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES.

    MS. OGATA -- IN A SPEECH TO THE U-N HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION SAYS THE REFUGEE AGENCY WITHDREW ITS STAFF FROM KOSOVO ON TUESDAY BECAUSE OF THE IMMINENT THREAT OF NATO AIRSTRIKES.

    /// OGATA ACT TWO ///

    THIS DECISION, MADAM CHAIR, WAS A TORMENTING ONE FOR MY OFFICE. IT MEANT, AS IN OTHER SITUATIONS, THAT WE WOULD NOT BE WITH THE PEOPLE WE WORK FOR, AT THE TIME OF THEIR GREATEST NEED. I DO HOPE THAT WE CAN RETURN TO KOSOVO AS SOON AS POSSIBLE UNDER IMPROVED CIRCUMSTANCES AND HELP HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF DISPLACED PEOPLE RETURN HOME.

    /// END ACT ///

    MS. OGATA CALLS KOSOVO A POLITICAL PROBLEM WITH DEVASTATING HUMANITARIAN CONSEQUENCES. SHE SAYS HUMANITARIAN ACTION CANNOT BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR POLITICAL ACTION. AND SHE SAYS KOSOVO WILL CONTINUE TO SLIDE TOWARD CATASTROPHE UNLESS A POLITICAL SOLUTION TO THE CONFLICT IS FOUND. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/JWH/WFR
    24-Mar-99 8:37 AM EST (1337 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] SENATE KOSOVO(S & L ONITER) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)

    DATE=3/23/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247069
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-S SENATE IS SUPPORTING PRESIDENT CLINTON'S CALL FOR AIR AND MISSILE STRIKES IN KOSOVO, DESPITE MISGIVINGS ABOUT HIS LONG-TERM BALKAN STRATEGY. V-O-A'S DAVID SWAN HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: (BY A 58-41 VOTE) SENATORS PASSED A SIMPLE RESOLUTION SAYING MR. CLINTON IS AUTHORIZED TO START BOMBING. DEMOCRAT JOSEPH BIDEN ARGUES THERE IS NO OTHER WAY TO RESPOND TO YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC.

    // BIDEN ACT //

    ALL 19 MEMBERS OF NATO ARE IN AGREEMENT THAT THIS IS NECESSARY. EUROPE - ALL OF EUROPE IS UNITED. ALL OF EUROPE IS UNITED AND THAT WE HAVE NO CHOICE BUT TO DEAL WITH THIS GENOCIDAL MANIAC.

    // END ACT //

    SOME OPPOSITION REPUBLICANS AGREE. OTHERS DO NOT, INCLUDING ASSISTANT MAJORITY LEADER DON NICKLES, WHO REMAINS UNPERSUADED DESPITE MEETING WITH THE PRESIDENT (TUESDAY).

    // NICKLES ACT //

    AND HE TRIED TO MAKE A VERY STRONG CASE FOR AIR STRIKES AND FOR MILITARY INTERVENTION. HE DIDN'T CONVINCE ME.

    // END ACT //

    LAWMAKERS WORRY ABOUT ATTACKING A SOVEREIGN COUNTRY, THE PROSPECT OF U-S CASUALTIES, AND WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF AIR RAIDS DO NOT BRING RESULTS.

    // REST OPTIONAL FOR LONG //

    HOWEVER, MOST DO NOT WANT TO BE SEEN AS UNDERMINING THE PRESIDENT OR THE TROOPS AT A MOMENT OF CRISIS. REPUBLICAN SENATOR KAYBAILEY HUTCHISON, WHO ALSO MET WITH MR. CLINTON, SUGGESTED SHE AND HER COLLEAGUES SHOULD PUT THEIR OBJECTIONS ASIDE, AT LEAST FOR NOW.

    // HUTCHISON ACT //

    MANY OF US DISAGREE WITH THE POLICY. I DISAGREE WITH THE POLICY OF WHAT WE'RE DOING IN KOSOVO. BUT I THINK IT BECOMES A DIFFERENT ISSUE WHEN ACTION IS IMMINENT AND WHEN YOU ARE GETTING READY TO HAVE TROOPS GO IN HARM'S WAY.

    // END ACT //

    MANY SENATORS MAKE IT CLEAR THEIR SUPPORT WOULD NOT COVER A DEPLOYMENT OF GROUND FORCES. THE ADMINISTRATION INSISTS THEY WILL NOT BE USED EXCEPT AS PEACEKEEPERS - AND THEN ONLY IF BOTH SERBS AND ETHNIC ALBANIANS AGREE. STILL, THE DEBATE OVER AIRSTRIKES SUGGESTS FURTHER ACTION IN KOSOVO COULD FACE AN UPHILL FIGHT FOR APPROVAL IN CONGRESS.(SIGNED)
    NEB/DS/PT
    23-Mar-99 8:34 PM EST (0134 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] CLINTON / KOSOVO (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247116
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON MET REPORTERS ONLY MOMENTS AFTER THE AIR ATTACKS AGAINST YUGOSLAV FORCES BEGAN, SAYING THE UNITED STATES AND ITS ALLIES FELT IT ESSENTIAL TO ACT NOW TO PREVENT A WIDER WAR IN THE BALKANS. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: MR. CLINTON SAYS NATO RESORTED TO MILITARY ACTION ONLY AFTER THE FAILURE OF EXTENSIVE AND REPEATED EFFORTS TO FIND A PEACEFUL SOLUTION IN KOSOVO.

    IN A HASTILY ARRANGED APPEARANCE IN THE WHITE HOUSE PRESS ROOM, MR. CLINTON LAID THE BLAME SQUARELY ON YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC -- WHO HE SAID STARTED THE WARS IN BOSNIA AND CROATIA EARLIER THIS DECADE AND HAS AGAIN CHOSEN AGGRESSION OVER PEACE IN KOSOVO:

    ///CLINTON ACTUALITY///

    HE HAS VIOLATED THE COMMITMENTS HE HIMSELF MADE LAST FALL TO STOP THE BRUTAL REPRESSION IN KOSOVO. HE HAS REJECTED THE BALANCED AND FAIR PEACE ACCORDS THAT OUR ALLIES AND PARTNERS -- INCLUDING RUSSIA -- PROPOSED LAST MONTH, A PEACE AGREEMENT THAT KOSOVO'S ETHNIC ALBANIANS COURAGEOUSLY ACCEPTED.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. CLINTON ACCUSED YUGOSLAV FORCES OF INTENSIFYING ATTACKS ON KOSOVAR ALBANIANS, BURNING THEIR VILLAGES AND MURDERING CIVILIANS. HE SAID 60-THOUSAND NEW REFUGEES HAVE BEEN DRIVEN FROM THEIR HOMES IN THE LAST FIVE WEEKS ALONE. AND WITH KOSOVO NOW A FULL-BLOWN CRISIS, ONLY FIRMNESS AGAINST MR. MILOSEVIC CAN PREVENT A CATASTROPHE LATER:

    ///CLINTON ACTUALITY TWO///

    I HAVE CONCLUDED THAT THE DANGERS OF ACTING NOW ARE CLEARLY OUTWEIGHED BY THE RISKS OF FAILING TO ACT. THE RISKS THAT MANY MORE INNOCENT PEOPLE WILL DIE OR BE DRIVEN FROM THEIR HOMES BY THE TENS OF THOUSANDS. THE RISKS THAT THE CONFLICT WILL INVOLVE AND DE-STABILIZE NEIGHBORING NATIONS. IT WILL CLEARLY BE MUCH MORE COSTLY AND DANGEROUS TO STOP LATER, THAN THIS EFFORT TO PREVENT IT FROM GOING FURTHER NOW.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. CLINTON SAID THE AIRSTRIKES HAVE THREE OBJECTIVES: TO DEMONSTRATE THE SERIOUSNESS OF NATO'S OPPOSITION TO AGGRESSION, TO DETER MR. MILOSEVIC FROM FURTHER ESCALATION OF ATTACKS ON CIVILIANS, AND IF NECESSARY TO DAMAGE SERBIA'S CAPACITY TO WAGE WAR AGAINST KOSOVO IN THE FUTURE.

    HE WELCOMED PARTISAN EXPRESSIONS OF SUPPORT FOR THE MILITARY ACTION FROM THE U-S CONGRESS AND SAID HE WOULD ADDRESS THE NATION LATER WEDNESDAY TO FURTHER EXPLAIN THE RATIONALE FOR THE AIRSTRIKES. [EDS. ADDRESS SCHEDULED FOR 8:00 P-M EASTERN TIME] (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/GE
    24-Mar-99 3:53 PM EST (2053 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] KOSOVO / WARNING (S-ONLY) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247110
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS WARNING YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC NOT TO USE THE CRISIS IN ITS KOSOVO PROVINCE AS AN EXCUSE TO SPREAD INSTABILITY IN THE REGION. FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS.

    TEXT: U-S OFFICIALS SAY ONE OF THE RISKS INVOLVED IN NATO MILITARY ACTION IN KOSOVO IS THAT SERBIA (YUGOSLAVIA'S DOMINANT REPUBLIC) WILL RESPOND BY LASHING OUT AT ITS NEIGHBORS.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN JAMES RUBIN WARNED YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC NOT TO DO SO.

    // RUBIN ACT //

    MILOSEVIC IS WELL AWARE THAT IF HE ATTEMPTS TO BROADEN OR ESCALATE THE CONFLICT HE WILL FACE EXTREMELY SERIOUS CONSEQUENCES.

    // END ACT //

    U-S OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE CONCERNED ABOUT POSSIBLE CIVIL STRIFE IN THE NEIGHBORING YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MONTENEGRO, AND THEY ARE URGING PEOPLE THERE TO REMAIN CLAM.

    MR. RUBIN SAID NATO IS WORKING UP PLANS TO DEAL WITH ANY SERB EFFORTS TO CREATE INSTABILITY IN THE REGION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/LTD/JO
    24-Mar-99 2:48 PM EST (1948 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] U-S / TRAVEL WARNING (S-ONLY) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247124
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS URGING AMERICAN CITIZENS AROUND THE WORLD TO BEWARE OF POSSIBLE RETALIATION FOLLOWING THE LAUNCH OF NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST THE SERBS IN YUGOSLAVIA. FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE STATE DEPARTMENT'S WORLD WIDE CAUTION WAS ISSUED SHORTLY AFTER THE AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA BEGAN.

    THE STATEMENT SAYS THERE HAVE NOT BEEN ANY SPECIFIC THREATS AGAINST AMERICANS, BUT IT URGES U-S CITIZENS TRAVELING ABROAD TO REVIEW THEIR SECURITY PRACTICES. THE STATEMENT WARNS OF THE POTENTIAL FOR RETALIATORY ACTIONS AGAINST AMERICANS AND AMERICAN INTERESTS. TUESDAY, THE UNITED STATES TEMPORARILY CLOSED ITS EMBASSY IN BELGRADE AND HAS WARNED U-S CITIZENS NOT TO TRAVEL TO SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO, YUGOSLAVIA'S TWO REMAINING REPUBLICS.

    U-S OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE ALSO CONCERNED ABOUT THE POSSIBILITY OF CIVIL STRIFE IN MONTENEGRO AND HAVE WARNED SERBIA NOT TO USE THE NATO AIR STRIKES AS AN EXCUSE TO LASH OUT AT ITS NEIGHBORS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/JO
    24-Mar-99 4:57 PM EST (2157 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] RUSSIA / NATO / L-O BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247071
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIA IS STANDING FIRM AGAINST NATO MILITARY ACTION IN YUGOSLAVIA. AS V-O-A'S EVE CONANT REPORTS FROM MOSCOW, RUSSIAN LEADERS SAY IMMINENT NATO AIR STRIKES COULD SEVERELY DAMAGE RUSSIA'S RELATIONS WITH THE WEST.

    TEXT: RUSSIA'S PRIME MINISTER YEVGENY PRIMAKOV WAS FLYING OVER THE ATLANTIC AND ONLY TWO HOURS AWAY FROM WASHINGTON, WHEN HE ORDERED HIS PLANE TO TURN AROUND AND RETURN TO MOSCOW.

    THE RUSSIAN PRIME MINISTER WAS RESPONDING TO INFORMATION PEACE TALKS WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAD FAILED AND NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA -- A LONGTIME RUSSIAN ALLY -- WERE IMMINENT.

    UPON HIS RETURN, MR. PRIMAKOV SAID -- DESPITE WESTERN ASSURANCES NATO STRIKES WILL "NOT STABILIZE THE SITUATION IN KOSOVO."

    ///PRIMAKOV ACTUALITY IN RUSSIAN IN FULL AND FADE UNDER///

    THE PRIME MINISTER SAYS STRIKES WILL BE DESTABILIZING. HE SAYS THEY WILL RESULT IN HUMAN SUFFERING AND WILL DAMAGE BOTH RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED STATES AND STABILITY IN EUROPE, IN GENERAL.

    MR. PRIMAKOV IS EXPECTED TO MEET WITH MILITARY LEADERS AND FOREIGN MINISTRY OFFICIALS, LATER WEDNESDAY, TO FORMULATE AN OFFICIAL RUSSIAN RESPONSE.

    RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER IGOR SERGEYEV HAS SAID RUSSIA WILL STEP UP ITS COMBAT READINESS, IF NATO ATTACKS, AND RESPOND WITH WHAT HE CALLS "ADEQUATE MEASURES." HE DID NOT CLARIFY WHAT THOSE MEASURES MIGHT BE.

    RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV TOLD A TELEVISION INTERVIEWER RUSSIA IS PREPARING FOR A WORST-CASE SCENARIO. HE SAYS STRIKES COULD HAVE SEVERE CONSEQUENCES FOR RUSSIA'S RELATIONS WITH NATO.

    ///IVANOV ACTUALITY IN RUSSIAN IN FULL AND FADE UNDER///

    HE SAYS, IF NATO STRIKES, ALL ASSURANCES IT DOES NOT WANT THE ROLE OF WORLD POLICEMEN WILL MEAN NOTHING. HE SAYS MOSCOW WOULD BE FORCED TO RE-EXAMINE ITS RELATIONS WITH NATO.

    IN THE PAST, RUSSIAN MILITARY LEADERS HAVE ARGUED RUSSIA SHOULD END ALL RELATIONS WITH NATO IF THE WEST STRIKES YUGOSLAVIA.

    RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN IS EXPECTED TO ADDRESS THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE ON NATIONAL TELEVISION, LATER WEDNESDAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB / WD / WD
    24-Mar-99 4:09 AM EST (0909 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] RUSSIA/NATO REACTION (L-ONLY) BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247119
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN HAS RESPONDED TO NATO AIRSTRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA BY CALLING FOR AN END TO RUSSIA'S PARTNERSHIP WITH NATO. V-O-A'S EVE CONANT REPORTS FROM MOSCOW THE RUSSIAN LEADER HAS RECALLED THE COUNTRY'S AMBASSADOR TO THE WESTERN ALLIANCE.

    TEXT: THE KREMLIN SAYS PRESIDENT YELTSIN IS "DEEPLY SHOCKED" BY NATO AIRSTRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA AND HAS ORDERED A HALT TO ALL MILITARY COOPERATION WITH THE ALLIANCE UNDER THE "PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE" PROGRAM.

    ACCORDING TO A STATEMENT ISSUED BY THE KREMLIN, PRESIDENT YELTSIN HAS RECALLED RUSSIA'S CHIEF ENVOY TO NATO, LIEUTENANT-GENERAL VIKTOR ZAVARZIN. MR. YELTSIN HAS ALSO ORDERED THE CLOSURE OF RUSSIA'S OFFICES AT NATO HEADQUARTERS IN BELGIUM AND HAS SUSPENDED TALKS ON OPENING A NATO MISSION IN MOSCOW.

    THE KREMLIN STATEMENT EXPLAINS THAT IF THE CONFLICT GROWS, RUSSIA WILL TAKE WHAT WERE DESCRIBED AS "ADEQUATE MEASURES, INCLUDING THOSE OF A MILITARY CHARACTER" TO ENSURE STABILITY IN RUSSIA AND EUROPE.

    PRESIDENT YELTSIN HAS REPORTEDLY DESCRIBED THE STRIKES AS "OPEN AGRESSION" AND CALLED FOR AN IMMEDIATE SESSION OF THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL. RUSSIA HAS LONG OPPOSED THE USE OF FORCE AGAINST ITS TRADITIONAL SLAV ALLY YUGOSLAVIA.

    RUSSIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV SAID WEDNESDAY RUSSIA MAY CONSIDER WITHDRAWING UNILATERALLY FROM AN INTERNATIONAL ARMS EMBARGO AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. MR. IVANOV ALSO POINTED OUT THE AIR STRIKES LEFT WHAT HE CALLED "NO PERSPECTIVE WHAT-SO-EVER" FOR RUSSIA'S RATIFICATION OF THE START-TWO NUCLEAR WEAPONS REDUCTION TREATY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EC/ENE/JO
    24-Mar-99 4:06 PM EST (2106 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] RUSSIANS / REACT (L ONLY) BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247093
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIAN CITIZENS ARE PROTESTING NATO'S PLANS TO LAUNCH MILITARY ATTACKS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A'S EVE CONANT REPORTS FROM MOSCOW, WHERE ONE GROUP OF DEMONSTRATORS MARCHED OUTSIDE THE U-S EMBASSY.

    TEXT:

    /// PROTEST SOUNDS - FADE UNDER ///

    A GROUP OF PROTESTERS GATHERED OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES EMBASSY WEDNESDAY, SHOUTING "NATO, WE DON'T NEED YOU" AND "BROTHER SERBS, WE ARE WITH YOU."

    RUSSIAN OFFICIALS CONTINUE TO DEBATE WHAT RELATIONSHIP RUSSIA SHOULD HAVE WITH NATO AND A POSSIBLE BOYCOTT OF AN ARMS EMBARGO AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. MEANWHILE, AVERAGE RUSSIANS ECHO OFFICIAL OUTRAGE AND CONDEMN POSSIBLE NATO AIRSTRIKES.

    FOR ONE RUSSIAN, VIKTOR DEYASHIN, THE ISSUE IS PERSONAL. HE SAYS HE DOES NOT BELIEVE RUSSIA WILL ALLOW WHAT HE CALLS A "BROTHER NATION" TO SUFFER.

    /// DEYASHIN ACT - IN RUSSIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    AMERICANS SHOULD NOT INTERFERE IN THE INTERNAL AFFAIRS OF OTHER NATIONS HE SAYS, ADDING SERBS ARE OUR BROTHERS, THEY ARE SLAVS LIKE US.

    PENSIONER PAVEL BUTENKO WHO LIVED THROUGH WORLD WAR TWO SAYS HE FEARS WAR COULD SPREAD.

    /// BUTENKO ACT - IN RUSSIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    RUSSIA MUST INSIST ON MORE NEGOTIATIONS, HE SAYS, ADDING WAR WILL BE BAD FOR US. ANY TENSION BETWEEN THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY AND NATO WILL FALL ON OUR SHOULDERS AND COST US MONEY WE DO NOT HAVE.

    RUSSIA'S LEADERSHIP IS UNDER PRESSURE TO SALVAGE NATIONAL PRIDE BY RESPONDING FIRMLY TO NATO AIRSTRIKES, BUT ECONOMISTS POINT OUT RUSSIA MAY NOT HAVE THE FINANCES TO MOBILIZE ITS MILITARY EVEN IF IT WANTED TO.

    ONE RUSSIAN NEWSPAPER REPORTED WEDNESDAY THAT ANTICIPATION OF AIRSTRIKES HAS ALREADY MEANT A LOSS OF FUNDS FOR RUSSIA. THE NEWSPAPER WAS REFERRING TO THE ABRUPT CANCELLATION OF PRIME MINISTER YEVGENY PRIMAKOV'S TRIP TO THE UNITED STATES TO LOBBY FOR UP TO FOUR-BILLION DOLLARS IN MUCH NEEDED INTERNATIONAL LOANS.

    FOLLOWING NEWS OF THE CANCELLATION, THE VALUE OF THE RUSSIAN RUBLE FELL TO AN ALL-TIME LOW WEDNESDAY, SPARKING FEARS RUSSIA'S ECONOMIC CRISIS MAY GET EVEN WORSE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EC/JWH/RRM
    24-Mar-99 11:44 AM EST (1644 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] CLINTON/YELTSIN (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247103
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// ENGLISH EDS: CUT TAPE TO CONFORM TO TEXT -- REMOVE PHRASE IN GRAF 3 OF TEXT

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS SPOKEN BY TELEPHONE WITH RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN, WHOSE GOVERNMENT STRONGLY OPPOSES NATO MILITARY INTERVENTION IN THE KOSOVO SITUATION. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: THE CALL -- PLACED BY MR. CLINTON -- CAME A DAY AFTER RUSSIAN PRIME MINISTER YEVGENY PRIMAKOV ABRUPTLY CANCELLED A VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES TO UNDERLINE MOSCOW'S OPPOSITION TO THE USE OF FORCE AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA.

    WHITE HOUSE OFFICIALS CALLED THE 35-MINUTE CONVERSATION FRANK AND VERY DIRECT. THEY SAID MR. CLINTON ARGUED THAT DIPLOMACY HAD BEEN GIVEN EVERY CHANCE IN KOSOVO -- BUT THAT YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC HAS CONSISTENTLY REBUFFED OVERTURES FOR A PEACEFUL SOLUTION, INCLUDING THOSE FROM RUSSIAN DIPLOMATS.

    MR. YELTSIN -- THEY SAID -- INSISTED THERE WERE STILL DIPLOMATIC OPTIONS THAT COULD BE PURSUED. THE RUSSIAN PRESIDENT LATER TOLD A NATIONWIDE TELEVISION AUDIENCE THAT AIRSTRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAV FORCES COULD LEAD TO WAR IN EUROPE OR WORSE.

    DESPITE THE COMMENTS, CLINTON ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS INSISTED THERE WAS NO CRISIS IN U-S/RUSSIAN RELATIONS. STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN JAMES RUBIN SAID THE TWO SIDES SHOULD NOT ALLOW THEIR DIFFERENCES OVER ONE ISSUE, TO DERAIL PRODUCTIVE WORK THEY ARE DOING TOGETHER IN OTHER AREAS:

    ///RUBIN ACTUALITY///

    AT THE END OF THE DAY, WE BELIEVE THAT THE RELATIONSHIP THAT WE HAVE WITH RUSSIA IS IMPORTANT ENOUGH TO THEM, AND IMPORTANT ENOUGH TO US THAT WE CAN WORK OUR WAY THROUGH THESE DIFFERENCES. MANAGING DIFFERENCES LIKE THE USE OF FORCE IN KOSOVO, THE USE OF FORCE IN IRAQ IS WHAT WE NEED TO DO. AND WE DO NOT HAVE ANY ILLUSIONS ABOUT HOW EAST THAT WILL BE, BUT IT'S SOMETHING WE ARE DETERMINED TO DO.

    ///END ACT///

    ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS SAY THEY EXPECT TO RE-SCHEDULE THE MEETING OF THE JOINT COMMISSION CHAIRED BY VICE PRESIDENT AL GORE AND MR. PRIMAKOV, THAT WAS SCUTTLED BY THE RUSSIAN PRIME MINISTER'S DECISION TUESDAY TO CANCEL HIS U-S VISIT.

    THE COMMISSION HAD BEEN EXPECTED TO FOCUS ON RUSSIAN ECONOMIC PROBLEMS AND ARMS CONTROL. EARLIER THIS WEEK, MR. YELTSIN APPROVED A MEASURE FROM PARLIAMENT THAT COULD CLEAR THE WAY FOR RUSSIA'S LONG DELAYED RATIFICATION OF THE THE START-TWO STRATEGIC ARMS LIMITATION TREATY, AND OPEN THE DOOR TO EVEN DEEPER NUCLEAR ARMS CUTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/LTD/JO
    24-Mar-99 2:11 PM EST (1911 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] RUSSIA / YELTSIN (L) BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247102
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN HAS GONE ON NATIONAL TELEVISION IN A LAST-MINUTE APPEAL TO AVOID MILITARY ACTION IN YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A'S EVE CONANT IN MOSCOW REPORTS THE RUSSIAN LEADER SAYS NATO AIRSTRIKES COULD BEGIN IN A FEW HOURS.

    TEXT:

    /// YELTSIN ACT - IN RUSSIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    PRESIDENT YELTSIN IS CALLING ON THE WORLD COMMUNITY TO STOP THE U-S PRESIDENT FROM TAKING WHAT HE CALLS A TRAGIC, DRAMATIC STEP MILITARY ACTION AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA.

    IN HIS RARE PUBLIC ADDRESS, PRESIDENT YELTSIN SAID, "WHILE THERE ARE STILL SOME MINUTES LEFT, WE MUST STOP BILL CLINTON." HE SAID IT WAS "IMPOSSIBLE TO UNDERSTAND" HOW THE UNITED STATES COULD BE PLANNING AIRSTRIKES WITHOUT THE APPROVAL OF THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL.

    /// YELTSIN ACT - IN RUSSIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    MR. YELTSIN SAYS THIS IS A MATTER OF SECURITY IN EUROPE. THIS IS A WAR IN EUROPE AND MAYBE MORE, HE SAYS, ADDING THAT HE WANTS PEACEFUL NEGOTIATIONS WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC.

    MR. YELTSIN DESCRIBED MR. MILOSEVIC AS A DIFFICULT NEGOTIATOR WITH WHOM OFFICIALS MUST SPEAK TEN OR 20 TIMES BEFORE GETTING A RESULT. BUT MR. YELTSIN SAYS, "WE SHOULD NOT REGRET TALKING TO HIM THOSE 20 TIMES FOR THE SAKE OF THE HUNDREDS AND HUNDREDS OF LIVES THAT WILL BE LOST IN A FEW HOURS."

    MR. YELTSIN CONCLUDED HIS SPEECH BY SAYING RUSSIA IS OUTRAGED BY THE THREAT OF AIRSTRIKES, AND THAT RUSSIA WILL DO "ALL IT CAN" IN RESPONSE. BUT PRESIDENT YELTSIN SAID WHAT HE CALLED RUSSIA'S NATIONAL CONSCIENCE WILL KEEP IT FROM DOING -- AS PUT IT -- "EVERYTHING." ANALYSTS INTERPRET HIS FINAL STATEMENT TO MEAN RUSSIA WILL REFRAIN FROM A MILITARY REACTION TO NATO AIRSTRIKES.

    PRESIDENT YELTSIN'S SPEECH WAS RECORDED IMMEDIATELY AFTER HE HAD A 35-MINUTE TELEPHONE CONVERSATION WITH PRESIDENT CLINTON. MR. CLINTON CALLED THE RUSSIAN LEADER IN AN EFFORT TO BOLSTER STRAINED RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA DESPITE SHARP DIFFERENCES OVER KOSOVO. A KREMLIN AIDE DESCRIBED THE TELEPHONE CONVERSATION AS "COMPLEX." (SIGNED)
    NEB/EC/JWH
    24-Mar-99 1:45 PM EST (1845 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [14] KOSOVO REACT BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUNDER REPORT
    NUMBER=5-4297
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: YUGOSLAVIA HAS DECLARED A STATE OF EMERGENCY AND SHUT DOWN AN INDEPENDENT RADIO STATION AS NATO AIR STRIKES APPEAR IMMINENT. YUGOSLAV OFFICIALS REMAIN DEFIANT. ETHNIC ALBANIANS SAY ONLY FORCE CAN BRING PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC BACK TO THE PEACE TABLE. IN LONDON, V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN SUMS UP THE DIFFERING VIEWS OF KOSOVO'S CRISIS.

    TEXT: THE DEPUTY CHIEF OF YUGOSLAVIA'S MISSION IN LONDON SAYS THE NATO AIR STRIKES WILL BE CONSIDERED AN ACT OF WAR. MILOSLAV PAIC (PAY ICH) SAYS THE SERB MILITARY HAS NO CHOICE BUT TO DEFEND THE COUNTRY.

    /// PAIC ACT ONE ///

    THE FIRST BOMB THAT MIGHT BE DROPPED ON OUR TERRITORY WILL BE CONSIDERED AS AN ACT OF AGGRESSION AND WE WILL USE ALL MEANS AND WEAPONRY THAT WE HAVE AT OUR DISPOSAL TO INFLICT IF POSSIBLE THE HEAVIEST POSSIBLE CASUALTIES ON THE INVADERS SO THERE SHOULDN'T BE ANY DOUBT ABOUT OUR DETERMINATION TO DEFEND OUR COUNTRY AGAINST NATO AIR STRIKES, WHICH WE CALL WAR AND AGGRESSION.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT HAS DECLARED A STATE OF EMERGENCY AND PUT THE MILITARY ON HIGH ALERT. IT ALSO SHUT DOWN AN INDEPENDENT RADIO STATION. HUMAN RIGHTS GROUPS HAVE PROTESTED THE ACTION. BUT MR. PAIC SAYS THE CENSORSHIP IS NECESSARY UNDER THE CIRCUMSTANCES.

    /// OPT // PAIC ACT TWO ///

    IN THIS SITUATION, WE WILL PREVENT ALL KINDS OF VOICES THAT MIGHT DEMORALIZE OUR POPULATION AND OUR SECURITY FORCES.

    /// END OPT ACT ///

    THE LONDON REPRESENTATIVE OF THE REBEL KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY, PLEURAT SEJDIU (SEH DJEW), SAYS BELGRADE'S STUBBORN REFUSAL TO STOP MILITARY OFFENSIVES IN KOSOVO AND ACCEPT THE PEACE PLAN HAS LEFT THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY NO OTHER ALTERNATIVE THAN FORCE.

    /// SEJDIU ACT ONE ///

    I THINK THIS IS THE LAST MEASURE THAT THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY CAN USE. SANCTIONS DID NOT WORK. POLITICAL PRESSURE DID NOT WORK. SO IT'S THE LAST MEASURE THEY CAN TRY.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. SEJDIU SAYS THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN REBEL ARMY WILL NOT CONFRONT THE SERB SECURITY FORCES BECAUSE IT AGREED TO THE INTERNATIONAL PEACE PLAN FOR KOSOVO. BUT HE SAYS THE K-L-A RESERVES THE RIGHT TO DEFEND THE KOSOVAR ALBANIAN POPULATION.

    /// SEJDIU ACT TWO ///

    NOW K-L-A IS AVOIDING ANY CONFRONTATION BECAUSE WE ARE PART OF THE PEACE DEAL WE SIGNED AND WE ARE RESTRAINING OFFENSIVES ATTACKS BUT NOT FOR LONG. THE K-L-A CANNOT BE DESTROYED BECAUSE IT'S PART OF THE ALBANIAN PEOPLE, SO FIGHTING WILL GO ON UNTIL NATO TROOPS ARE ON THE GROUND.

    /// END ACT ///

    FOR MONTHS, NATO HAS THREATENED AIR STRIKES IF PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC DID NOT STOP THE MILITARY OFFENSIVE IN KOSOVO WHICH HAS DISPLACED MORE THAN ONE-QUARTER-MILLION ETHNIC ALBANIANS.

    YUGOSLAV DIPLOMAT PAIC CHARGES THE NATO AIR STRIKES ARE ILLEGAL.

    /// OPT // PAIC ACT THREE ///

    NO REGIONAL MILITARY ORGANIZATION HAS POWER UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW TO DECLARE WAR ON A SOVEREIGN COUNTRY, WHICH IS NOT THREATENING INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY.

    /// END OPT ACT ///

    NOT SO, SAYS BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR. HE SAYS NATO IS RIGHTFULLY RESPONDING TO YUGOSLAVIA'S BREACH OF U-N RESOLUTIONS DEMANDING ITS MILITARY PULLOUT FROM KOSOVO.

    /// OPT // BLAIR ACT ///

    THE (U-N) RESOLUTION VERY SPECIFICALLY DECLARES THAT MILOSEVIC MUST ABIDE BY THE UNDERTAKING, THE AGREEMENT HE ENTERED INTO LAST OCTOBER TO CEASE REPRESSION IN KOSOVO AND THE BASIS OF OUR ACTION IN INTERNATIONAL LAW IS VERY CLEAR INDEED.

    /// END OPT ACT ///

    PRIME MINISTER BLAIR SAYS NATO'S ACTIONS ARE AIMED AT PREVENTING A HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE IN THE BALKANS. HE SAYS TIME HAS RUN OUT FOR APPEALS TO PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC AND THE YUGOSLAV LEADER MUST FACE THE CONSEQUENCES OF HIS DECISIONS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH/WFR
    24-Mar-99 8:51 AM EST (1351 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [15] THE NATO AIR ATTACKS ON YUGOSLAVIA BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=03/24/99
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-11206
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=
    [EDITORS: DUE TO THE IMPORTANCE OF THIS SUBJECT, YOU ARE REMINDED THAT ADDITIONAL EDITORIAL COMMENT MAY BE FOUND IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST #6-11205, WHICH HAS ALREADY MOVED; PLEASE WATCH CN WIRE AND UPDATE TEXT PORTIONS OF SCRIPT AS NEEDED.]

    INTRO: U-S NEWSPAPER HAVE BEEN WRITING ABOUT THE PREPARATIONS FOR MILITARY ACTION AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. WE HAVE A SAMPLING NOW FROM ___________________ IN TODAY'S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION HAS CLEARED THE WAY FOR // HAS BEGUN // AIR ATTACKS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA, IN HOPES OF PREVENTING FURTHER BLOODSHED AMONG THE MAINLY ETHNIC ALBANIANS OF THE SOUTHERN SERBIAN PROVINCE OF KOSOVO.

    WE BEGIN OUR SAMPLING IN CHICAGO, WHERE COLUMNIST DENNIS BYRNE OF "THE SUN-TIMES" REMAINS SKEPTICAL ABOUT U-S FOREIGN POLICY.

    VOICE: NO WORD BETTER DESCRIBES HOW WE GOT TO WHERE WE ARE IN KOSOVO THAN 'DITHERING.' [INDECISIVE] /// OPT ///

    BRITISH CONSERVATIVE PARTY LEADER WILLIAM HAGUE USED IT ... TO EXPLAIN WHY SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAS BEEN EMBOLDENED TO GO AS FAR AS HE HAS. IT CERTAINLY APPLIED TO THE WHITE HOUSE SUNDAY WHEN IT WARNED (MR.) MILOSEVIC THAT HE HAD ONLY 'A COUPLE OF HOURS' BEFORE HE'D HAVE TO SUFFER THE CONSEQUENCES OF TURNING KOSOVARS INTO HUMAN REMAINS. OF COURSE, A COUPLE OF HOURS PASSED, THEN A COUPLE MORE /// END OPT /// ... UP TO HIS NECK IN ... YEARS, OF AMERICAN BLUFFING, [MR.] MILOSEVIC NOT SURPRISINGLY REJECTED [THE] ... LATEST 'LAST CHANCE' APPEAL FOR PEACE. ... THIS LEADERSHIP FAILURE WILL DRAW US INTO EVER MORE OF WHAT TODAY IS THE FUNDAMENTAL THREAT TO WORLD PEACE: CIVIL WAR.

    TEXT: IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST, "THE OREGONIAN" SAYS, HOWEVER, THIS COUNTRY MUST "ACT AGAINST GENOCIDE," ADDING:

    VOICE: /// OPT /// IN THE SERBIAN ASSAULT ON BOSNIA, PRESIDENT CLINTON REMINDED THE NATION ... 'INNOCENT PEOPLE WERE HERDED INTO CONCENTRATION CAMPS. CHILDREN WERE GUNNED DOWN ON THEIR WAY TO SCHOOL. SOCCER FIELDS WERE TURNED INTO CEMETERIES. .... PARALLELS ARE NEVER PERFECT. BUT

    /// END OPT ///

    THE THREAT TO CIVILIANS IN KOSOVO CLOSELY RESEMBLES THE THREAT IN BOSNIA, WHICH IS WHY EUROPEANS HAVE ALSO ACCEPTED THE NEED TO ACT ...

    TEXT: FLORIDA'S "ORLANDO SENTINEL" CALLS THE PRESENT SITUATION "A CLINTON MESS IN KOSOVO," ADDING:

    VOICE: OF ALL THE PRESIDENT'S WARLIKE IMPULSES, THE KOSOVO GAMBIT RAISES THE MOST CONCERN. HE OFFERS N O COMPELLING REASON TO COMMIT U-S TROOPS. /// OPT /// ... AFTER A CENTURY OF WARS THAT KILLED MORE THAN 600-THOUSAND AMERICANS AND WOUNDED ONE-POINT-FIVE MILLION, THIS NATION CAN ILL AFFORD TO COMMIT TROOPS TO BATTLE HASTILY. ... THE KOSOVO GAMBIT ... COULD RESULT IN MORE NAMES BEING ADDED TO THAT TRAGIC CENTURY-LONG LIST OF DEAD AND INJURED AMERICAN TROOPS. AND FOR WHAT? THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION OFFERS NO GOOD ANSWER. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: IN TEXAS, "THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS" WONDERS, WHAT COMES NEXT IN THE BALKANS?

    VOICE: SO, WHAT COMES AFTER THE NINTENDO WAR? /// OPT /// PRESIDENT CLINTON'S PODIUM-THUMPING SUPPORT ON TUESDAY FOR BOMBING YUGOSLAVIA CLARIFIED THAT HE HAS OVERCOME ANY FINAL DOUBTS ABOUT THE WISDOM OF ATTACKING THAT COUNTRY. BUT /// END OPT /// EVEN THOUGH AMERICANS KNOW WHAT FIGHTER JETS AND TOMAHAWK [CRUISE] MISSILES CAN DO, DOES ANYONE REALLY KNOW WHAT COMES NEXT IN THE BALKANS? SADLY, THE ANSWER APPEARS TO BE NO. ... IF THE YUGOSLAVS ARE OBLIGED TO DODGE NATO BOMBS, THE UNITED STATES AND NATO MAY BE DESTINED TO DODGE THEIR OWN BOOMERANGS.

    TEXT: FOR ITS PART, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" EDITORIAL HEADLINE, READS, "FORCE IS ALL THAT'S LEFT," BUT THE PAPER ALSO WONDERS WHY ALL ELSE FAILED?

    VOICE: A FAILURE OF DIPLOMACY, THREATS UNFULFILLED, A MILITANT CULTURE UNDERESTIMATED. /// OPT /// THAT TROUBLED TRAIL HAS BROUGHT THE UNITED STATES AND ITS NATO ALLIES TO THE EDGE OF ANOTHER WAR IN THE BALKANS. /// END OPT /// AMERICAN PILOTS WILL BE IN THE VANGUARD. IT'S RIGHT TO ASK WHY, AND MANY POLITICIANS IN WASHINGTON ARE DOING THAT.

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" HOWEVER, FEELS THERE IS A "RATIONALE FOR AIR STRIKES."

    VOICE: /// OPT /// MR. MILOSEVIC HAS BEEN GIVEN EVERY CHANCE TO END HIS AGGRESSION, AND EVERY WARNING OF WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF HE DID NOT. HE HAS IGNORED THEM, AND THE BOMBING MUST BEGIN QUICKLY BEFORE HIS RAMPAGE TAKES MORE LIVES. /// END OPT ///... PRESIDENT CLINTON SET OUT A PERSUASIVE RATIONALE FOR AMERICAN MILITARY INVOLVEMENT ... BOMBING IS NO SURE THING HE SAID, BUT THE DANGERS OF ACTING MUST BE WEIGHTED AGAINST THE DANGERS OF INACTION. .. IT WOULD BE AN ACT OF BETRAYAL TO ALLOW MR. MILOSEVIC TO MASSACRE THE KOSOVARS.

    TEXT: FLORIDA'S "ORLANDO SENTINEL," CALLS THE PRESENT SITUATION, "A CLINTON MESS IN KOSOVO," ADDING:

    VOICE: OF ALL THE PRESIDENT'S WARLIKE IMPULSES, THE KOSOVO GAMBIT RAISES THE MOST CONCERN. HE OFFERS N O COMPELLING REASON TO COMMIT U-S TROOPS. /// OPT /// ... AFTER A CENTURY OF WARS THAT KILLED MORE THAN 600-THOUSAND AMERICANS AND WOUNDED ONE-POINT-FIVE MILLION, THIS NATION CAN ILL AFFORD TO COMMIT TROOPS TO BATTLE HASTILY. ... THE KOSOVO GAMBIT ... COULD RESULT IN MORE NAMES BEING ADDED TO THAT TRAGIC CENTURY-LONG LIST OF DEAD AND INJURED AMERICAN TROOPS. AND FOR WHAT? THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION OFFERS NO GOOD ANSWER. /// END OPT ///

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: A SKEPTICAL "BOSTON GLOBE" CALLS THE SITUATION A "MORASS" AND POINTS OUT THE DIFFICULTY NATO PILOTS FACE IN HITTING THEIR TARGETS.

    VOICE: THE PENTAGON IS SAYING THAT IF BOMBS CAN'T GET [MR.] MILOSEVIC TO THE NEGOTIATING TABLE, THEY CAN AT LEAST HINDER YUGOSLAVIA'S ABILITY TO MAKE WAR. .... BUT YUGOSLAVIA'S COUNTERINSURGENCY CAMPAIGN IN KOSOVO RELIES ON SPECIAL FORCES IN SMALL UNITS THAT ARE NOT THAT VULNERABLE TO AIR STRIKES. AND NATO STRIKES AGAINST SERB POSITIONS IN KOSOVO WILL ENCOURAGE KOSOVAR SEPARATISTS TO ATTACK.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE" FEELS THAT "A BOMBING CAMPAIGN MAY BE NEEDED TO FORCE SERBIA'S STRONGMAN TO CALL OFF HIS TROOPS."

    VOICE: NATO IS RUNNING OUT OF PATIENCE, JUSTIFIABLY. AND [MR.] MILOSEVIC CAN BLAME ONLY HIMSELF IF WAR BREAKS OUT.

    TEXT: /// OPT /// HOWEVER, IN THE MIDDLE OF THE NATION, "THE OMAHA WORLD-HERALD" CALLS THE SITUATION "CLINTON'S BALKAN QUAGMIRE." /// END OPT /// WITH THAT COMMENT, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF U-S EDITORIAL COMMENT ON THE SITUATION IN YUGOSLAVIA.
    NEB/ANG/GE
    24-Mar-99 12:59 PM EST (1759 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [16] NATO ATTACKS (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247111
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO'S SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA HAS CONFIRMED THAT NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAV MILITARY TARGETS ARE UNDERWAY. EXPLOSIONS HAVE BEEN HEARD NEAR THE KOSOVO PROVINCIAL CAPITAL OF PRISTINA. CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN HAS MORE FROM V-O-A'S LONDON NEWS CENTER.

    TEXT: NATO'S SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA ISSUED A STATEMENT CONFIRMING THAT NATO HAS BEGUN AIR STRIKES AGAINST SERB MILITARY TARGETS. /// OPT /// AN HOUR EARLIER, ITALIAN T-V HAD REPORTED THAT ALLIED JETS HAD TAKEN OFF FROM BASES THERE. /// END OPT ///

    JOURNALISTS IN KOSOVO REPORTED AT LAST TWO EXPLOSIONS NEAR PRISTINA, FOLLOWED BY SMALL-ARMS FIRE, JUST ABOUT THE SAME TIME NATO HEADQUARTERS CONFIRMED THE FIRST WAVE OF ATTACKS. LATER AIR RAID SIRENS WERE SOUNDED IN BELGRADE.

    BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR ALSO ANNOUNCED THE START OF THE AIR STRIKES. HE SAID THE ATTACK WOULD PREVENT PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC FROM PERPETRATING WHAT MR BLAIR CALLS HIS VILE OPPRESSION OF THE KOSOVAR POPULATION.

    /// BLAIR ACT ///

    I BELIEVE THAT HISTORY TEACHES US VERY CLEARLY IN BOSNIA AS ELSEWHERE THAT THE ONLY CIRCUMSTANCES IN WHICH A DICTATOR BEHAVES REASONABLY IS WHEN IT IS CLEAR THE PEOPLE WHO HAVE THE MEANS TO MAKE HIM BEHAVE REASONABLY USE THOSE MEANS AGAINST HIM AND THAT'S WHAT WE INTEND TO DO

    /// END ACT ///

    PRIME MINISTER BLAIR REFUSED TO SPECULATE HOW LONG THE BOMBING WOULD GO ON OR WHEN IT WOULD END.

    BUT HE WARNED THE YUGOSLAV LEADER AGAINST ATTACKING NATO FORCES ANYWHERE IN THE REGION. SUCH ATTACKS, HE SAID, WILL BE MET WITH A SWIFT AND SEVERE RESPONSE.

    YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC SO FAR HAS REMAINED DEFIANT AND REFUSED TO COMPLY WITH WESTERN DEMANDS THAT HE END THE MILITARY OFFENSIVE IN KOSOVO PROVINCE. SERB OFFICIALS CALL THE NATO ATTACKS AN ACT OF WAR AND PROMISE TO RESPOND. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH/GE
    24-Mar-99 2:46 PM EST (1946 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [17] KOSOVO STRIKE (L-ONLY) BY SABINA CASTELFRANCO (AVIANO AIRBASE, ITALY)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247129
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    // EDITORS: IF YOU USE THIS TAPE, YOU NEED TO CUT OUT THE WORD 'SERB' BEFORE 'PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC' IN 4TH GRAF OF TEXT
    //

    INTRO: WARPLANES FROM THE NATO AIR BASE AT AVIANO, ITALY, TOOK PART IN THE FIRST WAVE OF AIRSTRIKES AGAINST SERB TARGETS IN YUGOSLAVIA (WEDNESDAY). SABINA CASTELFRANCO WATCHED THE PLANES TAKE OFF FROM THE BASE AND HAS THIS REPORT.

    TEXT: AROUND 80 NATO FIGHTER JETS TOOK OFF FROM AVIANO AIRBASE IN NORTHERN ITALY WEDNESDAY NIGHT AND HEADED ACROSS THE ADRIATIC TO YUGOSLAVIA. THE MISSION WAS DESCRIBED BY OFFICIALS AT THE BASE AS THE INITIAL PHASE OF A PUNITIVE AIR OPERATION OVER YUGOSLAVIA.

    PLANES FROM FIVE DIFFERENT NATIONS TOOK PART IN THE ACTION, INCLUDING THE UNITED STATES, CANADA, BRITAIN, SPAIN AND PORTUGAL.

    THE MILITARY STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA CAME AFTER EXTENSIVE EFFORTS BY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO REACH A PEACEFUL SOLUTION TO THE KOSOVO CRISIS.

    FAILURE TO PERSUADE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO SIGN A PEACE AGREEMENT HAD LEFT NO OTHER OPTION BUT MILITARY FORCE.

    THE ATTACK -- ANNOUNCED BY NATO SECRETARY-GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA WAS THE FIRST AGAINST A SOVEREIGN COUNTRY IN NATO'S 50-YEAR HISTORY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/SC/RRM
    24-Mar-99 6:12 PM EST (2312 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [18] PENTAGON / KOSOVO STRIKES (S) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247120
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO HAS LAUNCHED AIRSTRIKES AGAINST SERB TARGETS IN YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS THE FIRST WAVE OF ATTACKS WAS MADE BY UNMANNED CRUISE MISSILES, FOLLOWED BY STEALTH FIGHTER-BOMBERS.

    TEXT: PENTAGON OFFICIALS CONFIRM THAT CRUISE MISSILES WERE LAUNCHED BY SEVERAL NATO SHIPS ON PATROL NEAR YUGOSLAVIA. THE HIGHLY ACCURATE MISSILES ARE SMALL AND HARD TO FIND WITH RADAR, SO THEY ARE HARD TO HIT WITH ANTI-AIRCRAFT WEAPONS. UP TO 60 ADDITIONAL MISSILES MAY HAVE BEEN LAUNCHED BY U-S HEAVY BOMBERS THAT LEFT BASES IN BRITAIN EARLY WEDNESDAY.

    STEALTH FIGHTERS WERE AMONG SCORES OF PLANES SEEN BY REPORTERS TAKING OFF FROM A NATO BASE IN ITALY, SHORTLY BEFORE EXPLOSIONS WERE REPORTED BY OTHER JOURNALISTS IN KOSOVO (A YUGOSLAV PROVINCE).

    THE STEALTH FIGHTER IS EMPLOYED EARLY IN AIR ATTACKS BECAUSE IT IS NEARLY INVISIBLE TO RADAR, SO IT CAN SAFELY ATTACK AIR DEFENSES.

    PENTAGON OFFICIALS ARE GIVING FEW DETAILS IMMEDIATELY ABOUT TARGETS OR DAMAGE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JR/ENE/RRM
    24-Mar-99 4:32 PM EST (2132 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [19] PENTAGON KOSOVO SITREP - L BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247095
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: HUGE U-S HEAVY BOMBERS LIFTED OFF FROM BRITISH BASES WEDNESDAY, ONE POSSIBLE SIGN THAT THE CLOCK IS TICKING DOWN TO NATO AIR STRIKES ON SERB TARGETS IN YUGOSLAVIA. BUT U-S OFFICIALS SAY THE BIG PLANES TAKE OFF ON TRAINING EXERCISES EVERY DAY. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON WHERE OFFICIALS SAY EVERYTHING IS READY FOR AIR ATTACKS.

    TEXT: THE B-52'S CAN EASILY CARRY HIGHLY ACCURATE CRUISE MISSILES WITHIN REACH OF YUGOSLAVIA. COMPUTER-FLOWN CRUISE MISSILES LAUNCHED FROM HEAVY BOMBERS AND FROM HALF A DOZEN NATO SHIPS WILL BE THE FIRST WAVE OF ANY NATO AIR STRIKES.

    U-S OFFICIALS SAY THE FIRST AIRCRAFT TO ATTACK IS LIKELY TO BE THE STEALTH FIGHTER, WHICH IS HARD TO SPOT WITH RADAR AND CAN USE LASER BEAMS TO GUIDE 900 KILOGRAM BOMBS WITHIN A METER OR SO OF A TARGET.

    BUT YUGOSLAVIA'S FOGGY, CLOUDY, SNOWY WEATHER CAN BLOCK THE LASERS, SO THE U-S AIR FORCE SAYS IT MAY USE THE LARGER B-2 STEALTH BOMBER FOR THE FIRST TIME IN COMBAT. MAJOR BRUCE SPRECHER (PRONO:SPRECK-ER) SAYS THE B-2 CAN GUIDE WEAPONS WITH SATELLITE SIGNALS WHICH ARE NOT AFFECTED BY CLOUDS.

    /// SPRECHER ACT ///

    AS LONG AS YOU HAVE A SET OF COORDINATES, YOU CAN TARGET THAT WEAPON TO THAT POINT ON THE EARTH AND THAT'S WHERE IT'LL GO.

    /// END ACT ///

    HE SAYS THE B-2 CAN REACH ANY POINT ON EARTH FROM A U-S BASE AND LAUNCH 18-THOUSAND KILOGRAMS OF PRECISION GUIDED MISSILES AND BOMBS.

    THESE WEAPONS ARE FOCUSED ON YUGOSLAV COMMAND BUNKERS, COMMUNICATIONS AND AIR DEFENSES. THE GOAL IS TO DISORGANIZE THE DEFENDERS AND CLEAR THE WAY FOR HUNDREDS OF CONVENTIONAL PLANES THAT WILL BOMB THE SERB-DOMINATED YUGOSLAV FORCES NOW ATTACKING ETHNIC ALBANIAN SEPARATISTS IN SERBIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE.

    PENTAGON OFFICIALS SAY 40-THOUSAND SERB TROOPS AND HUNDREDS OF TANKS ARE TAKING PART IN THAT OFFENSIVE. (SIGNED).
    NEB/JR/LTD/JO
    24-Mar-99 12:08 PM EST (1708 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [20] KOSOVO: WHAT NEXT? BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPT.)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-42932
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// RE-RUNNING W/CORRECT NUMBER ///

    INTRO: U-S AND NATO OFFICIALS SAY MILITARY ACTION AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA WAS THE ONLY OPTION THEY HAD LEFT TO HALT A GOVERNMENT CRACKDOWN AGAINST ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN THE PROVINCE OF KOSOVO. BUT CRITICS SAY THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION AND NATO HAVE EMBARKED ON A NEW POLICY, WITH NO CLEAR IDEA OF WHAT TO DO WHEN THE BOMBING STOPS. V-O-A'S KYLE KING HAS THIS REPORT FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: AFTER A YEAR OF FAILED DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS TO FIND A POLITICAL SOLUTION TO THE CRISIS IN KOSOVO, NATO RESPONDED WITH WHAT IT CONSIDERS THE ONLY OPTION IT HAD LEFT -- AIRSTRIKES AGAINST GOVERNMENT FORCES IN SERB-DOMINATED YUGOSLAVIA.

    BUT EVEN BEFORE THE FIRST WAVE OF BOMBS WERE DROPPED, SOME ANALYSTS WERE QUESTIONING WHERE THE NEW POLICY WOULD LEAD.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN JAMES RUBIN ACKNOWLEDGES THE USE OF MILITARY FORCE BRINGS BOTH RISK AND UNCERTAINTY.

    // RUBIN ACT //

    WE BELIEVE, HOWEVER, THAT THE DANGER FOR U-S NATIONAL INTERESTS OF NOT RESPONDING TO SERBIA'S ESCALATING OFFENSIVE IS FAR GREATER THAT THE UNCERTAINTIES THAT TEND TO ANY MILITARY ACTION.

    // END ACT //

    SERBIA IS THE DOMINANT REPUBLIC IN THE YUGOSLAV FEDERATION.

    PRESIDENT CLINTON SAYS THE IMMEDIATE AIM OF THE BOMBING CAMPAIGN IS TO DEGRADE THE ABILITY OF THE SERBS TO CONTINUE THEIR OFFENSIVE AGAINST THE SEPARATIST REBELS IN THE PROVINCE OF KOSOVO WHERE THE POPULATION IS MOSTLY ETHNIC ALBANIAN.

    ASIDE FROM HUMANITARIAN CONSIDERATIONS, PRESIDENT CLINTON SAYS THE FIGHTING IN KOSOVO ALSO RUNS THE RISK OF SPREADING TO NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES.

    BUT SOME MEMBERS OF (THE U-S) CONGRESS AND FORMER (U-S) GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS SAY NATO AIRSTRIKES MAY WIND UP CREATING MORE INSTABILITY IN THE BALKANS -- NOT LESS. THEY SAY AIRSTRIKES WILL HARDEN SERB ATTITUDES AGAINST THE WEST.

    FORMER U-S ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS JOHN BOLTON -- SAYS MILITARY INTERVENTION ALSO FAVORS THE ETHNIC ALBANIANS WHO SEEK INDEPENDENCE FROM SERBIA.

    // BOLTON ACT //

    IF I WERE THE KOSOVAR ALBANIANS, I WOULD BE BREAKING THE CHAMPAGNE OUT. THEY ARE CLOSER TO INDEPENDENCE NOW THAN THEY WERE EVER BEFORE. AND IT'S NEARLY IMPOSSIBLE FOR ANY OUTSIDE POWER TO ACT LIKE A NEUTRAL FORCE, OR A MEDIATOR, OR A PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN KOSOVO AFTER THE BOMBARDMENT OF SERBIA, ESPECIALLY IF THERE ARE A LOT OF CASUALTIES.

    // END ACT //

    BEFORE THE AIRSTRIKES BEGAN, YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC SAID SERBS WOULD DEFEND THE COUNTRY. HE AGAIN REJECTED THE IDEA OF ALLOWING NATO PEACEKEEPING TROOPS INTO KOSOVO, A DEMAND THAT THE UNITED STATES SAYS HE MUST ACCEPT.

    U-S OFFICIALS ACKNOWLEDGE MILITARY ACTION MAY NOT CAUSE THE SERBS TO IMMEDIATELY GIVE IN TO WESTERN DEMANDS AND ACCEPT A PEACE ACCORD THAT WOULD GIVE KOSOVO AUTONOMY. BUT, OFFICIALS SAY, CRITICS OF U-S POLICY HAVE NOT OFFERED ANY ALTERNATIVE THAT WOULD HALT THE SERB OFFENSIVE IN KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/PW/RRM
    24-Mar-99 6:01 PM EST (2301 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [21] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY LAUREN COMITEAU (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247087
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PROSECUTORS AT THE YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL SAY THEY ARE "GRAVELY CONCERNED" ABOUT A LEAK OF CONFIDENTIAL DOCUMENTS TO A U-S NEWSPAPER, THE NEW YORK TIMES. LAUREN COMITEAU REPORTS FROM THE HAGUE.

    TEXT: IT IS FIRM POLICY THAT PROSECUTORS AT THE YUGOSLAV TRIBUNAL NEVER COMMENT ABOUT ON-GOING INVESTIGATIONS AND POTENTIAL INDICTMENTS. SO THE PUBLICATION IN SUNDAY'S NEW YORK TIMES -- QUOTING FROM INTERNAL PROSECUTION DOCUMENTS -- THAT THREE CROATIAN GENERALS WERE ON THE VERGE OF BEING INDICTED IS BEING TAKEN SERIOUSLY.

    DEPUTY PROSECUTOR GRAHAM BLEWITT CALLED THE WHOLE INCIDENT -- FROM THE LEAK TO THE NAMING OF NAMES -- REGRETTABLE, AND HE SAID IT HAS LEFT MEMBERS OF HIS OFFICE FEELING VULNERABLE.

    /// BLEWITT ACT ONE ///

    OUR CONCERN IN THE LEAKING OF THIS TYPE OF INFORMATION, WHICH IS REALLY OUR ONGOING WORK, COULD HAVE THE EFFECT OF DISCOURAGING PEOPLE FROM BEING FORTHCOMING IN THEIR ARGUMENTS AND PRESENTATION OF THEIR VIEWS IF THEY THINK THOSE VIEWS WILL FIND THEIR WAY INTO THE MEDIA. SO IT HAS A GENERAL EFFECT OF DISCOURAGING DEBATE WITHIN OUR OFFICE, WHICH IS ANOTHER THING WE REGRET.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. BLEWITT SAYS THE DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO BY THE NEW YORK TIMES ARE IN FACT WORKING PAPERS MEANT TO HELP THE PROSECUTOR, WHO HAS THE ULTIMATE DECISION OVER WHO TO INDICT. HE SAYS THE DOCUMENTS CLEARLY CAME FROM SOMEONE WITHIN THE PROSECUTORS OFFICE.

    THE DOCUMENTS SAID THE CROATIAN ARMY WAS GUILTY OF ETHNIC CLEANSING, INDISCRIMINATE SHELLING OF CIVILIANS, AND SYSTEMATICALLY MURDERING CROATIAN SERBS DURING ITS 1995 OFFENSIVE TO RECAPTURE SERB-HELD LAND IN CROATIA. THAT OFFENSIVE, KNOWN AS OPERATION STORM, DROVE AT LEAST 100-THOUSAND SERBS OUT OF THE AREA IN FOUR DAYS.

    THE NEWSPAPER REPORTED INVESTIGATORS RECOMMENDED INDICTING THE THREE GENERALS WHO LED THE ASSAULT, AND POSSIBLY EVEN CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN.

    DEPUTY PROSECUTOR GRAHAM BLEWITT WOULD NOT COMMENT IF THE INDICTMENTS WERE GOING TO BE ISSUED. BUT HE STRESSED THAT THE LEAK WILL HAVE NO INFLUENCE WHATSOEVER ON THE PROSECUTOR'S DECISION OVER WHETHER TO PRESS CHARGES.

    /// BLEWITT ACT TWO ///

    THE PROSECUTOR WILL DO WHAT HER MANDATE FROM THE SECURITY COUNCIL REQUIRES, INDEPENDENTLY AND OBJECTIVELY, AND WILL NOT ALLOW HERSELF TO BE INFLUENCED OR MANIPULATED BY OUTSIDE FORCES.

    /// END ACT ///

    IN CROATIA, WHERE RUMORS HAVE BEEN CIRCULATING SINCE DECEMBER THAT CROATIAN GENERALS WERE ABOUT TO BE INDICTED, THE PRIME MINISTER TOLD PARLIAMENT (TUESDAY) THAT NO GENERALS WOULD BE EXTRADITED TO THE HAGUE. CROATIAN OFFICIALS HAVE DEFENDED OPERATION STORM AS A LEGITIMATE MILITARY ACTION.

    CROATIA'S PARLIAMENT RECENTLY VOTED TO CONTINUE COOPERATING WITH THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL DESPITE WHAT IT SEES AS A BIAS AGAINST THEM. TRIBUNAL PROSECUTORS, WHO MET WITH THE CROATIAN AMBASSADOR YESTERDAY, SAY THEY EXPECT THAT COOPERATION TO CONTINUE, REGARDLESS OF WHO IS INDICTED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LC/JWH
    24-Mar-99 10:47 AM EST (1547 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [22] E-U / SERB RADIO (L ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247101
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT HAS SHUT DOWN THE INDEPENDENT RADIO STATION B-92 IN BELGRADE AND DETAINED ITS EDITOR. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS THE EUROPEAN UNION SAYS IT WILL REBROADCAST B-92 PROGRAMS ON ITS OWN SATELLITE NETWORK IN A SHOW OF SOLIDARITY.

    TEXT: EUROPEAN UNION COMMISSION SPOKESMAN NICO WEGTER SAYS THE E-U RADIO NETWORK, KNOWN AS EUROPE BY SATELLITE, WILL MAKE B-92 PROGRAMS AVAILABLE ON ITS AIR WAVES, WHICH SHOULD REACH INTO YUGOSLAVIA. MR. WEGTER SAYS THE EUROPEAN UNION DECIDED TO TAKE THIS ACTION TO LET AN INDEPENDENT VOICE BE HEARD IN THE COUNTRY.

    /// WEGTER ACT ///

    IT IS PURELY A GESTURE OF SOLIDARITY WITH THE PEOPLE IN BELGRADE WHO ARE NOW THE VICTIM OF THE LACK OF FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION, WHICH IS ONE OF THE FUNDAMENTAL VALUES THAT WE ARE CONSTANTLY INSISTING ON.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. WEGTER SAYS THE EUROPEAN UNION HAS REPEATEDLY CALLED ON YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES TO RESPECT BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS OF ITS CITIZENS.

    /// WEGTER ACT ///

    DURING THE LAST YEARS, WE HAVE CONSTANTLY INSISTED IN BELGRADE THAT IN ORDER TO ENABLE MORE NORMALIZED RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN E-U AND BELGRADE, THE RESPECT OF HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUDING FREEDOM OF THE PRESS, IS ESSENTIAL. THIS WE HAVE BEEN REPEATING ALL THE TIME AND WILL SAY AGAIN IN THE FUTURE.

    /// END ACT ///

    YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES JUSTIFIED THE SHUTDOWN OF THE INDEPENDENT RADIO UNDER THE STATE OF EMERGENCY TO PREVENT WHAT THEY CALLED THE SPREAD OF PANIC.

    IN BELGRADE, PLAINCLOTHES SERB POLICE ALSO SHUT DOWN SATELLITE TRANSMISSIONS BY THE EUROPEAN BROADCASTING UNION, WHICH WAS PROVIDING SATELLITE LINKS FOR FOREIGN BROADCASTERS NOW WORKING IN THE YUGOSLAV CAPITAL. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH/RRM
    24-Mar-99 12:26 PM EST (1726 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [23] E-U LEADERS (S) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BERLIN)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247072
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE LEADERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION'S 15 COUNTRIES ARE IN BERLIN FOR A CRUCIAL MEETING TO REFORM THE E-U BUDGET FOR THE NEXT SIX YEARS. V-O-A'S RON PEMSTEIN IN BERLIN REPORTS ANOTHER ISSUE DOMINATES THE EUROPEAN SUMMIT MEETING.

    TEXT: THE EUROPEAN LEADERS OPEN THEIR TWO-DAY MEETING BY DISCUSSING THE REPLACEMENT OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION THAT RESIGNED EIGHT DAYS AGO FOLLOWING CHARGES THAT IT IGNORED CASES OF CORRUPTION AND NEPOTISM. THE LEADERS MEET WITH THE PRESIDENT OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT WHO HAS BEEN CALLING FOR THE QUICK REPLACEMENT OF COMMISSION PRESIDENT JACQUES SANTER.

    THE LEADERS ARE HERE FOR A SPECIAL TWO-DAY SUMMIT INTENDED TO AGREE ON THEIR NEARLY 100-BILLION DOLLAR BUDGET INCLUDING THE BIGGEST ITEM IN IT, AGRICULTURE. REFORM OF THE BUDGET IS NEEDED TO ALLOW EXPANSION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION TO NEW MEMBERS FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE. BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND GERMANY APPEAR TO AGREE ON FORMER ITALIAN PRIME MINISTER ROMANO PRODI AS THE BEST MAN TO LEAD THE 20-MEMBER EUROPEAN COMMISSION. IT IS STILL NOT DETERMINED IF THE LEADERS WILL BE ABLE TO AGREE ON MR. PRODI AT THIS MEETING OR AT ANOTHER SUMMIT NEXT MONTH. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RDP/JWH
    24-Mar-99 4:16 AM EST (0916 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [24] E-U LEADERS (S UPDATE) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BERLIN)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247083
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// EDS: THIS REPORT UPDATES CR 2-247072 ///

    INTRO: EUROPEAN UNION LEADERS HAVE SELECTED FORMER ITALIAN PRIME MINISTER ROMANO PRODI AS THEIR CHOICE FOR THE NEXT PRESIDENT OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM BERLIN.

    TEXT: AFTER HEARING A CALL FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT FOR THEM TO NAME A NEW COMMISSION PRESIDENT WITHOUT DELAY, THE LEADERS DID EXACTLY THAT.

    INSTEAD OF LEAVING THE DISCUSSION TO THE END OF THEIR BUDGET NEGOTIATIONS, THE EUROPEAN UNION LEADERS WENT AHEAD AND NAMED ROMANO PRODI AS THEIR NOMINEE FOR EUROPEAN COMMISSION PRESIDENT, REPLACING JACQUES SANTER.

    GERMAN CHANCELLOR GERHARD SCHROEDER CALLS MR. PRODI THE IDEAL CHOICE.

    /// SCHROEDER ACT W/ INTERPRETER ///

    HE IS SOMEONE WHO HAS EXPERIENCE IN ADMINISTRATION AND HOW TO DEAL WITH ADMINISTRATION AND THEREFORE HE KNOWS WHAT REFORM IS ALL ABOUT.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. SCHROEDER SAYS THE EUROPEAN LEADERS WANT TO MEET WITH MR. PRODI NEXT MONTH BEFORE HIS NOMINATION IS APPROVED BY THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RDP/JWH
    24-Mar-99 9:29 AM EST (1429 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [25] EUROPEAN LEADERS (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BERLIN)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247097
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: EUROPEAN UNION LEADERS HAVE AGREED ON A NEW PRESIDENT FOR THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE E-U SUMMIT IN BERLIN.

    TEXT: THERE WAS NO SURPRISE -- THE LEADERS CHOSE FORMER ITALIAN PRIME MINISTER ROMANO PRODI. THE SURPRISE CAME IN THE FACT THAT THEY MADE THE CHOICE SO SOON AFTER THEY CONVENED IN BERLIN. IT CAME WITHIN MINUTES AFTER THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT URGED THE LEADERS TO NOMINATE SOMEONE WITHOUT DELAY.

    GERMAN CHANCELLOR GERHARD SCHROEDER CALLS MR. PRODI THE IDEAL CHOICE. THROUGH AN INTERPRETER, HE SUMS UP THE DISCUSSION.

    /// SCHROEDER ACT W/ INTERPRETER ///

    THERE'S ABSOLUTELY NO DOUBT THAT HE HAS VERY RICH POLITICAL EXPERIENCE. HE HAS SHOWN THAT TO BE THE CASE IN MANY OF THE OFFICES THAT HE HAS HELD. AND SECONDLY, HE IS SOMEONE WHO HAS EXPERIENCE IN ADMINISTRATION AND TO DEAL WITH ADMINISTRATION AND THEREFORE HE KNOWS WHAT REFORM IS ALL ABOUT. THIRDLY, THERE IS ABSOLUTELY NO DOUBT THAT HE HAS VERY GREAT HUMAN AND PERSONAL INTEGRITY. AND FOURTHLY, HE IS SOMEONE WHO HAS VERY UNUSUAL ECONOMIC KNOW-HOW AND EXPERIENCE IN THE FIELD OF ECONOMICS.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. PRODI WILL REPLACE THE RESIGNED JACQUES SANTER JUST AS SOON AS HE IS CONFIRMED NEXT MONTH BY THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT. IT WAS A REPORT BY EXPERTS APPOINTED BY THE PARLIAMENT THAT ACCUSED THE CURRENT 20-MEMBER EUROPEAN COMMISSION OF NOT HAVING A SENSE OF RESPONSIBILITY FOR CASES OF CORRUPTION AND NEPOTISM IN PROGRAMS THEY RAN.

    THE FORMER ITALIAN PRIME MINISTER HAS SAID HE WILL ACCEPT THE JOB IF HE CAN KEEP THE POSITION FOR THE REST OF MR. SANTER'S TERM -- WHICH ENDS IN JANUARY -- PLUS THE FULL FIVE-YEAR TERM. THE PRESIDENT OF PARLIAMENT SAYS THE CHOICE WILL HAVE TO BE RE-CONFIRMED BY THE NEW PARLIAMENT THAT WILL BE ELECTED IN JUNE. HE DOES NOT EXPECT IT TO BE A PROBLEM SINCE MR. PRODI IS KNOWN AS A REFORMER.

    MR. PRODI IS BEST KNOWN IN EUROPE FOR REFORMING THE ITALIAN ECONOMY AND HELPING ITALY TO QUALIFY AS A FOUNDING MEMBER OF THE EURO, THE NEW EUROPEAN CURRENCY IN 11 COUNTRIES. AS A CENTER-LEFTIST, HE IS FAVORED BY THE PREDOMINANTLY CENTER-LEFT LEADERS OF EUROPE.

    /// OPT ///

    HIS SELECTION AS EUROPEAN COMMISSION PRESIDENT HELPS ITALIAN PRIME MINISTER MASSIMO D'ALEMA, WHO HAD BEEN WORRIED ABOUT MR. PRODI CHALLENGING HIM WITH A NEW CENTRIST PARTY IN THE NEXT ELECTION. /// END OPT ///

    BEFORE TURNING TO THEIR OWN BUDGET REFORMS, THE LEADERS APPROVED A STATEMENT ON KOSOVO EXPRESSING DEEP CONCERN ABOUT THE FAILURE OF MEDIATION EFFORTS. THEY BLAME WHAT THEY CALL THE IRRESPONSIBLE POLICY OF THE YUGOSLAV LEADERSHIP AND SAY THE AGGRESSOR WILL HAVE TO PAY A HIGH PRICE.

    SINCE FOUR OF THE EUROPEAN UNION'S LEADERS ARE NOT MEMBERS OF NATO, THERE WAS NO DIRECT ENDORSEMENT OF NATO AIRSTRIKES IN THEIR KOSOVO STATEMENT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RDP/JWH/RRM
    24-Mar-99 12:03 PM EST (1703 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [26] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=03/24/99
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11205
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// EDS: MATERIAL DATED AFTER 10 P-M EST ////

    INTRO: AS ONE SCANS THE U-S DAILY PAPERS THIS WEDNESDAY, THE EDITORIALS COLUMNS ARE FILLED WITH COMMENT ABOUT THE POSSIBLE ATTACKS IN THE BALKANS.

    OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE: REMEMBERING ONE OF THE NATION'S WORST ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS TEN YEARS LATER; THE INCREASINGLY SHAKY PEACE PROCESS IN NORTHERN IRELAND; AND PROTECTING U-S STEEL FROM FOREIGN PRICE CUTTING. NOW, HERE IS _______________WITH SOME EXCERPTS AND A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: WITH PREPARATIONS FOR AIR ATTACK BY NATO FORCES ON YUGOSLAVIA, IN AN EFFORT TO FORCE PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO ACCEPT A NATO PEACEKEEPING FORCE FOR KOSOVO PROVINCE, THERE ARE MANY COMMENTS ABOUT THE PLAN. "FORCE IS ALL THAT'S LEFT" SAYS "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" EDITORIAL HEADLINE, BUT THE PAPER QUESTIONS WHY DIPLOMACY FAILED.

    VOICE: A FAILURE OF DIPLOMACY, THREATS UNFULFILLED, A MILITANT CULTURE UNDERESTIMATED. THAT TROUBLED TRAIL HAS BROUGHT THE UNITED STATES AND ITS NATO ALLIES TO THE EDGE OF ANOTHER WAR IN THE BALKANS. AMERICAN PILOTS WILL BE IN THE VANGUARD. IT'S RIGHT TO ASK WHY, AND MANY POLITICIANS IN WASHINGTON ARE DOING THAT.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" TALKS ABOUT "THE RATIONALE FOR AIR STRIKES."

    VOICE: MR. MILOSEVIC HAS BEEN GIVEN EVERY CHANCE TO END HIS AGGRESSION, AND EVERY WARNING OF WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF HE DID NOT. HE HAS IGNORED THEM, AND THE BOMBING MUST BEGIN QUICKLY BEFORE HIS RAMPAGE TAKES MORE LIVES. ...

    /// OPT ///

    PRESIDENT CLINTON SET OUT A PERSUASIVE RATIONALE FOR AMERICAN MILITARY INVOLVEMENT ...BOMBING IS NO SURE THING HE SAID, BUT THE DANGERS OF ACTING MUST BE WEIGHTED AGAINST THE DANGERS OF INACTION. .. IT WOULD BE AN ACT OF BETRAYAL TO ALLOW MR. MILOSEVIC TO MASSACRE THE KOSOVARS.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: THE NEGATIVE VIEW IS EXPRESSED BY FLORIDA'S "ORLANDO SENTINEL," WHICH CALLS THE PRESENT SITUATION "A CLINTON MESS IN KOSOVO," ADDING:

    VOICE: OF ALL THE PRESIDENT'S WARLIKE IMPULSES, THE KOSOVO GAMBIT RAISES THE MOST CONCERN. HE OFFERS N O COMPELLING REASON TO COMMIT U-S TROOPS. ... AFTER A CENTURY OF WARS THAT KILLED MORE THAN 600-THOUSAND AMERICANS AND WOUNDED ONE-POINT-FIVE MILLION, THIS NATION CAN ILL AFFORD TO COMMIT TROOPS TO BATTLE HASTILY. ... THE KOSOVO GAMBIT ... COULD RESULT IN MORE NAMES BEING ADDED TO THAT TRAGIC CENTURY-LONG LIST OF DEAD AND INJURED AMERICAN TROOPS. AND FOR WHAT? THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION OFFERS NO GOOD ANSWER.

    TEXT: IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST, "THE OREGONIAN" SAYS, HOWEVER, THIS COUNTRY MUST "ACT AGAINST GENOCIDE," ADDING:

    VOICE: IN THE SERBIAN ASSAULT ON BOSNIA, PRESIDENT CLINTON REMINDED THE NATION ... 'INNOCENT PEOPLE WERE HERDED INTO CONCENTRATION CAMPS. CHILDREN WERE GUNNED DOWN ON THEIR WAY TO SCHOOL. SOCCER FIELDS WERE TURNED INTO CEMETERIES. .... PARALLELS ARE NEVER PERFECT. BUT THE THREAT TO CIVILIANS IN KOSOVO CLOSELY RESEMBLES THE THREAT IN BOSNIA, WHICH IS WHY EUROPEANS HAVE ALSO ACCEPTED THE NEED TO ACT ...

    TEXT: A SKEPTICAL "BOSTON GLOBE" CALLS THE SITUATION A "MORASS" AND POINTS OUT THE DIFFICULTY NATO PILOTS FACE IN HITTING THEIR TARGETS.

    VOICE: THE PENTAGON IS SAYING THAT IF BOMBS CAN'T GET [MR.] MILOSEVIC TO THE NEGOTIATING TABLE, THEY CAN AT LEAST HINDER YUGOSLAVIA'S ABILITY TO MAKE WAR. .... BUT YUGOSLAVIA'S COUNTERINSURGENCY CAMPAIGN IN KOSOVO RELIES ON SPECIAL FORCES IN SMALL UNITS THAT ARE NOT THAT VULNERABLE TO AIR STRIKES. AND NATO STRIKES AGAINST SERB POSITIONS IN KOSOVO WILL ENCOURAGE KOSOVAR SEPARATISTS TO ATTACK.

    TEXT: TURNING TO OTHER TOPICS, THE HUGE ALASKAN OIL SPILL, CAUSED WHEN THE TANKER "EXXON VALDEZ" WENT AGROUND IN PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND TEN YEARS AGO THIS WEEK, IS BEING REMEMBERED BY MANY PAPERS, INCLUDING BALTIMORE'S "THE SUN." CITING IMPROVEMENTS IN THE SOUND'S ECO-SYSTEM, "THE SUN" IS STILL WORRIED.

    VOICE: ... THE THREAT OF ANOTHER SUCH TANKER DISASTER WON'T DISAPPEAR. ... EXXON AND OTHERS ARE STILL SHIPPING TONS OF OIL IN THE SAME FRAGILE, 304-METER-LONG VESSELS WITH HULLS [JUST SLIGHTLY] THICKER THAN TWO-AND-ONE HALF CENTIMETERS. /// OPT /// SAFER DOUBLE-HULLED TANKERS FOR ALASKAN WATERS ARE REQUIRED BY LAW IN 2-THOUSAND-FIFTEEN, BUT NO ONE IS RUSHING TO BEAT THAT DEADLINE. /// END OPT /// ... FEARS [UNDERSTOOD: OF ANOTHER SUCH DISASTER] REMAIN, LIKE THE TOXIC OIL GLOBS HIDDEN UNDER BEACH ROCKS AND IN THE DEPTHS OF ALASKA'S COASTAL SEAS.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: BUT "USA TODAY," CITING CONFLICTING REPORTS FROM THE COMPANY AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, SUGGESTS THAT NOBODY REALLY KNOWS THE TRUE CONDITION OF THE SOUND.

    VOICE: ... THE CLEANUP EFFORT ITSELF RAISES DOUBTS ABOUT THE ABILITY OF OIL COMPANIES AND FEDERAL AND STATE REGULATORS TO FINISH THE WORK IN ALASKA SATISFACTORILY. THIS IS BECAUSE THERE WAS LITTLE OR N O RELIABLE INFORMATION ABOUT THE NATURE OF PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND'S COMPLEX ECOSYSTEM BEFORE THE SPILL. WITHOUT BASELINE ...DATA - - WHAT SPECIES LIVE WHERE? HOW DO THEY INTERACT? HOW DO THEIR POPULATIONS FLUCTUATE? - - IT'S IMPOSSIBLE TO KNOW WHEN THE CLEANUP HAS BEEN COMPLETED SATISFACTORILY. ... HAVE THE SEA OTTERS AND HARBOR SEALS BEEN FULLY RESTORED? FEDERAL RESEARCHERS SAY NO; EXXON SCIENTISTS SAY YES. ... MORE TROUBLESOME IS KNOWING WHEN ENOUGH IS ENOUGH. EACH OTTER SAVED IN PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND COST 80-THOUSAND-DOLLARS; EACH EAGLE, 10-THOUSAND DOLLARS. ABSENT A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF THE SOUND'S BIOLOGY, IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO KNOW WHETHER THAT WAS MONEY WELL SPENT OR WASTED ...

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: BACK TO EUROPE FOR ANOTHER VIEW OF ANOTHER TROUBLE SPOT, THE FALTERING PEACE IN NORTHERN IRELAND, WHICH TODAY'S "CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" FROM BOSTON SAYS IS "DOWN TO THE WIRE."

    VOICE: THE ... PEACE ACCORD FACES A TIGHT DEADLINE. ONLY A FEW DAYS ARE LEFT UNTIL APRIL SECOND, WHEN BRITISH OFFICIALS PLAN TO TRANSFER AUTHORITY OVER THE PROVINCE TO AN EXECUTIVE BODY FORMED UNDER THE PEACE PLAN, WHETHER THE LOCAL PARTIES ARE READY OR NOT. IT HAS BEEN CLEAR FOR SOME TIME THAT THEY'RE NOT READY - - YET. THEIR BALKINESS HAS ONE MAJOR SOURCE: AN IMPASSE OVER DECOMMISSIONING ARMS. /// OPT /// ... IF [DAVID TRIMBLE, THE UNIONIST LEADER] ... ALLOWS SINN FEIN TO TAKE SEATS IN NORTHERN IRELAND'S NEW CABINET WITHOUT FIRST EXACTING CLEAR EVIDENCE THAT IT'S READY TO DISARM, HE MIGHT FRAGMENT THE UNIONISTS AND LOSE HIS LEADERSHIP POST. MR. [GERRY] ADAMS [HEAD OF SINN FEIN, THE POLITICAL ARM OF THE IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY] IS EQUALLY HAMPERED BY HIS SIDE'S GRIM INSISTENCE ON HOLDING ONTO ITS GUNS.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, ON THE TOPIC OF FOREIGN STEEL BEING IMPORTED INTO THE UNITED STATES AT WHAT IS SAID TO BE UNFAIRLY LOW PRICES - A PRACTICE CALLED "DUMPING" - - CONTINUES TO DRAW ATTENTION IN THE PRESS. BUT "NEWSDAY" ON LONG ISLAND, SAYS A PROTECTIONIST BILL PASSED IN THE HOUSE IS "BAD FOR THE U-S."

    VOICE: /// OPT /// IN PROSPEROUS TIMES, IT'S EASY TO LOSE SIGHT OF THE ECONOMIC FUNDAMENTALS THAT BROUGHT ABOUT THAT PROSPERITY IN THE FIRST PLACE. ONE OF THOSE FUNDAMENTALS IS FREE TRADE; IN THIS DECADE, ANNUAL U-S EXPORTS HAVE INCREASED BY SOME 400-BILLION DOLLARS AND AMERICA HAS NEVER BEEN BETTER OFF. SO IT WAS UNFORTUNATE THAT THE HOUSE VOTED LAST WEEK TO IMPOSE A QUOTA ON STEEL SHIPMENTS. /// END OPT /// ... AN ECONOMIST ... HAS CALLED THE BILL 'ONE OF THE MOST BLATANTLY PROTECTIONIST PIECES OF LEGISLATION SINCE THE 1930S.' ... FORTUNATELY, THE STEEL BILL WILL PROBABLY DIE IN THE SENATE, ... BUT THE STAKES ARE SO HIGH, AND THE PROTECTIONIST ARGUMENTS SO BANKRUPT, THAT THE COUNTRY WOULD HAVE BEEN BETTER OFF IF THE HOUSE HAD REFRAINED FROM ITS EMBRACE OF HOOVERISM. [EDITORS: A REFERENCE TO PRESIDENT HERBERT HOOVER, WHO SIGNED INTO LAW PROTECTIONIST TRADE MEASURES.]

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: THAT CONCLUDES THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENT FROM TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/GE
    24-Mar-99 11:23 AM EST (1623 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [27] PINOCHET RULING (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247091
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITAIN'S HOUSE OF LORDS HAS RULED THAT FORMER CHILEAN LEADER AUGUSTO PINOCHET IS NOT PROTECTED BY DIPLOMATIC IMMUNITY AND CAN FACE EXTRADITION TO SPAIN. BUT V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM LONDON THE LAW LORDS SAY EXTRADITION WOULD BE ONLY VALID FOR CHARGES OF TORTURE COMMITTED AFTER 1988.

    TEXT: THE FINAL RULING BY SIX TO ONE SAYS MR. PINOCHET CAN FACE EXTRADITION TO SPAIN ON CHARGES OF TORTURE AND CONSPIRACY TO TORTURE FOR ALLEGED CRIMES COMMITTED AFTER SEPTEMBER 1988.

    ONE LAW LORD EXPLAINS THAT IS WHEN BRITAIN RATIFIED THE INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION AGAINST TORTURE.

    /// OPT // LAW LORD ACT ///

    THE MAJORITY, THEREFORE, CONSIDERS THAT SENATOR PINOCHET CAN BE EXTRADITED ONLY FOR THE EXTRADITION CRIMES OF TORTURE AND CONSPIRACY ALLEGED TO HAVE BEEN COMMITTED AFTER THE EIGHTH OF SEPTEMBER 1988.

    /// END ACT ///

    PIERRE SANE OF AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL SAYS HE IS SATISFIED WITH THE JUDGMENT.

    /// SANE ACT ///

    I THINK THAT EVEN IF THE NUMBER OF CASES IS LIMITED DUE TO THIS TECHNICALITY, AS LONG AS SOME OF THE VICTIMS CAN BRING THEIR CASES INTO A COURT OF LAW, BE HEARD, AND THE INFORMATION BE SHARED, AND JUSTICE BE METED OUT, THIS IS A POSITIVE DEVELOPMENT

    /// END ACT ///

    AN EARLIER JUDGMENT BY THE LAW LORDS ALSO RULED THAT MR. PINOCHET IS NOT IMMUNE FROM PROSECUTION AND CAN FACE EXTRADITION. BUT THE EARLIER RULING WAS SET ASIDE BECAUSE OF ONE JUDGE'S LINKS TO THE HUMAN RIGHTS ORGANIZATION.

    CHILEAN EXILES WAITING OUTSIDE THE HOUSE OF LORDS FOR THE VERDICT BROKE INTO LOUD CHEERING, BEATING DRUMS IN CELEBRATION.

    /// APPLAUSE AND EXILE ACTS ///

    I'M RECONCILED WITH BRITISH JUSTICE AGAIN. I THINK THIS IS GOING TO HAVE INTERNATIONAL CONSEQUENCES AND NOW DICTATORS ALL OVER THE WORLD ARE GOING TO THINK TWICE BEFORE OPENING TORTURE CENTERS BECAUSE THEY KNOW THEY CAN BE JUDGED.

    THE FAMILIES OF THE DISAPPEARED ARE THE ONES WHO DESERVE THE VICTORY BECAUSE IT'S A VICTORY AND ALSO FOR THE HUMAN RIGHTS MOVEMENTS IN THE WHOLE WORLD.

    /// END ACTS ///

    THE LAW LORDS' RULING OPENS THE WAY FOR THE EXTRADITION CASE AGAINST MR. PINOCHET TO GO AHEAD BUT SEVERELY LIMITS THE NUMBER OF CHARGES AGAINST HIM. A SPANISH JUDGE HAS ACCUSED THE FORMER CHILEAN RULER OF THE MURDER, TORTURE AND DISAPPEARANCE OF CHILEANS AND OTHER NATIONALS AFTER HE SEIZED POWER IN A BLOODY COUP IN 1973. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH
    24-Mar-99 11:34 AM EST (1634 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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