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Voice of America, 99-03-25

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] NATO / KOSOVO (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)
  • [02] NATO ATTACK / ONITE WRAP (L-ONLY) BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON)
  • [03] KOSOVO / PENTAGON / STRIKES (L) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [04] KOSOVO AIR STRIKES (S) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [05] KOSOVO PENTAGON STRIKES (S) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [06] KOSOVO PENTAGON STRIKES - L UPDATE BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [07] KOSOVO PENTAGON STRIKES - L UPDATE BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [08] NATO RUNS OUT OF PATIENCE WITH MILOSEVIC BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [09] AVIANO PLANES (L ONLY) BY SABINA CASTELFRANCO (AVIANO, ITALY)
  • [10] EDITORIAL: NATO ATTACKS YUGOSLAV FORCES
  • [11] KOSOVO - CAN AIR STRIKES WORK? BY NEJLA SAMMAKIA (WASHINGTON)
  • [12] BRITAIN / NATO (S) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [13] BRITAIN / NATO (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [14] RUSSIA / NATO (L) BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)
  • [15] RUSSIA/NATO WRAP (L) BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)
  • [16] CHINA / KOSOVO (L) BY STEPHANIE HO (BEIJING)
  • [17] CHINA / KOSOVO UPDATE (S) BY STEPHANIE HO (BEIJING)
  • [18] KOSOVO / ASIA REACT (L-O) BY CHRIS SIMKINS (HONG KONG)
  • [19] KOSOVO / CUBA REACT (S-ONLY) BY RICK NUNEZ (HAVANA)
  • [20] KOSOVO / MIDEAST REACT (L ONLY) BY SCOTT BOBB (CAIRO)
  • [21] NATO BOMBS / MILOSEVIC BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (WASHINGTON)
  • [22] CLINTON/KOSOVO (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [23] CLINTON / KOSOVO WRAP (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [24] CONGRESS / KOSOVO (L) BY PAULA WOLFSON (CAPITOL HILL)
  • [25] KOSOVO PENTAGON SITREP (L) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [26] SENATE-KOSOVO (L-UPDATE) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)
  • [27] KOSOVO / CHICAGO REACT (L-O) BY MICHAEL LELAND (CHICAGO)
  • [28] U-N / YUGOSLAVIA (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [29] U-N / KOSOVO / RUSSIA (L) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [30] U-S / RUSSIA / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [31] U-N / KOSOVO (L-UPDATE) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [32] U-N / KOSOVO (S-3RD UPDATE) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [33] U-S KOSOVO / DIPLOMACY - S ONLY BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [34] NEW NATO MEMBERS BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [35] KOSOVO / JOURNALISTS (L ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN ()
  • [36] Q&A /W/ PHILLIP SMUCKER BY KASSMAN/BUEL (PRISTINA)
  • [37] JOURNALISTS BY CAROL PINEAU (WASHINGTON)
  • [38] EURO MEDIA REACT (L ONLY) BY CHRISTINE FURNELL (LONDON)
  • [39] E-U/SAF (L-ONLY) BY JONATHAN BRAUDE (BERLIN)
  • [40] SAF/ E-U / TRADE (L ONLY) BY DELIA ROBERTSON (JOHANNESBURG)
  • [41] EAST EURO PROPERTY (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)
  • [42] N-Y ECON WRAP (S&L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [43] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] NATO / KOSOVO (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247166
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO OFFICIALS SAY THE FIRST AIR STRIKES ON YUGOSLAV TARGETS WERE A SUCCESS. V-O-A'S RON PEMSTEIN IN BRUSSELS REPORTS NATO'S MILITARY MISSION IS DESIGNED TO DESTROY THE YUGOSLAV MILITARY.

    TEXT: NATO SAYS THE ATTACKS WERE SUCCESSFUL. IT SAYS ALL NATO FIGHTERS RETURNED SAFELY, THREE YUGOSLAV JETS WERE SHOT DOWN, AND YUGOSLAVIA'S WELL-REGARDED AIR DEFENSE SYSTEM WAS NOWHERE TO BE SEEN.

    NATO'S TOP GENERAL SAYS THESE ATTACKS WILL GO ON AS LONG AS NECESSARY. IF YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC DOES NOT AGREE TO THE INTERNATIONAL PEACE PLAN FOR THE PROVINCE OF KOSOVO, GENERAL WESLEY CLARK SAYS NATO WILL DESTROY HIS FORCES.

    /// CLARK ACT ///

    WE AIM TO PUT HIS MILITARY AND SECURITY FORCES AT RISK. WE'RE GOING TO SYSTEMATICALLY AND PROGRESSIVELY ATTACK, DISRUPT, DEGRADE, DEVASTATE, AND ULTIMATELY -- UNLESS PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC COMPLIES WITH THE DEMANDS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY -- WE'RE GOING TO DESTROY THESE FORCES AND THEIR FACILITIES AND SUPPORT. IN THAT RESPECT, THE OPERATION WILL BE JUST AS LONG AND DIFFICULT AS PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC REQUIRES IT TO BE.

    /// END ACT ///

    GENERAL CLARK SAYS DOWNTOWN BELGRADE WAS NOT A TARGET OF THE FIRST NIGHT OF AIR STRIKES, BUT HE SAYS THERE IS NO PLANNED SANCTUARY. HE REFUSES TO BE MORE SPECIFIC ABOUT LOCATIONS OTHER THAN SAYING THE ATTACKS EXTENDED THROUGHOUT THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA.

    GENERAL CLARK DESCRIBES THE TYPES OF TARGETS NATO HIT.

    /// CLARK ACT ///

    THUS FAR, MORE THAN 40 TARGETS HAVE BEEN STRUCK. MOST OF THESE TARGETS WERE ASSOCIATED WITH THE INTEGRATED AIR DEFENSE SYSTEM. OTHER TARGETS INCLUDED COMMAND AND CONTROL FACILITIES, SOME FACILITIES ASSOCIATED MORE DIRECTLY WITH THE YUGOSLAV MILITARY AND MINISTERIAL POLICE FORCES, AND A FEW MILITARY SUPPORT FACILITIES.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE GENERAL EXPRESSES RESPECT FOR YUGOSLAVIA'S AIR DEFENSE SYSTEM BUT SAYS, "WE JUST DID NOT SEE THEM." HE EXPLAINS THE ONE NATO JET THAT MADE AN EMERGENCY LANDING AT SARAJEVO AIRPORT WAS A VICTIM OF ENGINE TROUBLE, NOT ENEMY FIRE.

    NATO SAYS THE AIR STRIKES TRY TO AVOID CIVILIAN CASUALTIES DAMAGE. AS FOR YUGOSLAV TELEVISION PICTURES OF HEAVILY BANDAGED PEOPLE IN A BELGRADE HOSPITAL THAT WAS SHOWN SHORTLY AFTER THE AIR STRIKES BEGAN, GENERAL CLARK USED SARCASM. THEY MUST HAVE THE MOST EFFICIENT AMBULANCE SERVICE IN THE WORLD, HE SAYS, AND USE THE OLDEST BANDAGES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RDP/JWH
    25-Mar-99 12:03 PM EST (1703 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] NATO ATTACK / ONITE WRAP (L-ONLY) BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247137
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: YUGOSLAVIA IS BRACING FOR MORE NATO AIRSTRIKES (TODAY / THURSDAY) AFTER COMING UNDER PUNISHING AIR ATTACKS BY THE WESTERN ALLIANCE WEDNESDAY. NATO'S "OPERATION ALLIED FORCE" WAS LAUNCHED AFTER NIGHTFALL IN SERB-DOMINATED YUGOSLAVIA. IT IS THE PRICE NATO IS MAKING YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC PAY FOR HIS FAILURE TO AGREE TO A WESTERN PEACE PLAN FOR KOSOVO, THE SERB PROVINCE WHERE ETHNIC ALBANIANS HAVE BEEN FIGHTING FOR SELF-GOVERNMENT. U-S DEFENSE OFFICIALS SAY THERE WERE NO NATO CASUALTIES DURING THE FIRST NIGHT OF AIR ATTACKS -- AND THAT NATO FORCES SHOT DOWN AT LEAST ONE YUGOSLAV WARPLANE. BUT AS CORRESPONDENT NICK SIMEONE REPORTS, ANOTHER EARLY CASUALTY HAS BEEN RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE WEST.

    TEXT: TELEVISION IMAGES FROM BELGRADE WEDNESDAY NIGHT WERE FULL OF SCENES OF FIRES AND WHAT APPEARED TO BE WRECKED BUILDINGS, THE FIRST SIGNS OF DAMAGE FROM NATO BOMBS. BELGRADE DECLARED A STATE OF WAR AND QUICKLY IMPOSED A BLACKOUT ON ALL BUT ITS OWN TELEVISION MEDIA.

    WITNESSES REPORTED EXPLOSIONS ACROSS THE YUGOSLAV CAPITAL AS WELL AS IN PRISTINA, THE CAPITAL OF KOSOVO PROVINCE. BUT HOURS AFTER THE FIRST NATO CRUISE MISSILES WERE LAUNCHED -- AND SERB REPORTS OF MOUNTING CIVILIAN CASUALTIES -- THERE WAS NO HINT FROM PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC THAT HE MIGHT BE READY TO GIVE IN AND AGREE TO GIVE KOSOVO AT LEAST AUTONOMY. IN FACT, THE YUGOSLAV LEADER URGED HIS NATION TO REMAIN STRONG IN THE FACE OF WHAT ARE ALMOST CERTAIN TO BE MORE NATO AIRSTRIKES.

    IN WASHINGTON, PRESIDENT CLINTON ADDRESSED THE NATION FROM THE WHITE HOUSE, TELLING AMERICANS U-S SOLDIERS WILL NOT BE ORDERED TO FIGHT A GROUND WAR IN KOSOVO BUT WARNING OF THE LIKELIHOOD OF CASUALTIES IF SERB-DOMINATED YUGOSLAVIA LASHES OUT.

    // CLINTON ACT //

    IF PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WILL NOT MAKE PEACE, WE WILL LIMIT HIS ABILITY TO MAKE WAR. I WANT TO BE CLEAR WITH YOU, THERE ARE RISKS IN THIS MILITARY ACTION, RISKS TO OUR PILOTS AND THE PEOPLE ON THE GROUND. SERBIA'S AIR DEFENSES ARE STRONG. IT COULD DECIDE TO INTENSIFY ITS ASSAULT ON KOSOVO OR TO SEEK TO HARM US OR OUR ALLIES ELSEWHERE. IF IT DOES, WE WILL DELIVER A FORCEFUL RESPONSE. HOPEFULLY, MR. MILOSEVIC WILL REALIZE HIS PRESENT COURSE IS SELF-DESTRUCTIVE AND UNSUSTAINABLE.

    // END ACT //

    PERHAPS BECAUSE IT WAS NIGHT IN THE BALKANS, U-S DEFENSE OFFICIALS SO FAR HAVE HAD LITTLE TO SAY ABOUT WHAT DAMAGE NATO BOMBS HAVE INFLICTED ON THE GROUND. THE U-S JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF CHAIRMAN, GENERAL HUGH SHELTON, BRIEFED REPORTERS SEVERAL HOURS AFTER THE ALLIED AIR WAR BEGAN.

    // SHELTON ACT //

    IN THE EARLY STAGES OF ANY AIR CAMPAIGN, WE FOCUS ON DEGRADING AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS IN ORDER TO REDUCE THE RISK AND THE THREAT TO OUR PILOTS AND AIR CREWS IN SUBSEQUENT OPERATIONS.

    // END ACT //

    WHAT IS CLEAR IS THE DIPLOMATIC DAMAGE. RUSSIA -- WHICH MADE CLEAR ITS OPPOSITION TO AIRSTRIKES -- HAS SUSPENDED RELATIONS AND MILITARY COOPERATION WITH NATO, CALLING THE AIRSTRIKES AN ILLEGAL ACT OF AGGRESSION. THE KREMLIN DESCRIBED PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN AS DEEPLY SHOCKED BY THE FIRST NATO ATTACK ON A SOVEREIGN COUNTRY IN THE ALLIANCE'S 50 YEAR HISTORY.

    UNCLEAR THOUGH, IS WHETHER SUSTAINED NATO STRIKES AGAINST SERB TARGETS -- NO MATTER HOW DAMAGING -- WILL EVENTUALLY GET PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC TO AGREE TO A PEACE TREATY FOR KOSOVO, ONE THAT WOULD PUT NATO TROOPS ON THE GROUND AS PEACEKEEPERS INSTEAD OF ON BOMBING MISSIONS IN THE SKIES OVER YUGOSLAVIA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/NJS/RRM
    24-Mar-99 9:04 PM EST (0204 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] KOSOVO / PENTAGON / STRIKES (L) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247194
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO HAS LAUNCHED A SECOND NIGHT OF AIR RAIDS ON SERB TARGETS IN YUGOSLAVIA. THE ATTACKS, WHICH RESUMED AFTER NIGHTFALL THURSDAY, ARE FOCUSING ON YUGOSLAV AIR DEFENSES AND SERB FORCES THREATENING ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO PROVINCE. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: TOP DEFENSE OFFICIALS SAY NATO'S AIR STRIKES WILL CONTINUE AND INTENSIFY, UNTIL YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC STOPS ATTACKS ON ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO.

    PENTAGON SPOKESMAN KEN BACON SAYS SERB FORCES ARE STILL POUNDING VILLAGES IN THE SERBIAN PROVINCE, EVEN THOUGH NATO PLANES HAVE HIT SERB TARGETS ALL ACROSS YUGOSLAVIA.

    /// FIRST BACON ACT ///

    WE THINK WE'VE SENT A VERY STRONG MESSAGE THAT WE'RE SERIOUS ABOUT TRYING TO STOP THE V-J ARMY -- THE SERB ARMY -- FROM ATTACKING, AND THAT WE'RE PREPARED TO MOVE AGAINST ITS FORCES UNTIL THE ATTACKS STOP.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. BACON SAYS OFFICIALS ARE SATISFIED WITH RESULTS OF THE FIRST NIGHT OF RAIDS ON YUGOSLAVIA, BUT SURPRISED THAT SERBS TRIED TO DEFEND THEIR LAND WITH THEIR TINY AIR FORCE INSTEAD OF THEIR FORMIDABLE COLLECTION OF SURFACE-TO-AIR MISSILES.

    /// SECOND BACON ACT ///

    WE HAVE REPORTS THAT THREE MIG-29'S -- TOP-OF-THE-LINE (MODERN, CAPABLE) MIG-29'S -- WERE SHOT DOWN ... TWO BY U-S PILOTS AND ONE BY A DUTCH PILOT.

    /// END ACT ///

    A FOURTH YUGOSLAV JET, AN OLDER-MODEL MIG-21, WENT DOWN AS WELL, BUT MR. BACON SAYS IT IS NOT CLEAR IF THE PLANE WAS SHOT DOWN OR CRASHED FOR OTHER REASONS.

    MORE SERB PLANES WERE DESTROYED ON THE GROUND. MEANTIME, NONE OF YUGOSLAVIA'S LARGE ARSENAL OF SURFACE-TO-AIR MISSILES WAS FIRED AT NATO PLANES. A SENIOR DEFENSE OFFICIAL SAYS THE SERBS DID NOT WANT TO HIT THEIR OWN PLANES, OR GIVE AWAY THE LOCATIONS OF THEIR MISSILE LAUNCHERS BY FIRING THE WEAPONS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JR/WTW
    25-Mar-99 6:02 PM EST (2302 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] KOSOVO AIR STRIKES (S) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247131
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WAVE AFTER WAVE OF NATO WAR PLANES AND MISSILES HAVE BEEN HITTING SERB TARGETS IN YUGOSLAVIA, AND AIR STRIKES ARE CONTINUING. AT LEAST ONE OF YUGOSLAVIA'S FIGHTER JETS HAS BEEN SHOT DOWN, AND DOZENS OF EXPLOSIONS HAVE BEEN REPORTED ON THE GROUND. DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN SAYS THE ATTACKS (WHICH BEGAN WEDNESDAY NIGHT IN BELGRADE) WERE CARRIED OUT BY CRUISE MISSILES AND "STEALTH" [RADAR-EVADING] FIGHTER-BOMBERS. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS.

    TEXT: SECRETARY COHEN SAYS SCORES OF NATO PLANES BOMBED YUGOSLAV MILITARY TARGETS, INCLUDING AIR DEFENSES, COMMAND FACILITIES AND THE MILITARY FORCES THAT ARE ATTACKING ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN SERBIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE. HE SAYS YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TRIED TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF NATO'S EFFORTS TO MAKE PEACE.

    /// COHEN ACT ///

    WHILE NEGOTIATORS TRIED FOR PEACE, THE YUGOSLAV ARMY LAUNCHED A FORCE OF MORE THAN 300 TANKS, BACKED BY HUNDREDS OF ARTILLERY PIECES AND ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIERS, TO CRUSH THE KOSOVAR ALBANIANS. NATO COULD NOT ALLOW PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC TO USE THE PEACE TALKS AS A COVER FOR HIS SAVAGE PLUNDER.

    // END ACT ///

    MR. COHEN SAYS NATO'S ATTACKS ARE DESIGNED TO DETER SERB-DOMINATED YUGOSLAV FORCES FROM FURTHER ATTACKS. HE SAYS THE BOMBING WILL CONTINUE UNTIL THIS OBJECTIVE IS REACHED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JR/WTW
    24-Mar-99 7:32 PM EST (0032 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] KOSOVO PENTAGON STRIKES (S) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247181
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO PLANES ARE TAKING OFF FROM BASES IN ITALY, AND THERE ARE REPORTS OF A SECOND NIGHT OF AIR STRIKES AGAINST SERB TARGETS FROM YUGOSLAVIA. CORRRESPONDENT JIM RANDLE REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN SAYS AIR STRIKES WILL INTENSIFY AND CONTINUE UNTIL YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC STOPS ATTACKS ON ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO.

    SECRETARY OF STATE MADELINE ALBRIGHT SAYS THOSE ATTACKS ARE STILL UNDERWAY, EVEN THOUGH HUNDREDS OF NATO PLANES POUNDED SERB TARGETS WEDNESDAY IN YUGOSLAVIA.

    U-S OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE SATISFIED WITH THE RESULTS OF THE FIRST NIGHT'S NATO RAIDS THAT FOCUSED ON AIR DEFENSES, AND DOWNED THREE SERBIAN MIG FIGHTER JETS.

    PENTAGON OFFICIALS SAY AIR DEFENSES, PARTICULARLY RADARS AND SURFACE-TO-AIR MISSILE LAUNCH SITES, ARE LIKELY TARGETS FOR THE NEXT ROUND OF ATTACKS AS WELL. (SIGNED).
    NEB/JR/RAE
    25-Mar-99 2:00 PM EST (1900 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] KOSOVO PENTAGON STRIKES - L UPDATE BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247136
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO OFFICIALS SAY THEIR FORCES HAVE DOWNED AT LEAST ONE YUGOSLAV FIGHTER JET DURING "OPERATION ALLIED FORCE." U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN SAYS THE ATTACKS ON SERB TARGETS IN YUGOSLAVIA BEGAN (AT 1:55 P.M. EST WEDNESDAY) WITH A WAVE OF CRUISE MISSILES AND STEALTH FIGHTERS AND BOMBERS. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: SCORES OF CRUISE MISSILES WERE LAUNCHED FROM NATO SHIPS PATROLLING CLOSE TO YUGOSLAVIA AND FROM U-S BOMBERS OPERATING FROM BRITAIN. THE MISSILES WERE AIMED AT HEAVILY DEFENDED TARGETS, INCLUDING AIR DEFENSES AND MILITARY COMMAND FACILITIES. SERB FORCES CLAIM TO HAVE SHOT DOWN SOME OF THE MISSILES.

    WEDNESDAY'S ATTACKS ALSO SAW RADAR-EVADING U-S STEALTH FIGHTERS AIMING THEIR LASER-GUIDED BOMBS AT KEY TARGETS, AND THE FIRST USE OF A LARGER U-S STEALTH PLANE -- THE B-2 BOMBER. THE B-2 USES SATELLITE SIGNALS TO GUIDE ITS 18-THOUSAND KILOGRAMS OF PRECISION-GUIDED WEAPONS TO TARGETS. THAT'S AN ADVANTAGE BECAUSE THOSE SIGNALS ARE UNAFFECTED BY THE CLOUDS AND FOG THAT CAN FRUSTRATE OTHER KINDS OF BOMBERS. LATER, WAVES OF NATO PLANES THAT INCLUDED MORE CONVENTIONAL FIGHTERS STRUCK TARGETS ACROSS YUGOSLAVIA, INCLUDING SERB FORCES THAT HAD LAUNCHED AN OFFENSIVE AGAINST ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN SERBIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE.

    U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN SAYS YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC SPARKED NATO'S ATTACK WHEN HE REJECTED A WESTERN PEACE PROPOSAL FOR KOSOVO.

    /// COHEN ACT ///

    WHILE NEGOTIATORS TRIED FOR PEACE, THE YUGOSLAV ARMY LAUNCHED A FORCE OF MORE THAN 300 TANKS BACKED BY HUNDREDS OF ARTILLERY PIECES AND ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIERS TO CRUSH THE KOSOVAR ALBANIANS. NATO COULD NOT ALLOW PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC TO USE THE PEACE TALKS AS A COVER FOR HIS SAVAGE PLUNDER.

    // END ACT ///

    MR COHEN SAYS NATO'S ATTACKS ARE DESIGNED TO DETER SERB FORCES FROM LAUNCHING FURTHER ATTACKS. HE SAYS THE BOMBING WILL CONTINUE UNTIL THIS OBJECTIVE IS REACHED. (SIGNED).
    NEB/PT/RRM
    24-Mar-99 8:35 PM EST (0135 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] KOSOVO PENTAGON STRIKES - L UPDATE BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247136
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// RE-RUNNING W/MUST CORRECT IN THIRD LINE, SECOND GRAPH ///

    INTRO: NATO OFFICIALS SAY THEIR FORCES HAVE DOWNED AT LEAST ONE YUGOSLAV FIGHTER JET DURING "OPERATION ALLIED FORCE." U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN SAYS THE ATTACKS ON SERB TARGETS IN YUGOSLAVIA BEGAN (AT 1:55 P.M. EST WEDNESDAY) WITH A WAVE OF CRUISE MISSILES AND STEALTH FIGHTERS AND BOMBERS. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: SCORES OF CRUISE MISSILES WERE LAUNCHED FROM NATO SHIPS PATROLLING CLOSE TO YUGOSLAVIA AND FROM U-S BOMBERS OPERATING FROM BRITAIN. THE MISSILES WERE AIMED AT HEAVILY DEFENDED TARGETS, INCLUDING AIR DEFENSES AND MILITARY COMMAND FACILITIES. SERB FORCES CLAIM TO HAVE SHOT DOWN SOME OF THE MISSILES.

    WEDNESDAY'S ATTACKS ALSO SAW RADAR-EVADING U-S STEALTH FIGHTERS AIMING THEIR LASER-GUIDED BOMBS AT KEY TARGETS, AND THE FIRST USE OF A LARGER U-S STEALTH PLANE -- THE B-2 BOMBER. THE B-2 USES SATELLITE SIGNALS TO GUIDE ITS 18-H/U/N/D/R/E/D KILOGRAMS OF PRECISION-GUIDED WEAPONS TO TARGETS. THAT'S AN ADVANTAGE BECAUSE THOSE SIGNALS ARE UNAFFECTED BY THE CLOUDS AND FOG THAT CAN FRUSTRATE OTHER KINDS OF BOMBERS. LATER, WAVES OF NATO PLANES THAT INCLUDED MORE CONVENTIONAL FIGHTERS STRUCK TARGETS ACROSS YUGOSLAVIA, INCLUDING SERB FORCES THAT HAD LAUNCHED AN OFFENSIVE AGAINST ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN SERBIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE.

    U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN SAYS YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC SPARKED NATO'S ATTACK WHEN HE REJECTED A WESTERN PEACE PROPOSAL FOR KOSOVO.

    /// COHEN ACT ///

    WHILE NEGOTIATORS TRIED FOR PEACE, THE YUGOSLAV ARMY LAUNCHED A FORCE OF MORE THAN 300 TANKS BACKED BY HUNDREDS OF ARTILLERY PIECES AND ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIERS TO CRUSH THE KOSOVAR ALBANIANS. NATO COULD NOT ALLOW PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC TO USE THE PEACE TALKS AS A COVER FOR HIS SAVAGE PLUNDER.

    // END ACT ///

    MR COHEN SAYS NATO'S ATTACKS ARE DESIGNED TO DETER SERB FORCES FROM LAUNCHING FURTHER ATTACKS. HE SAYS THE BOMBING WILL CONTINUE UNTIL THIS OBJECTIVE IS REACHED. (SIGNED).
    NEB/PT/RRM
    24-Mar-99 9:13 PM EST (0213 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] NATO RUNS OUT OF PATIENCE WITH MILOSEVIC BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=03/25/99
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-11208
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=
    [EDITORS: DUE TO THE IMPORTANCE OF THE TOPIC, YOU ARE REMINDED THAT ADDITIONAL EDITORIAL CONTENT MAY BE FOUND IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST (6-11207), WHICH HAS ALREADY RUN ON THE WIRE. LATER THURSDAY, WORLD OPINION ROUNDUP WILL ALSO BE ON THE NATO ATTACK]

    INTRO: NATO WARPLANES HAVE BEGUN A SECOND NIGHT OF ATTACKS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA, AS THE WEST TRIES TO FORCE PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO STOP HIS ATTACKS ON THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN MAJORITY IN KOSOVO.

    IN THE U-S PRESS, THERE IS QUALIFIED SUPPORT FOR THE ATTACK WITH MANY PAPERS EXPRESSING DISQUIET OVER WHERE THE ATTACKS MAY LEAD. HERE NOW IS _________________ WITH A SAMPLING IN TODAY'S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: WE BEGIN IN THE MIDDLE OF THE NATION, WHERE "THE KANSAS CITY [MISSOURI] STAR" SAYS ANYONE WHO THINKS THIS IS AN EASILY UNDERSTANDABLE SITUATION, DOES NOT UNDERSTAND IT.

    VOICE: AMERICANS LOOKING FOR EASY ANSWERS ON THE SUBJECT OF KOSOVO WILL BE DISAPPOINTED. IT IS A COMPLEX SITUATION

    /// OPT ///

    ... NATO'S OFFICIAL LINE AS ITS FORCES ATTACK YUGOSLAVIA IS PROBLEMATIC. IF DETACHING KOSOVO FROM YUGOSLAVIA IS THE REAL OBJECTIVE OF THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION AND OUR EUROPEAN ALLIES, NOBODY SEEMS WILLING TO OWN UP TO [ADMIT] THAT. THE OFFICIAL POSITION IS MERELY THAT INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING FORCES NEED TO BE INVITED TO ENTER KOSOVO. /// END OPT
    /// ... AS AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN PILOTS PUT THEIR LIVES AT RISK OVER YUGOSLAVIA, THERE IS GOOD REASON TO WORRY ABOUT THE INAUSPICIOUS CIRCUMSTANCES SURROUNDING THE ATTACK: (MR.) CLINTON'S FAILURE TO BUILD MORE U-S SUPPORT FOR MILITARY OPTIONS, THE LOUDLY-EXPRESSED DOUBTS ON CAPITOL HILL, THE AMBIGUITIES IN NATO'S POSITION, AND THE APPARENT LACK OF A COMPLETE GAME PLAN [U-S SLANG: HERE MEANING APPROXIMATELY: "ACTION PLAN, INCLUDING AN EXIT STRATEGY"].

    TEXT: "THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE" IS CONCERNED ABOUT HOW THIS ATTACK AGAINST ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN SERBS, WILL AFFECT RELATIONS WITH THE WORLD'S LARGEST ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN NATION, RUSSIA.

    VOICE: ... IT APPEARED ... THE FIRST CASUALTY OF THE U-S LED NATO ATTACKS ... MAY HAVE BEEN U-S-RUSSIAN RELATIONS. PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN WENT ON TV TO DECLARE HE WAS 'DEEPLY SHOCKED' BY THE NATO ACTION AND HE WARNED THAT MOSCOW MIGHT TAKE UNSPECIFIED 'MILITARY' MEASURES IN RESPONSE. ... IN TRUTH, THERE IS LITTLE RUSSIA CAN DO ABOUT THE NATO ATTACKS EXCEPT HURL THREATS AND VITRIOL. IT IS ALL BUT PROSTRATE MILITARILY AND ECONOMICALLY. ... NEVERTHELESS, PRESIDENT CLINTON CANNOT SIMPLY DISCOUNT MOSCOW'S RESPONSE.

    TEXT: IN THE PACIFIC, HAWAII'S "HONOLULU STAR-BULLETIN" SAYS IN ITS HEADLINE THAT THE "YUGOSLAVIA ATTACKS SEEM UNAVOIDABLE."

    VOICE: /// OPT /// PERHAPS THE BEST THAT CAN BE SAID OF THE DECISION TO LAUNCH AIR STRIKES ... IS THAT THERE WAS NO CHOICE. THE UNITED STATES AND ITS NATO ALLIES HAD PUT THEMSELVES ON THE SPOT BY REPEATEDLY THREATENING TO ATTACK UNLESS [MR.] MILOSEVIC ACCEPTED THE TERMS OF A DEAL TO END THE FIGHTING IN KOSOVO. /// END OPT ///

    WHEN THE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT CONTINUED TO BALK ... NATO HAD TO MAKE GOOD ON ITS THREAT OR LOSE ... CREDIBILITY. ... HOWEVER , THERE IS NO ASSURANCE THAT THE BOMBING WILL SUCCEED ... [AND] EVEN IF THE ATTACKS SUCCEEDED, THE PROBLEMS WILL BE ONLY BEGINNING.

    TEXT: TURNING TO CONNECTICUT'S CAPITOL, "THE HARTFORD COURANT" SUPPORTS THE ATTACK AS "THE BEST OF BAD ALTERNATIVES" TO ACHIEVE THE GOAL OF STOPPING THE FIGHTING IN KOSOVO, BUT ADDS A CRITICAL HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE.

    VOICE: /// OPT /// BUT IF IT WERE ONLY AS SIMPLE AS SENDING CRUISE MISSILES THAT WOULD HIT MILITARY TARGETS AND BRING MR. MILOSEVIC QUICKLY TO HIS SENSES. UNFORTUNATELY, CIVILIAN CASUALTIES ARE A GIVEN IN WAR. ALSO, AMERICANS MUST BE PREPARED FOR THE POSSIBILITY OF PILOTS GETTING KILLED OR CAPTURED. AND /// END OPT /// THE CONFLICT MAY NOT END FOR A LONG TIME. KOSOVO IS THE SERBS' JERUSALEM, AND THEY WON'T GIVE UP CONTROL EASILY. THEY REGARD THE PROVINCE AS HOLY GROUND, THE CRADLE OF THEIR NATIONHOOD BECAUSE OF HISTORIC BATTLES IN THE 14TH CENTURY (1389) AGAINST INVADING OTTOMAN TURKS [EDITORS: WHICH THE SERBS LOST]

    TEXT: IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS, ONE GETS AN IDEA OF "THE DENVER POST'S" VIEW FROM THIS EDITORIAL HEADLINE: "BOMBS (AND LOGIC) AWAY."

    VOICE: /// OPT /// IN THE END, THE UNITED STATES AND ITS NATO ALLIES BEGAN BOMBING SERBIA BECAUSE THEY HAD THREATENED SUCH AN ACTION FOR SO LONG THAT FAILURE TO CARRY OUT THE THREAT WOULD HAVE SERIOUSLY WEAKENED THE ALLIANCE'S CREDIBILITY. BUT /// END OPT /// IN THE LONG RUN, IT IS DIFFICULT TO SEE HOW AN AERIAL BOMBING CAMPAIGN AGAINST A NATION THAT HAS NEVER THREATENED THE UNITED STATES OR ANY NATO COUNTRY WILL CONTRIBUTE TO PEACE AND STABILITY IN 'THE TINDERBOX OF EUROPE,' AS [FORMER GERMAN (PRUSSIAN) LEADER, WHO, PRIOR TO WORLD WAR ONE, UNIFIED THE VARIOUS GERMAN STATES INTO A SINGLE NATION: OTTO VON] BISMARCK APTLY LABELED THE BALKANS.

    TEXT: MAINE'S "PORTLAND PRESS HERALD," SEES THE ATTACKS AS THE ONLY WAY TO PREVENT GENOCIDE OF THE KOSOVARS.

    VOICE: THE UNITED STATES AND ITS NATO ALLIES HAVE EMBARKED ON A DIFFICULT, THOUGH NECESSARY, MISSION. THE CHOICE FOR THE NATO ALLIES WAS NO CHOICE AT ALL. TO DO NOTHING WOULD HAVE LEFT NATO AS AN ORGANIZATION GIVEN TO EMPTY THREATS. /// OPT /// [AND] ASIDE FROM THE LOSS OF LIVES IN KOSOVO, SUCH A BLOODY AND ONE-SIDED CONFLICT COULD UPSET THE SHAKY PEACE THAT EXISTS ELSEWHERE IN THE BALKANS. PEACE AND STABILITY IN EUROPE ARE SERIOUSLY THREATENED BY THE CONFLICT IN KOSOVO. IT WOULD MEAN, TOO, STANDING BY AS SERBIAN FORCES ENGAGED IN MORE ETHNIC CLEANSING IN KOSOVO. ... STOPPING THE SERBS, OR EVEN SLOWING THEM DOWN, WILL SAVE INNOCENT LIVES IN KOSOVO. MILITARY ACTION WILL ALSO PRESERVE THE CREDIBILITY OF NATO AND THE UNITED STATES IN FUTURE EFFORTS TO HEAD OFF BLOODY CONFLICTS IN EUROPE AND ELSEWHERE. /// END OPT ///

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: IN KANSAS, THERE IS ALSO SUPPORT FROM "THE TOPEKA CAPITAL-JOURNAL."

    VOICE: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS BEEN MORE THAN PATIENT IN WORKING TO FIND A PEACEFUL END TO FIGHTING IN THE SOUTHERN SERBIAN PROVINCE. BUT [PRESIDENT] MILOSEVIC SEEMS NOT TO WANT PEACE. .... DIPLOMACY HAS FAILED, DESPITE REPEATED ATTEMPTS - - ATTEMPTS, IN ESSENCE, TO SAVE [MR.] MILOSEVIC FROM HIMSELF. NOW NATO HAS TAKEN UPON ITSELF THE TASK OF SAVING OTHERS FROM HIM. AMERICANS UNDERSTAND THAT IMPLICITLY. ALL SOME PEOPLE UNDERSTAND IS FORCE.

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON POST" WRITES THAT NATO MUST ELIMINATE THE THREAT AGAINST KOSOVO:

    VOICE: ... IT IS ESSENTIAL FOR NATO TO ENSURE THAT THIS CAMPAIGN DOES NOT, IN THE END, WORK IN HIS [MILOSEVIC'S] FAVOR. THE PEOPLE OF KOSOVO REMAIN IN GRAVE DANGER: NATO NOW MUST ELIMINATE THE THREAT AGAINST THEM. NATO ALSO SHOULD CRIPPLE MR. MILOSEVIC'S MILITARY SO THAT HE CANNOT SPREAD THE SAME KIND OF DESTRUCTION TO MONTENEGRO, MACEDONIA AND OTHER NEIGHBORS THAT HE HAS BROUGHT THROUGHOUT THIS DECADE TO BOSNIA [-HERZEGOVINA] AND KOSOVO. THE WEST MUST NOT BE TEMPTED BY ANY HALFWAY SETTLEMENT THAT CANNOT LAST BUT MUST INSIST THAT ALL SERBIAN FORCES WITHDRAW FROM KOSOVO TO GIVE ITS PEOPLE A CHANCE TO RECOVER FROM THE DEPREDATIONS OF THE PAST YEAR.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: HOWEVER, THERE ARE QUESTIONS FROM "NEWSDAY" ON NEW YORK'S LONG ISLAND, WHICH SAYS OF PRESIDENT CLINTON'S JUSTIFICATION FOR THE ATTACKS:

    VOICE: FAIR ENOUGH ARGUMENTS. [MR.] MILOSEVIC IS A THUG WHOSE DELUSIONS OF SERBIAN GRANDEUR HAVE ALREADY CAUSED UNTOLD SUFFERING IN THE BALKANS. /// OPT /// INDEED, [PRESIDENT] CLINTON HAS MENTIONED [MR.] MILOSEVIC'S NAME IN THE SAME BREATH AS ADOLF HITLER'S. BUT [MR.] CLINTON HAS ALSO SAID THERE IS A LIMIT TO HOW FAR WASHINGTON AND ITS ALLIES ARE WILLING TO GO. THIS IS THE BEGINNING OF AN AIR CAMPAIGN AND THERE ARE NO PLANS NOW TO FIGHT ON THE GROUND. BUT /// END OPT /// IF THE MISSION IS AS IMPORTANT AS [MR.] CLINTON SAYS IT IS, WHY NOT BE WILLING TO PUT TROOPS ON THE GROUND? ESPECIALLY WHEN MANY MILITARY EXPERTS SAY [PRESIDENT] CLINTON'S GOALS CANNOT BE ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH THE USE OF AIR POWER ALONE. THERE IS A LOGICAL DISCONNECT HERE.

    TEXT: THAT CONCLUDES THIS SAMPLING OF U-S EDITORIAL COMMENT ON THE NATO ATTACK AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA.
    NEB/ANG/GE
    25-Mar-99 3:07 PM EST (2007 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] AVIANO PLANES (L ONLY) BY SABINA CASTELFRANCO (AVIANO, ITALY)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247169
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    ///// ED'S: WATCH C-N WIRE AND CHANGE INTRO AS NEEDED. /////

    INTRO: NATO PLANES ARE IN A STATE OF READINESS AT AVIANO AIRBASE IN NORTHERN ITALY -- PREPARED TO LAUNCH MORE AIR STRIKES AGAINST TARGETS IN YUGOSLAVIA. SABINA CASTELFRANCO REPORTS FROM AVIANO.

    TEXT: AFTER THE FIRST WAVE OF "OPERATION ALLIED FORCE", JOURNALISTS WERE ALLOWED INTO THE BASE LATE THURSDAY TO ASSESS THE MOOD AND FEELINGS OF THE PEOPLE WORKING THERE.

    MOST SAID THEY WERE CONFIDENT AND PREPARED FOR ANY JOB NATO CHARGED THEM WITH. SERGEANT ROSY MUNIZ, A SYSTEMS SPECIALIST, SAID A VAST GROUP OF PROFESSIONALS IS PRESENT AT THE AVIANO AIRBASE WHO TRAIN FOR THESE SORT OF COMBAT OPERATIONS CONTINUOUSLY.

    /// MUNIZ ACT ///

    WELL, THE TEMPO IS A LITTLE BIT HIGHER THAN NORMAL. BUT OVER ALL WE ARE HELPING PEOPLE SO I THINK IT IS A GOOD THING AND I AM SURE THAT WHATEVER NATO TASKS US TO DO, THAT WE WILL BE PREPARED TO DO IT.

    /// END ACT ///

    SOME EXPRESSED MIXED FEELINGS OF CONFIDENCE AND CONCERN FOR THE PILOTS INVOLVED IN THE COMBAT OPERATIONS OVER YUGOSLAVIA.

    AMMUNITION SPECIALIST PERRY MC CIVERN SAID HE PRAYED LAST NIGHT FOR THE PILOTS, THE KOSOVARS, AND THE ALBANIANS. HE SAID HE WAS PROUD AND PLEASED TO BE A PART OF WHAT THE U-S GOVERNMENT HAS ASKED HIM TO DO, BUT EXPRESSED THE WISH THAT AN AGREEMENT COULD BE REACHED WITHOUT DESTRUCTION.

    /// MC CIVERN ACT ///

    WE ARE NOT HERE TO DESTROY, WE ARE NOT HERE TO KILL. WE ARE HERE TO HELP THE PEOPLE SUCCEED IN THEIR PURSUIT OF LIBERTY.

    /// END ACT ///

    OUTSIDE THE BASE, THE WIFE OF ONE THE MECHANICS WORKING AT THE BASE SAID SHE HOPED THE OPERATION WOULD NOT DRAG ON, TO AVOID UNNECESSARY CIVILIAN CASUALTIES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/SC/JWH/RAE
    25-Mar-99 12:50 PM EST (1750 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] EDITORIAL: NATO ATTACKS YUGOSLAV FORCES

    DATE= 03/26/99
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-08241
    CONTENT=THIS EDITORIAL IS BEING RELEASED FOR IMMEDIATE USE. IT
    REPLACES "EGYPT-ISRAEL PEACE ANNIVERSARY," WHICH CAN BE USED IN THE NEXT BROADCAST CYCLE.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    THE UNITED STATES AND ITS NATO ALLIES HAVE BEGUN AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAV MILITARY TARGETS. THIS ACTION WAS CLEARLY ORDERED WITH GREAT RELUCTANCE. IT CAME ONLY AFTER YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC REJECTED A PEACE PLAN FOR THE SERBIAN PROVINCE OF KOSOVO. THE PLAN HAD BEEN ACCEPTED BY LEADERS OF KOSOVO'S ETHNIC ALBANIANS, WHO MAKE UP ABOUT NINETY PERCENT OF THE PROVINCE'S POPULATION.

    AS SO OFTEN IN THE PAST, THE SOURCE OF THE PROBLEM IS SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. OVER THE YEARS, HE HAS STARTED WARS AGAINST SLOVENIA, CROATIA, AND BOSNIA. AND HE HAS STRIPPED AWAY THE AUTONOMY OF THE KOSOVARS WHILE BRUTALLY REPRESSING THEM. WHILE NATO MEMBERS AND OTHER COUNTRIES WERE TRYING TO FIND A PEACEFUL SOLUTION IN KOSOVO, MILOSEVIC WAS REINFORCING HIS MILITARY FORCES THERE. IN RECENT WEEKS, YUGOSLAV TANKS HAVE ROLLED FROM VILLAGE TO VILLAGE, SHELLING CIVILIANS AND BURNING HOUSES. SERBIAN POLICE HAVE DRAGGED THE MALE MEMBERS OF KOSOVAR FAMILIES FROM THEIR HOMES, LINED UP FATHERS WITH SONS, AND SHOT THEM IN COLD BLOOD.

    WHEN PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC STARTED THE WAR IN BOSNIA SEVEN YEARS AGO, THE WORLD DID NOT ACT QUICKLY ENOUGH TO STOP HIM. AS A RESULT, MORE THAN A QUARTER OF A MILLION PEOPLE WERE KILLED AND SOME THREE MILLION WERE DRIVEN FROM THEIR HOMES. THIS IS THE CONFLICT IN WHICH THE HIDEOUS TERM "ETHNIC CLEANSING" WAS FIRST USED. ONLY AFTER NATO TOOK MILITARY ACTION DID A POLITICAL SOLUTION IN BOSNIA BECOME POSSIBLE.

    BOSNIA SHOWED THAT A FAILURE TO STAND UP TO BRUTALITY SIMPLY INVITES MORE OF IT. IF UNCHECKED, THE ETHNIC VIOLENCE PROMOTED BY SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IN KOSOVO COULD WELL SPREAD TO MONTENEGRO, TO NEIGHBORING ALBANIA AND MACEDONIA, AND EVEN BEYOND. IN SHORT, THE KOSOVO CRISIS THREATENS TO DESTABILIZE SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE. THAT -- ALONG WITH THE OBVIOUS HUMANITARIAN CONCERNS -- IS WHY NATO HAD TO ACT.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT. IF YOU HAVE A COMMENT, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, V-O-A, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO COMMENT AT WWW-DOT-VOA-DOT-GOV-SLASH-EDITORIALS, OR FAX US AT (202) 619-1043.
    25-Mar-99 3:57 PM EST (2057 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] KOSOVO - CAN AIR STRIKES WORK? BY NEJLA SAMMAKIA (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-42936
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AS THE KOSOVO CRISIS ESCALATES, NATO COUNTRIES HOPE THEIR BOMBING CAMPAIGN IN YUGOSLAVIA WILL END VIOLENCE AGAINST SEPARATIST KOSOVAR ETHNIC ALBANIANS AND BRING PEACE TO THE REGION. BUT CRITICS OF THIS STRATEGY SUGGEST NATO AIR STRIKES MAY BACKFIRE AND CREATE THE VERY CHAOS THE WESTERN ALLIES ARE AIMING TO PREVENT. NEJLA SAMMAKIA IN WASHINGTON HAS MORE.

    TEXT: PROFESSOR PAUL SHOUP, WHO TEACHES GOVERNMENT AND FOREIGN AFFAIRS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, SAYS WHAT MAKES NATO AIR STRIKES POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS IS THAT YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAS THE SUPPORT OF THE SERB POPULATION IN HIS CONFRONTATION WITH THE WEST. HE SAYS MOST SERBS APPROVE OF HIS CRACKDOWN ON THE SERBIAN PROVINCE OF KOSOVO, WHICH IS MAINLY POPULATED BY ETHNIC ALBANIANS SEEKING AUTONOMY. SO NATO STRIKES WILL ONLY HARDEN SERBS AGAINST WESTERN PEACE EFFORTS.

    //SHOUP ACT//

    DESPITE ALMOST UNIVERSAL DISLIKE OF MILOSEVIC IN SERBIA, MOST APPROVE OF ACTIONS HE IS TAKING TO SUBDUE THE REBELLION (IN KOSOVO), AND HAVE NO HESITATION TO PARTICIPATE IN THOSE ACTIONS. MILOSEVIC SEES THE PRESENT MILITARY CAMPAIGN, NOW INVOLVING RESERVISTS, AS INVOLVING ORDINARY SERBS IN HIS REPRESSIVE ACTIONS.

    //END ACT//

    NATO LAUNCHED AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAV TARGETS AFTER PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC REPEATEDLY REFUSED TO SIGN AN INTERNATIONAL PEACE AGREEMENT GIVING KOSOVO AUTONOMY, WHICH WOULD BE ENFORCED BY NATO PEACEKEEPERS.

    PROFESSOR SHOUP SAYS HE BELIEVES THAT THE BOSNIAN WAR MAY HAVE TAUGHT THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY THAT IT SHOULD HAVE INTERVENED EARLIER. NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST THE BOSNIAN SERBS IN 1995 PRECIPITATED A RELATIVELY QUICK END TO MORE THAN THREE YEARS OF BLOODSHED. BUT, THE PROFESSOR SAYS COERCIVE DIPLOMACY WORKED IN BOSNIA BECAUSE IT CAME AS THE CROATS, SERBS AND MUSLIMS WERE NEGOTIATING A SETTLEMENT.

    // SHOUP ACT TWO //

    WHAT WE ARE DOING NOW, BY WAY OF CONTRAST, IS REVERSING THE ORDER OF AFFAIRS. PROVOKING A SHOWDOWN WITH NO HUMANITARIAN SAFEGUARDS IN PLACE, DEMANDING A ONE SIDED SETTLEMENT.

    //END ACT//

    EVEN PROFESSOR SHOUP AGREES WITH MOST ANALYSTS WHO THINK THINK PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WILL GIVE UP KOSOVO IN THE FACE OF NATO ATTACKS. BUT HE SAYS THAT PRESENTS ANOTHER DANGER:

    // SHOUP ACT THREE//

    WHEN YOU USE COERCIVE DIPLOMACY, THERE IS A LOSER. THEY ARE THE EMBITTERED ONES. ONE OF THE IRONIES OF THE SITUATION IN BOSNIA WAS THE LOSERS IN THAT CASE WERE THE BOSNIAN SERBS, WHO COULDN'T TAKE IT OUT ON THE MUSLIMS BECAUSE THEY HAD ALREADY REMOVED THEM FROM THE AREA. THIS IS NOT THAT SITUATION (IN KOSOVO).

    // END ACT //

    THE PROFESSOR SEES THE KOSOVO CONFLICT ENDING ONLY IF THE PROVINCE GAINS INDEPENDENCE.

    THE UNITED STATES AND ITS NATO ALLIES HAVE MADE CLEAR THEY ARE ONLY SEEKING AUTONOMY FOR THE KOSOVO ALBANIANS AND DO NOT SUPPORT INDEPENDENCE. BUT IF THE BOMBING FAILS TO PERSUADE YUGOSLAVIA TO AGREE TO AUTONOMY -- IT IS NOT CLEAR WHAT WILL.

    NEITHER THE UNITED STATES NOR ITS NATO ALLIES HAVE OUTLINED HOW LONG THEY ARE PREPARED TO CARRY OUT AIR STRIKES OR ANY OTHER STRATEGY FOR BRINGING PEACE TO THE BALKANS IF NATO BOMBING FAILS. (SIGNED) NEB/NS/ENE/JO/KL
    25-Mar-99 9:44 AM EST (1444 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] BRITAIN / NATO (S) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247149
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR SAYS THE FIRST WAVE OF ATTACKS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA WERE SUCCESSFUL, BUT HE WILL NOT SAY HOW LONG THE AIR STRIKES WILL CONTINUE. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN IN LONDON REPORTS MR BLAIR SAYS HE WILL TELEPHONE RUSSIA'S PRIME MINISTER TO DISCUSS HIS CONCERNS AND OBJECTIONS TO THE NATO OPERATION.

    TEXT: PRIME MINISTER BLAIR SAYS ENDING THE AIR STRIKES DEPENDS ON YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC.

    /// BLAIR ACT ///

    HE CAN STOP THE ACTION AT ANY POINT IN TIME HE WISHES TO DO SO BY COMING BACK INTO LINE WITH THE AGREEMENTS THAT HE HAS ENTERED INTO AND STOPPING THE REPRESSION OF THE PEOPLE IN KOSOVO.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE BRITISH LEADER INSISTS THE NATO ACTION HAS A SPECIFIC GOAL -- TO STOP SERB REPRESSION OF THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN POPULATION IN KOSOVO PROVINCE. HE SAYS NATO IS TARGETTING YUGOSLAVIA'\S MILITARY CAPABILITIES TO CURB ITS ACTIONS IN KOSOVO.

    THE BRITISH PRIME MINISTER REFUSES TO SPECULATE HOW LONG THE NATO AIR STRIKES WILL CONTINUE. BUT HE SAYS THERE IS NO SIGN YET FROM THE YUGOSLAV LEADER OF A CHANGE IN ATTITUDE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH/PLM
    25-Mar-99 5:58 AM EST (1058 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] BRITAIN / NATO (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247154
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR SAYS THE FIRST WAVE OF ATTACKS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA WERE SUCCESSFUL. BRITAIN'S DEFENSE SECRETARY SAYS THE AIR STRIKES WILL CONTINUE FOR AS LONG AS IT TAKES TO WEAKEN YUGOSLAVIA'S MILITARY CAPABILITY TO REPRESS ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO PROVINCE. CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: BRITISH DEFENSE SECRETARY GEORGE ROBERTSON SAYS HE IS SATISFIED WITH THE RESULTS OF THE FIRST WAVE OF AIR STRIKES AND OFFERS A PASSIONATE JUSTIFICATION FOR THE CONTINUING THE MILITARY OPERATION.

    /// ROBERTSON ACT ONE ///

    IF WE DO NOT TAKE A STAND AGAINST SAVAGE, MERCILESS BRUTAL VIOLENCE IN KOSOVO, THEN WHAT HOPE IS THERE FOR OUR CONTINENT AND THE PEOPLE OF OUR CONTINENT GOING INTO THE 21ST CENTURY.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. ROBERTSON SAYS THE GOAL OF THE NATO OPERATION IS TO DISRUPT THE YUGOSLAV MILITARY CAPABILITIES TO CONTINUE ITS CAMPAIGN IN KOSOVO PROVINCE AND TO AVERT A HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE. THE FIRST TARGETS ARE YUGOSLAVIA'S AIR DEFENSE SYSTEM AND MILITARY UNITS INVOLVED IN AGGRESSIONS AGAINST KOSOVAR ALBANIANS. HE SAYS NATO WILL MAKE DAILY ASSESSMENTS OF THE OPERATION AND HOW YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC RESPONDS.

    /// ROBERTSON ACT TWO ///

    NATO HAS THE WILL, THE DETERMINATION, AND THE STOMACH TO SEE THIS THROUGH AND TO STOP THE FLOW OF BLOOD AND HUMAN MISERY IN KOSOVO. SO LET MR MILOSEVIC UNDERSTAND THIS. WE WILL BE WATCHING HOW HE BEHAVES AND BRITISH AND ALLIED AIRCRAFT WILL RESUME THEIR ATTACKS TODAY UNLESS HE STOPS THE VIOLENCE AGAINST THE KOSOVAR POPULATION.

    /// END ACT ///

    BRITAIN'S DEFENSE SECRETARY DISMISSES SUGGESTIONS THE NATO ACTION VIOLATES THE U-N CHARTER.

    /// ROBERTSON ACT THREE ///

    NATO IS ACTING WITHIN INTERNATIONAL LAW AND OUR LEGAL JUSTIFICATION RESTS ON THE ACCEPTED PRINCIPLE THAT FORCE MAY BE USED IN EXTREME CIRCUMSTANCES TO AVERT A HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. ROBERTSON SAYS THE NATO ACTION HAS RECEIVED SUPPORT FROM A MAJORITY OF U-N MEMBERS. HE INSISTS NATO IS NOT AT WAR WITH YUGOSLAVIA, ONLY ACTING TO PREVENT A HUMANITARIAN DISASTER IN THE BALKANS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH/RAE
    25-Mar-99 8:15 AM EST (1315 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [14] RUSSIA / NATO (L) BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247152
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN IS RULING OUT A MILITARY RESPONSE TO NATO AIRSTRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA AND INSTEAD IS CALLING FOR EMERGENCY PEACE TALKS. V-O-A'S EVE CONANT REPORTS FROM MOSCOW, WHERE ANTI-NATO PROTESTS CONTINUE AT THE U-S EMBASSY.

    TEXT: PRESIDENT YELTSIN SAYS HE OPPOSES USING MILITARY FORCE DESPITE RUSSIA'S OUTRAGE OVER NATO AIRSTRIKES AGAINST SERB-LED YUGOSLAVIA, A TRADITIONAL RUSSIAN ALLY.

    /// ACT YELTSIN - IN RUSSIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    THE RUSSIAN PRESIDENT SAYS "WE HAVE EXTREME MEASURES IN RESERVE BUT HAVE DECIDED NOT TO USE THEM."

    MR. YELTSIN'S COMMENTS CAME BEFORE A MEETING WITH FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV. PRESIDENT YELTSIN ASKED MR. IVANOV TO CALL AN EMERGENCY MEETING IN MOSCOW OF THE SIX-NATION CONTACT GROUP ON YUGOSLAVIA. BUT CONTACT GROUP MEMBERS -- RUSSIA, THE UNITED STATES, BRITAIN, FRANCE, ITALY AND GERMANY -- MAY BE HESITANT TO ATTEND FOLLOWING RUSSIA'S HEAVY CRITICISM OF NATO AIRSTRIKES.

    RUSSIA'S DEFENSE MINISTER IGOR SERGEYEV ANNOUNCED THURSDAY THAT RUSSIA HAS INTELLIGENCE SHOWING NATO IS PREPARING A GROUND OPERATION IN YUGOSLAVIA. STILL, RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN AND OTHER TOP OFFICIALS CONTINUE TO CALL FOR A PEACEFUL SOLUTION TO THE CRISIS.

    /// ACT YELTSIN - IN RUSSIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    MR. YELTSIN SAYS "ON A MORAL LEVEL, WE ARE SUPERIOR TO THE AMERICANS."

    ANTI-NATO DEMONSTRATORS PROTESTED THROUGHOUT THE NIGHT IN MOSCOW. DEMONSTRATIONS OUTSIDE THE U-S EMBASSY HERE CONTINUE THURSDAY, WITH MORE THAN 300 PROTESTORS THROWING BOTTLES AT THE EMBASSY BUILDING AND BURNING AMERICAN FLAGS. MOSCOW POLICE ARE USING NIGHTSTICKS AGAINST SOME OF THE MORE VIOLENT PROTESTORS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EC/JWH
    25-Mar-99 7:30 AM EST (1230 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [15] RUSSIA/NATO WRAP (L) BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247178
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIAN OFFICIALS CONTINUE TO DENOUNCE NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA BUT SAY RUSSIA WILL NOT RESPOND WITH MILITARY FORCE. V-O-A'S EVE CONANT REPORTS FROM MOSCOW, ANTI-WESTERN SENTIMENT IS ON THE RISE IN RUSSIA'S CAPITAL.

    TEXT: RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN PRAISES HIS COUNTRYMEN FOR BEING WHAT HE CALLS "MORALLY SUPERIOR TO AMERICANS" FOR REFRAINING FROM A MILITARY RESPONSE TO THE AIR STRIKES. INSTEAD, THE RUSSIAN PRESIDENT SAYS HE IS STILL SEEKING A POLITICAL RESOLUTION TO THE CONFLICT. HE HAS CALLED FOR AN EMERGENCY MEETING OF THE SIX-NATION CONTACT GROUP ON YUGOSLAVIA. HE ALSO DEMANDS AN URGENT U.N. SECURITY COUNCIL VOTE TO STOP THE NATO ATTACKS.

    RUSSIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV HAS LASHED OUT AGAINST WHAT HE CALLS "AMERICA'S DESIRE FOR WORLD DOMINATION."

    /// IVANOV IN RUSSIAN AND FADE ///

    HE SAYS FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE WORLD WAR TWO, AN ACT OF AGGRESSION HAS BEEN COMMITTED (BY NATO) AGAINST A SOVEREIGN STATE. AND HE SAYS EUROPE HAS NOT GONE THROUGH SUCH ORDEALS SINCE 1945.

    MR. IVANOV HINTS THAT RUSSIA MAY CONSIDER BREAKING AN INTERNATIONAL ARMS EMBARGO AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA.

    /// IVANOV IN RUSSIAN AND FADE ///

    YUGOSLAVIA IS A MEMBER OF THE UNITED NATIONS BUT IS BEING SUBJECTED TO AGGRESSION. HE SAYS IF THIS DOES NOT STOP, OTHER STATES AND U-N MEMBERS HAVE A RIGHT TO HELP YUGOSLAVIA REPEL THE AGGRESSION.

    MR. IVANOV STRESSES RUSSIA WANTS TO KEEP GOOD RELATIONS WITH THE WEST. BUT HE SAYS RUSSIA WILL NOT ATTEND NEXT MONTH'S NATO SUMMIT IN WASHINGTON. MEANWHILE, ANTI-NATO PROTESTS IN MOSCOW GREW VIOLENT THURSDAY.

    /// ESTABLISH RAW SOUND AND FADE ///

    HUNDREDS OF DEMONSTRATORS THREW BOTTLES AND ROCKS AT THE U-S EMBASSY BUILDING, SMASHING WINDOWS AND CALLING FOR WAR AGAINST WHAT THEIR BANNERS DESCRIBED AS THE "FASCIST" WESTERN ALLIANCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EC/LMK/JO
    25-Mar-99 1:27 PM EST (1827 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [16] CHINA / KOSOVO (L) BY STEPHANIE HO (BEIJING)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247146
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: CHINA SAYS IT WANTS U-S AND NATO AIRSTRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA TO STOP RIGHT AWAY. VOA'S STEPHANIE HO REPORTS THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT IS ALSO STRESSING THAT THE KOSOVO ISSUE IS AN INTERNAL YUGOSLAVIAN MATTER, NOT AN INTERNATIONAL ONE.

    TEXT: THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT HAS CALLED FOR AN IMMEDIATE HALT TO U-S AND NATO AIRSTRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. BEIJING CALLED ON BELGRADE AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO RETURN TO NEGOTIATIONS IN ORDER TO RESTORE PEACE.

    CHINESE FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESMAN SUN YUXI, SPEAKING THROUGH AN INTERPRETER, SAID BEIJING IS NOT HAPPY ABOUT THE AIR STRIKES.

    // SUN INTERPRETER ACT //

    THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT IS DEEPLY DISTURBED BY SUCH DEVELOPMENTS.

    // END ACT //

    MR. SUN TOLD REPORTERS THAT CHINA FEELS THE KOSOVO ISSUE IS AN INTERNAL MATTER.

    // SUN INTERPRETER ACT //

    ALL THE OTHER COUNTRIES SHOULD RESPECT THE SOVEREIGNTY AND TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY OF YUGOSLAVIA.

    // END ACT //

    FOR CHINA, THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN WHETHER AN ISSUE IS INTERNAL OR INTERNATIONAL IS SIGNIFICANT. BEIJING REPEATEDLY REJECTS WESTERN CRITICISM OF ITS POSITION ON TIBET AND TAIWAN, SAYING BOTH ISSUES ARE INTERNAL CHINESE MATTERS.

    THE CHINESE SPOKESMAN INDICATED THAT BEIJING AND MOSCOW BOTH OPPOSE THE AIR STRIKES.

    // SUN INTERPRETER ACT //

    CHINA AND RUSSIA HAVE SIMILAR POSITIONS OVER THE QUESTION OF KOSOVO AND WE HAVE CONDUCTED CONSULTATIONS ON IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL ISSUES -- OF COURSE, INCLUDING THE KOSOVO QUESTION.

    // END ACT //

    MR. SUN SAID THE CHINESE FOREIGN MINISTRY HAS CALLED IN THE CHARGE D'AFFAIRS AT THE U-S EMBASSY IN BEIJING TO ELABORATE CHINA'S OPPOSITION.

    BUT HE DID NOT SAY WHETHER BEIJING WILL TAKE ANY MEASURES SIMILAR TO RUSSIAN PREMIER YEVGENI PRIMAKOV'S DECISION TO CANCEL HIS TRIP TO THE UNITED STATES. CHINESE PREMIER ZHU RONGJI IS SCHEDULED TO VISIT THE UNITED STATES EARLY NEXT MONTH. (SIGNED)
    NEB/HO/GC/PLM NEB/HO/
    25-Mar-99 4:35 AM EST (0935 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [17] CHINA / KOSOVO UPDATE (S) BY STEPHANIE HO (BEIJING)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247144
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: CHINA IS DEMANDING AN IMMEDIATE HALT TO THE U-S AND NATO AIRSTRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. VOA'S STEPHANIE HO REPORTS, BEIJING ALSO CALLED ON BELGRADE AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO MAKE EFFORTS TO RESTORE PEACE.

    TEXT: THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT SAYS IT WANTS U-S AND NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA TO STOP RIGHT AWAY. AT THE SAME TIME, FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESMAN SUN YUXI SAID CHINA URGES ALL RELEVANT PARTIES TO RESOLVE DISPUTES OVER KOSOVO THROUGH NEGOTIATIONS. MR. SUN, SPEAKING THROUGH AN INTERPRETER, TOLD REPORTERS WHY CHINA OPPOSES INTERNATIONALIZING KOSOVO.

    // SUN INTERPRETER ACT //

    THE KOSOVO QUESTION IS THE INTERNAL AFFAIR OF YUGOSLAVIA AND SHOULD BE RESOLVED BY THE PARTIES CONCERNED IN YUGOSLAVIA, ON THEIR OWN.

    // END ACT //

    MR. SUN SAID THE FOREIGN MINISTRY HAS CALLED IN THE CHARGE D'AFFAIRS OF THE U-S EMBASSY IN BEIJING TO EXPRESS CHINA'S OPPOSITION TO THE AIRSTRIKES. BUT, HE INDICATED THAT THERE HAD NOT BEEN ANY CHANGE IN CHINESE PREMIER ZHU RONGJI'S PLANS TO VISIT THE UNITED STATES EARLY NEXT MONTH. (SIGNED)
    NEB/HO/GC/PLM
    25-Mar-99 3:52 AM EST (0852 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [18] KOSOVO / ASIA REACT (L-O) BY CHRIS SIMKINS (HONG KONG)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247141
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MOST ASIAN NATIONS SPOKE OUT IN SUPPORT TODAY (THURSDAY) FOR NATO AIRSTRIKES ON YUGOSLAVIA. CORRESPONDENT CHRIS SIMKINS HAS MORE ON REGIONAL REACTION TO THE MILITARY ACTION FROM THE VOA ASIA NEWS CENTER IN HONG KONG.

    TEXT: MOST ASIAN NATIONS ARE SUPPORTING NATO'S ACTION. JAPAN WAS THE FIRST COUNTRY IN THE REGION TO EXPRESS SUPPORT FOR THE NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST SERB MILITARY TARGETS. A JAPANESE FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESMAN SAID THURSDAY IT WAS EXTREMELY REGRETTABLE THAT THE SITUATION IN YUGOSLAVIA HAD DETERIORATED TO THE POINT OF SETTING OFF A MILITARY RESPONSE. HOWEVER JAPAN SAYS NATO'S USE OF FORCE WAS A NECESSARY MEASURE TO PREVENT A HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE.

    IN AUSTRALIA THERE WERE HARSHER COMMENTS. PRIME MINISTER JOHN HOWARD CONDEMNED YUGOSLAVIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC BLAMING HIM FOR NATO'S ACTIONS.

    /// HOWARD ACT ///

    BECAUSE OF THE THE STUBBORNNESS AND THE INTRANSIGENCE OF MILOSEVIC THE DETERMINATION OF THE SERBIANS TO PURSUE CONTINUED ATTACKS AND REPRISALS AGAINST THE ETHNIC ALBANIANS IS REALLY THE CAUSE OF THIS ACTION BY NATO. IT IS VERY REGRETTABLE ITS VERY SAD AND IT IS ALWAYS DEEPLY DISTURBING FOR THIS KIND OF CONFLICT TO OCCUR BUT AS HISTORY HAS TOLD US IF YOU SIT BY AND DO NOTHING YOU PAY A MUCH GREATER PRICE LATER ON.

    /// END ACT ///

    /// OPT ///

    SOME 200-THOUSAND MEMBERS OF AUSTRALIA'S SERB COMMUNITY SAY THEY WILL HOLD A PROTEST RALLY ON SUNDAY TO EXPRESS THEIR ANGER OVER NATO'S DECISION TO LAUNCH BOMBING ATTACKS ON SERB TARGETS. ORGANIZERS OF THE PLANNED DEMONSTRATION SAY MILITARY ACTION WILL ONLY FURTHER EXACERBATE THE REFUGEE CRISIS IN KOSOVO WHICH HAS LEFT TENS OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE HOMELESS.

    /// END ACT ///

    IN NEW ZEALAND FOREIGN MINISTER DON MCKINNON AGREED WITH HIS NEIGHBORS IN AUSTRALIA CALLING NATO AIR STRIKES JUSTIFIED AND INEVITABLE. THOSE COMMENTS WERE ALSO MIRRORED BY MALAYSIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER. ABDULLAH BADAWI SAYS MALAYSIA IS GENERALLY NOT IN FAVOR OF USING MILITARY FORCE TO SOLVE PROBLEMS BUT HE SAYS IN THIS CASE IT WAS WARRANTED BECAUSE FINDING A PEACEFUL RESOLUTION TO THE CONFLICT IN KOSOVO HAD FAILED.

    WHILE MOST ASIAN NATIONS SUPPORT NATO'S MILITARY BOMBING OF YUGOSLAVIA, THE GOVERNMENTS ALL STRONGLY URGED THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT TO IMMEDIATELY ACCEPT A PEACE AGREEMENT THAT WILL END THE MILITARY CONFLICT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/CS/PLM
    25-Mar-99 3:49 AM EST (0849 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [19] KOSOVO / CUBA REACT (S-ONLY) BY RICK NUNEZ (HAVANA)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247197
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: CUBA IS HARSHLY CONDEMNING NATO'S AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. AS WE HEAR FROM V-O-A'S RICK NUNEZ IN HAVANA, CUBAN OFFICIALS CONSIDER THE MILITARY ACTION A SERIOUS THREAT TO INTERNATIONAL STABILITY:

    TEXT: THE CUBAN FOREIGN MINISTRY CALLS THE AERIAL ATTACKS ON YUGOSLAV TARGETS AN UNJUSTIFIED AND CRIMINAL ACT OF AGGRESSION.

    IN A WRITTEN STATEMENT THURSDAY, THE MINISTRY ACCUSED THE UNITED STATES OF BEING WHAT IT CALLS THE MAIN INSTIGATOR OF THE NATO OPERATION. THE STATEMENT SAYS THE BOMBINGS PROVE THE IMPOSITION OF SOLUTIONS BY FORCE IS INCOMPATIBLE WITH ALL CIVILIZED REASONING.

    THE FOREIGN MINISTRY GOES ON TO SAY THE NATO AIR STRIKES HAVE REKINDLED FEARS OF A WORLD RULED BY ONE SUPERPOWER, EASILY CAPABLE OF DRAGGING ITS ALLIES INTO THE RASHEST OF ACTIONS.

    THE CUBAN GOVERNMENT WARNS THE ATTACKS COULD RESULT IN ESCALATING VIOLENCE, WITH NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES FOR EUROPE AND THE REST OF THE WORLD.

    THE CUBAN FOREIGN MINISTRY ALSO EXPRESSED REGRET THAT THE YUGOSLAV PEOPLE, WHO FOUGHT HEROICALLY AGAINST NAZI GERMANY, CONTINUE TO SUFFER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RAN/WTW
    25-Mar-99 6:34 PM EST (2334 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [20] KOSOVO / MIDEAST REACT (L ONLY) BY SCOTT BOBB (CAIRO)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247171
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE NATO AIR STRIKES IN YUGOSLAVIA HAVE RECEIVED A MIXED RESPONSE IN THE MIDDLE EAST. V-O-A MIDDLE EAST CORRESPONDENT SCOTT BOBB REPORTS THAT WHILE MANY BLAME THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT FOR FAILING TO NEGOTIATE A PEACE AGREEMENT, OTHERS EXPRESS CONCERN THAT THE STRIKES WERE NOT APPROVED BY THE UNITED NATIONS.

    TEXT: MANY GOVERNMENTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST HAVE BEEN ANGERED BY YUGOSLAVIA'S TREATMENT OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO. AND THEY HAVE NOT FORGOTTEN THE ATROCITIES COMMITTED AGAINST MUSLIMS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. MANY PRIVATELY FEEL THE AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA WERE LONG OVERDUE. AND THEY ARE URGING YUGOSLAVIA TO SIGN THE PEACE AGREEMENT WITH THE KOSOVO ALBANIANS.

    THE ARAB LEAGUE THURSDAY SAID IT IS CLOSELY MONITORING DEVELOPMENTS IN KOSOVO IN LIGHT OF WEDNESDAY'S AIR STRIKES. A SPOKESMAN BLAMED THE STRIKES ON THE PRACTICES OF SERBIAN FORCES AGAINST ALBANIAN RESIDENTS OF KOSOVO AND THEIR REFUSAL TO ACCEPT THE PEACE AGREEMENT SIGNED BY KOSOVO ALBANIANS IN FRANCE LAST WEEK.

    EGYPT'S FOREIGN MINISTER AMR MOUSSA SAID THE HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS IN KOSOVO ARE SERIOUS AND NOT ACCEPTABLE. THE MINISTER SAID EGYPT IS FOLLOWING THE EVENTS WITH CONCERN, AND URGED THE SERBIAN SIDE TO SIGN THE PEACE AGREEMENT. HOWEVER, OTHER GOVERNMENTS IN THE REGION HAVE STRONG RESERVATIONS ABOUT THE AIR STRIKES AND SAY THEY RESEMBLE WESTERN MILITARY ACTIONS TAKEN AGAINST IRAQ.

    LIBYA SAYS THE ATTACKS ARE ILLEGITIMATE BECAUSE THEY ARE NOT WITHIN THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER. A STATEMENT READ ON LIBYAN TELEVISION SAID THE STRIKES THREATEN PEACE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AND EUROPE AND URGENT ACTION SHOULD BE TAKEN TO END THEM.

    THE GOVERNMENT OF ALGERIA HAS ALSO CONDEMNED THE NATO AIR STRIKES. A FOREIGN MINISTRY STATEMENT ISSUED IN ALGIERS CALLED THE DEVELOPMENTS DANGEROUS AND CALLED FOR A DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION TO THE CRISIS THAT ALSO GUARANTEES THE RIGHTS OF KOSOVO ALBANIANS.

    IRAQ WAS ONE OF THE FIRST GOVERNMENTS IN THE REGION TO REACT TO THE AIR STRIKES. A SPOKESMAN SAID THE ATTACKS ARE NOT BASED ON INTERNATIONAL LAW. THE OFFICIAL SAID THE USE OF FORCE IN THE INTERNAL AFFAIRS OF NATIONS REPRESENTS A SERIOUS THREAT TO PEOPLE'S RIGHTS AND TO WORLD PEACE.

    /// REST OPT ///

    IRAQI NEWSPAPERS CASTIGATED THE ATTACKS, SAYING THEY RESEMBLE THE AIR STRIKES BY U-S AND BRITISH FORCES AGAINST IRAQ.

    THE COMPARISON WAS NOT LOST ON THE NEWS MEDIA IN SAUDI ARABIA AND KUWAIT, WHOSE GOVERNMENTS ALLOW WESTERN FORCES TO USE BASES IN THEIR TERRITORIES. KUWAITI NEWSPAPERS CALLED THE LEADERS OF IRAQ AND YUGOSLAVIA LIKE-MINDED TYRANTS AND SAID THE WORLD WILL BE A BETTER PLACE ONCE THEY HAVE PAID FOR THEIR DESTRUCTIVE POLICIES.

    SAUDI NEWSPAPERS SAID THE BALKANS, LIKE MIDDLE EAST COUNTRIES, ARE BURDENED BY A LEADER WHO HAS DRIVEN THE WEST TO MILITARY ACTION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/SB/JWH
    25-Mar-99 12:55 PM EST (1755 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [21] NATO BOMBS / MILOSEVIC BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-42941
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO CONTINUES ITS AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST SERB AND YUGOSLAV MILITARY POSITIONS AFTER DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS FAILED TO RESOLVE THE CRISIS IN SERBIA'S KSOSOVO PROVINCE. IN THIS REPORT FROM WASHINGTON, CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA LOOKS AT HOW MUCH "POUNDING" YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC MAY BE READY TO ENDURE BEFORE GIVING IN.

    TEXT: SENIOR NATO OFFICIALS SAY AIR STRIKES WILL CONTINUE UNTIL YUGOSLAV MILITARY AND SECURITY FORCES END THEIR ATTACKS ON ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN THE KOSOVO REGION OF SERBIA -- YUGOSLAVIA'S DOMINANT REPUBLIC.

    HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVISTS AND MANY ANALYSTS SAY THE YUGOSLAV ATTACKS AMOUNT TO ETHNIC CLEANSING. TENS-OF-THOUSANDS OF REFUGEES ARE FLEEING AS THEIR VILLAGES ARE BEING TORCHED. BUT BELGRADE SAYS ITS SECURITY OPERATION IN KOSOVO IS AN INTERNAL MATTER, AIMED AT FIGHTING VIOLENT ETHNIC-ALBANIAN GUERRILLAS INTENT ON GAINING INDEPENDENCE FOR THE REGION.

    NOW THAT NATO STRIKES ARE UNDERWAY, MILITARY EXPERTS AND BALKAN SCHOLARS ARE ASKING WHAT WILL IT TAKE FOR YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO GIVE UP.

    EXPERTS SAY PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC HAS BUILT HIS POLITICAL CAREER ON THE KOSOVO ISSUE, VOWING TO DEFEND THE SERBIAN MINORITY LIVING THERE AND INSISTING KOSOVO IS -- AND WILL REMAIN -- AN INTEGRAL PART OF SERBIA.

    RETIRED COLONEL RALPH PETERS IS A MILITARY STRATEGIST AND BALKAN EXPERT. HE BELIEVES PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC CANNOT BACK DOWN -- AT LEAST NOT IMMEDIATELY.

    // PETERS ACT //

    HE HAS TO SHED SERB BLOOD TO SHOW THAT HE IS DEFENDING KOSOVO -- THE HOMELAND, EVERYTHING HE SAID HE STANDS FOR. NOW, I DO NOT BELIEVE MR. MILOSEVIC IS GOING TO FIGHT TO THE LAST SERB, WHICH WOULD BE MR. MILOSEVIC. I THINK HE IS ULTIMATELY MORE INTERESTED IN HIS PERSONAL POWER THAN SERBIAN NATIONALISM. SO HE HAS GOT TO STAND UP TO NATO.

    // END ACT //

    BUT COLONEL PETERS SAYS PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC CANNOT LET HIS MILITARY BE DECIMATED BY HEAVY AND SUSTAINED NATO BOMBINGS.

    // SECOND PETERS ACT //

    HE CANNOT AFFORD TO HAVE HIS ARMORED POLICE FORCES AND HIS ARMY DESTROYED, BECAUSE FIRST OF ALL, HE NEEDS THOSE TOOLS FOR INTERNAL CONTROL -- AND SECONDLY, HE DOES HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT THE MILITARY TURNING ON HIM. IF THE MILITARY SEES ITSELF BEING DESTROYED, MR. MILOSEVIC MAY WIND UP WITH A BULLET IN THE BACK OF HIS HEAD. ON THE OTHER HAND, WERE HE NOT TO FIGHT FOR KOSOVO AT ALL, HE IS APT TO WIND UP HANGING FROM A BELGRADE LAMPPOST.

    // END ACT //

    COLONEL PETERS SAYS IT IS DIFFICULT TO PREDICT HOW LONG NATO'S AIR CAMPAIGN WILL LAST AND HOW MUCH DESTRUCTION PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC IS WILLING TO ENDURE BEFORE HE DECIDES TO GIVE UP.

    // OPT //

    A MILITARY ANALYST WITH THE (WASHINGTON-BASED) "CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES.", TONY CORDESMAN, SAYS THERE IS NO GUARANTEE OF STABILITY IN THE REGION. EVEN IF PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC GIVES IN AND ACCEPTS NATO PEACEKEEPERS IN KOSOVO AS ENVISAGED IN THE PEACE ACCORD AGREED TO BY THE ETHNIC ALBANIANS.

    (OPT) // CORDESMAN ACT //

    EVEN IF YOU WIN, IN THE SENSE THAT THEY BACK DOWN NOW: THE SERBS WITHDRAW, THEY ACCEPT SOME SORT OF OCCUPATION FORCE -- THAT DOES NOT MEAN THAT A MONTH FROM NOW, OR A WEEK FROM NOW, OR A YEAR FROM NOW, YOU DO NOT HAVE A LOW-LEVEL WAR GOING ON IN KOSOVO AND IT IS NOT QUITE CLEAR WHOSE SIDE YOU WILL BE ON. YOU COULD EASILY BE SEEN BY THE 'KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY' AS THE BARRIER TO INDEPENDENCE, AS THE ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE BY THE SERBS. AND AS WE HAVE LEARNED IN LEBANON, YOU CAN BECOME EVERYONE'S ENEMY WHEN YOU TRY TO KEEP THE PEACE.

    // END ACT //

    (END OPT)

    SOME ANALYSTS SEE THE POSSIBILITY PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WILL NOT GIVE UP EVEN IN THE FACE OF FIERCE NATO ATTACKS. ONE OF THEM IS CHRISTOPHER BENNETT -- AUTHOR OF SEVERAL BOOKS ON THE BALKANS -- AND FORMER DIRECTOR OF THE "INTERNATIONAL CRISIS GROUP ON THE BALKANS" -- A RESEARCH ORGANIZATION.

    // BENNETT ACT //

    HE MAY NOT CAVE IN. IT IS INTERESTING HOW FEW ADVISERS HE HAS AROUND HIM. THERE HAVE BEEN SO MANY PURGES IN THE PAST 12-YEARS SINCE MILOSEVIC FIRST CAME TO ABSOLUTE POWER IN SERBIA, THAT HE IS LEFT CONSULTING WITH HIS WIFE AND NOW A HANDFUL OF THE MOST EXTREME GENERALS WHO ARE OF A KIND WHO WILL NOT GIVE IN, IRRESPECTIVE (OF NATO BOMBING). THEY FEEL THEY ARE FIGHTING KEY HISTORICAL BATTLES ON BEHALF OF THE SERB NATION. THEY MAY FIGHT ON AT THE EXPENSE OF THE POPULATION. THIS IS SADLY VERY POSSIBLE.

    // END ACT //

    MR. BENNETT SAYS NOW THAT NATO IS BOMBING YUGOSLAV MILITARY POSITIONS, IT SHOULD GO ONE STEP FURTHER AND WORK TO UNDERMINE PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC'S AUTHORITY. BUT NATO SECRETARY-GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA SAID THE WESTERN ALLIANCE IS ONLY ATTACKING MILITARY POSITIONS AND HAS NO OTHER GOAL IN MIND. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/RAE
    25-Mar-99 3:13 PM EST (2013 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [22] CLINTON/KOSOVO (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247180
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON SAYS YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC MUST EITHER CHOOSE PEACE IN KOSOVO OR SEE THE PROGRESSIVE DESTRUCTION OF HIS MILITARY CAPABILITY. CORRESPONDENT DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: WITH REPORTERS PRESENT AT THE START OF A MEETING WITH HIS NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISERS, MR. CLINTON SAID HE WAS GRATEFUL THAT NATO AIR CREWS HAD RETURNED FROM THEIR FIRST ROUND OF ATTACKS WITHOUT CASUALTIES.

    HE REITERATED THE GOAL OF THE AIR CAMPAIGN IS TO PREVENT A HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE IN KOSOVO AND A WIDER BALKANS WAR. AND HE SAID YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC KNOWS WHAT HE HAS TO DO TO END THE BOMBING:

    /// CLINTON ACTUALITY ///

    I THINK THAT IT IS CLEAR. I DO NOT KNOW TO MAKE IT ANY CLEARER, THAT WE EITHER HAVE TO HAVE A CHOICE FOR PEACE BY SERBIA -- NOT JUST STOPPING THE KILLING FOR AN HOUR OR TWO -- BUT A CHOICE FOR PEACE. OR WE WILL DO OUR BEST TO LIMIT THEIR ABILITY TO MAKE WAR ON THOSE PEOPLE.

    /// END ACT ///

    ASKED ABOUT SUGGESTIONS THAT RUSSIA -- WHICH OPPOSES THE AIRSTRIKES -- MIGHT SEND WEAPONS TO YUGOSLAVIA, MR. CLINTON SAID SERB FORCES ARE ALREADY TOO WELL-ARMED, AND THIS IS ONE OF THE ROOT CAUSES OF THE CURRENT CRISIS:

    /// CLINTON ACTUALITY ///

    I HAVE NO INTENTION OF SUPPORTING ANY LIFTING OF THE ARMS EMBARGO ON SERBIA. I THINK THAT WOULD BE A TERRIBLE MISTAKE. WE WOULD BE FAR BETTER OFF IF THEY DID NOT HAVE AS MANY AS AS THEY DO. THEN THEY WOULD BE OUT THERE MAKING PEACE AND ACCOMMODATING THESE ETHNIC DIFFERENCES AND FIGURING OUT WAYS THEY CAN LIVE TOGETHER.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. CLINTON SAID NATO'S MILITARY OBJECTIVES CAN BE ACHIEVED WITHOUT THE INTRODUCTION OF GROUND TROOPS. HE ALSO SAID HE BELIEVES THE STILL-DIVIDED AMERICAN PUBLIC WILL COME TO SUPPORT HIS KOSOVO POLICY, BUT THAT IN ANY CASE IT IS HIS RESPONSIBILITY TO ACT IN WHAT HE CONSIDERS THE NATION'S LONG-TERM INTEREST. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/ENE/RAE
    25-Mar-99 1:42 PM EST (1842 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [23] CLINTON / KOSOVO WRAP (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247139
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON WENT ON NATIONWIDE TELEVISION LATE WEDNESDAY TO DEFEND NATO AIR STRIKES IN YUGOSLAVIA, SAYING THAT ENDING THE BLOODSHED IN KOSOVO IS A "MORAL IMPERATIVE." V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: MR. CLINTON SAYS THE UNITED STATES AND ITS ALLIES ACTED TO PREVENT A WIDER WAR AND DEFUSE A KOSOVO SITUATION HE DESCRIBES AS A "POWDER KEG IN THE HEART OF EUROPE."

    THE PRESIDENT USED MAPS SHOWING SERB ATTACKS ON KOSOVAR ALBANIANS, AND REFUGEE FLOWS TO NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES TO UNDERSCORE HIS CASE TO AN AMERICAN PUBLIC DIVIDED OVER THE WISDOM OF INTERVENTION.

    HE SAID THE FAILURE OF NATO TO BACK UP ITS THREATS OF MILITARY FORCE WOULD HAVE BEEN SEEN AS AN INVITATION FOR FURTHER SERB REPRESSION:

    /// FIRST CLINTON ACT ///

    IF WE AND OUR ALLIES WERE TO ALLOW THIS WAR TO CONTINUE WITH NO RESPONSE, PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WOULD READ OUR HESITATION AS A LICENSE TO KILL. THERE WOULD BE MANY MORE MASSACRES, TENS OF THOUSANDS MORE REFUGEES [AND] MORE VICTIMS CRYING OUT FOR REVENGE. RIGHT NOW, OUR FIRMNESS IS THE ONLY HOPE THE PEOPLE OF KOSOVO HAVE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. CLINTON SAID WHAT IS HAPPENING IN KOSOVO IS NOT WAR IN THE TRADITIONAL SENSE, BUT RATHER AN ATTACK BY TANKS AND ARTILLERY ON A LARGELY DEFENSELESS PEOPLE, WHOSE LEADERS HAD ALREADY AGREED TO PEACE.

    HE STRESSED THAT THE NATO ATTACKS ARE AIMED NOT AT THE PEOPLE OF YUGOSLAVIA, BUT RATHER THE MILITARY INFRUSTRUCTURE THAT MR. MILOSEVIC AND HIS FORCES ARE USING TO REPRESS AND KILL. THE PRESIDENT SAYS THE PURPOSE OF THE AIR STRIKES IS TO MAKE SERB LEADERS UNDERSTAND THE NECESSITY OF REVERSING COURSE, AND ACCEPTING THE INTERNATIONAL PEACE PLAN FOR KOSOVO.

    /// SECOND CLINTON ACT ///

    HOPEFULLY, MR. MILOSEVIC WILL REALIZE HIS PRESENT COURSE IS SELF-DESTRUCTIVE AND UNSUSTAINABLE. IF HE DECIDES TO ACCEPT THE PEACE AGREEMENT AND DE-MILITARIZE KOSOVO, NATO HAS AGREED TO HELP TO IMPLEMENT IT WITH A PEACE-KEEPING FORCE. IF NATO IS INVITED TO DO SO, OUR TROOPS WILL TAKE PART IN THAT MISSION TO KEEP THE PEACE. BUT I DO NOT INTEND TO PUT OUR TROOPS IN KOSOVO TO FIGHT A WAR.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. CLINTON'S NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISER, SANDY BERGER, TOLD REPORTERS HERE THE NATO ACTION IS NOT A "ONE-NIGHT OPERATION." OTHER OFFICIALS SAY THE RAIDS WILL CONTINUE FOR DAYS, IF NECESSARY, TO DISABLE YUGOSLAVIA'S AIR DEFENSES AND OFFENSIVE CAPABILITY.

    IN HIS ADDRESS, THE PRESIDENT SAID IF PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WILL NOT MAKE PEACE, THEN -- AS HE PUT IT -- "WE WILL LIMIT HIS ABILITY TO MAKE WAR."

    AN IMMEDIATE CASUALTY OF THE NATO ATTACKS APPEARED TO BE THE ALLIANCE'S RELATIONSHIP WITH RUSSIA. PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN SAID HE WAS ENDING RUSSIA'S PARTNERSHIP WITH NATO, AND SAID HE MAY TAKE FURTHER STEPS TO PROTEST THE AIRSTRIKES AGAINST MOSCOW'S TRADITIONAL SERB ALLY.

    /// REST OPT ///

    PRESIDENT CLINTON SPENT 35 MINUTES ON THE PHONE WITH MR. YELTSIN WEDNESDAY EXPLAINING THE NATO MISSION AND EXPRESSING HOPE THAT DIALOGUE AND COOPERATION CAN CONTINUE IN OTHER AREAS, ESPECIALLY ARMS CONTROL.

    BECAUSE OF THE CRISIS, MR. CLINTON ALSO TELEPHONED CONGRESSIONAL LEADERS OF BOTH PARTIES, AND CANCELLED A THREE-DAY POLITICAL TRIP TO OHIO, NEVADA AND CALIFORNIA THAT WAS TO HAVE BEGUN TODAY (THURSDAY). (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/WTW
    24-Mar-99 9:51 PM EST (0251 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [24] CONGRESS / KOSOVO (L) BY PAULA WOLFSON (CAPITOL HILL)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247132
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDITORS: THE HOUSE VOTED AT 7PM EST WEDNESDAY.....THE SENATE PROBABLY WILL FOLLOW SUIT ON THURSDAY...///

    INTRO: JUST HOURS AFTER NATO LAUNCHED AIRSTRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA, THE U-S HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES PLEDGED ITS STRONG SUPPORT FOR AMERICAN FORCES INVOLVED IN THE MILITARY OPERATION. THE SENATE IS EXPECTED TO FOLLOW SUIT. V-O-A'S PAULA WOLFSON REPORTS THAT EVEN LAWMAKERS WHO ARE CRITICS OF THE PRESIDENT'S BALKAN POLICIES JOINED TO BACK THE TROOPS.

    TEXT: ONE WEEK AGO, FLORIDA REPUBLICAN TILLIE FOWLER CALLED ON CONGRESS TO BAR U-S PEACEKEEPERS FROM KOSOVO. SHE SAYS SHE STILL DOES NOT LIKE PRESIDENT CLINTON'S BALKAN POLICY. BUT NOW THAT AIRSTRIKES ARE UNDERWAY, IT'S IMPORTANT FOR THE UNITED STATES TO SPEAK WITH ONE VOICE.

    ///////FOWLER ACT//////

    OUR TROOPS ARE ENGAGED IN A MILITARY CONFLICT. AS ALWAYS, THEY ARE PERFORMING THEIR JOB WITH THE UTMOST PROFESSIONALISM AND DEDICATION. AND IT IS INCUMBENT UPON US TO DEMONSTRATE OUR FULLEST SUPPORT FOR THEM.

    ///////END ACT////////

    FROM THE FAR RIGHT TO THE FAR LEFT, LAWMAKERS OF ALL POLITICAL PERSUASIONS STOOD UNITED BEHIND THE AMERICAN FORCES AND THEIR MISSION.

    FLOYD SPENCE -- THE REPUBLICAN CHAIRMAN OF THE HOUSE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE -- OPENED THE DEBATE WITH CRITICISM OF THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION, AND PRAISE FOR THE TROOPS.

    ///////SPENCE ACT////

    WHAT WE HAVE WITNESSED IN THE SKIES OVER SERBIA IS UNQUESTIONABLY A WAR. NOW MORE THAN EVER, OUR ARMED FORCES IN AND AROUND THE BALKANS NEED AND DESERVE OUR SUPPORT.

    ///////END ACT//////

    GEORGIA DEMOCRAT JOHN LEWIS -- A SELF-DESCRIBED PACIFIST -- SELDOM VOTES WITH MR. SPENCE. BUT HE SAID THERE COMES A TIME WHEN MILITARY MIGHT IS NECESSARY TO BRING AN END TO MADNESS.

    ///////LEWIS ACT/////

    WE HAVE A MORAL OBLIGATION, A MISSION AND A MANDATE TO PREVENT A MODERN-DAY HOLOCAUST.

    ///////END ACT//////

    CONGRESS USUALLY RESPONDS IMMEDIATELY TO FOREIGN DEPLOYMENTS WITH A RESOLUTION OF SUPPORT FOR U-S TROOPS. AS THEY PREPARED TO CAST THEIR VOTES, LAWMAKERS SAID THEY HAVE AN OBLIGATION NOT JUST TO THE SOLDIERS, SAILORS AND PILOTS, BUT TO THE FAMILIES WHO ARE WAITING FOR THEIR SWIFT AND SAFE RETURN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PW/RRM
    24-Mar-99 8:12 PM EST (0112 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [25] KOSOVO PENTAGON SITREP (L) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247164
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN SAYS AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA WILL CONTINUE UNTIL PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC STOPS ATTACKING ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO PROVINCE AND TAKES OTHER STEPS TOWARD PEACE. CORRESPONDENT JIM RANDLE REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: DEFENSE SECRETARY COHEN AND OTHER OFFICIALS SAY INITIAL AIR ATTACKS HIT 40 SERB MILITARY TARGETS ACROSS YUGOSLAVIA, FOCUSING ON AIR DEFENSES. HE TOLD TELEVISION INTERVIEWERS HE IS SATISFIED WITH THE FIRST NIGHT'S OPERATIONS.

    MR. COHEN SAYS ONCE MISSILES, ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUNS, AND RADARS ARE KNOCKED OUT, NATO BOMBS WILL FALL ON SERB FORCES POISED TO ATTACK ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO PROVINCE. HE SAYS NATO IS TRYING TO DETER SERB ATTACKS IF POSSIBLE, AND WILL DESTROY THE SERB MILITARY IF NECESSARY.

    /// COHEN ACT 060 ///

    WE WILL TAKE AS LONG AS NECESSARY TO ACHIEVE THESE GOALS.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. COHEN SPOKE ON SEVERAL U-S TELEVISION NETWORKS.

    HE SAYS WASHINGTON HAS NO INTENTION OF SENDING GROUND TROOPS INTO A HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT, BUT HAS NOT CHANGED PLANS TO CONTRIBUTE SOLDIERS TO A PEACEKEEPING FORCE THAT WOULD ENFORCE AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN SERBS AND KOSOVAR ALBANIANS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JR/ENE/RAE
    25-Mar-99 12:16 PM EST (1716 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [26] SENATE-KOSOVO (L-UPDATE) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247196
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MANY MEMBERS OF THE U-S CONGRESS ARE SUPPORTING THE AIRSTRIKES IN YUGOSLAVIA OR AT LEAST MUTING CRITICISM OF PRESIDENT CLINTON'S POLICY. BUT AS V-O-A'S DAVID SWAN REPORTS, LAWMAKERS QUESTION HIS LONG-TERM STRATEGY AND ARE PUTTING FORTH THEIR OWN ALTERNATIVES.

    TEXT: AFTER A CLOSED-DOOR BRIEFING BY PENTAGON OFFICIALS, SENATE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN JOHN WARNER DECLARED THE FIRST AIR RAIDS A MILITARY SUCCESS.

    // WARNER ACT //

    CLEARLY (YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN) MILOSEVIC WAS WAITING TO SEE IF WE MEANT BUSINESS, THAT IS 19 ALLIED NATIONS. THE FACTS THAT WE RECEIVED CLEARLY INDICATE WE DID MEAN BUSINESS AND WE CARRIED IT OUT.

    // END ACT //

    BUT REPUBLICAN SENATOR ROBERT BENNETT, WHO ATTENDED THE SAME BRIEFING (THURSDAY), SAYS HE STILL DOUBTS THE AIR CAMPAIGN CAN SUCCEED.

    // BENNETT ACT //

    I HAVE NEVER UNDERSTOOD HOW BOMBING IS GOING TO STOP THE MASSACRE ON THE GROUND.

    // END ACT //

    MANY SENATE AND HOUSE MEMBERS WORRY THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION WILL HAVE NO CLEAR FOLLOW-UP PLAN ONCE BOMBING ENDS. ONE GROUP OF SENATORS SAYS THE GOAL SHOULD BE REMOVING PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC AND BRINGING DEMOCRACY TO SERBIA. AMONG OTHER THINGS, THEIR BILL WOULD PROVIDE UP TO 100-MILLIOND OLLARS TO HELP BUILD A CIVIL SOCIETY AND THE RULE OF LAW.

    SENATE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN JESSE HELMS IS AMONGTHE SPONSORS.

    // HELMS ACT //

    AS FOR MR. MILOSEVIC'S FUTURE I DON'T CARE ONE WAY OR THE OTHER IF HE LIVES OUT HIS DAYS IN SUNNY CYPRUS OR IF HE WILL AGREE TO STEP ASIDE AND MAKE WAY FOR DEMOCRACY IN SERBIA. THE IMPORTANT THING IS THAT HE BE REMOVED FROM POWER, WHETHER VOLUNTARILY OR NOT, AND NOW.

    // END ACT //

    ANOTHER BIPARTISAN MEASURE WOULD AUTHORIZE 25-MILLION DOLLARS TO ARM AND TRAIN KOSOVAR FIGHTERS TO RESIST THE YUGOSLAV ARMY. REPUBLICAN SENATOR MITCH MCCONNELL SAYS HE SUGGESTED THIS APPROACH TO PRESIDENT CLINTON A FEW DAYS AGO.

    // MCCONNELL ACT //

    I MUST SAY IN RESPONSE TO THIS THERE WAS STUNNED SILENCE SO THIS IS CLEARLY NOT ADMINISTRATION POLICY AT THIS TIME. BUT IT SEEMS TO US TO MAKE A LOT OF SENSE AND IS CLEARLY THE ANSWER TO "WHAT IS THE EXIT STRATEGY?" IF THE (PEACE) AGREEMENT IS NOT REACHED.

    // END ACT //

    BUT THE PROPOSAL ALSO HAS CRITICS OUTSIDE THE WHITE HOUSE. SENATE ARMED SERVICES CHAIRMAN WARNER SAYS IT COULD DISRUPT THE UNITY IN NATO AND PERHAPS PROVOKE RUSSIA INTO HELPING SERBS.

    // WARNER ACT //

    I SAID IT COULD IN MY JUDGEMENT, SUCH STATEMENTS AS ARMING THE KOSOVARS WOULD GIVE THE RUSSIANS THE GROUNDS, POSSIBLY, TO ARM THEIR BROTHER SLAVS (IN SERBIA).

    // END ACT //

    WITH CONGRESS SOON LEAVING FOR A HOLIDAY RECESS, NONE OF THESE IDEAS WILL BECOME LAW ANYTIME SOON. BUT THE DEBATE SEEMS CERTAIN TO CONTINUE LONG AFTER BOTH THE RECESS AND THE AIR STRIKES END.(SIGNED)
    NEB/DS/PT
    25-Mar-99 6:46 PM EST (2346 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [27] KOSOVO / CHICAGO REACT (L-O) BY MICHAEL LELAND (CHICAGO)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247170
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE MIDWEST U-S CITY OF CHICAGO HAS A SUBSTANTIAL IMMIGRANT POPULATION FROM THE BALKAN REGION. THE NATO MILITARY ACTION AGAINST SERB INSTALLATIONS IN YUGOSLAVIA HAS SOME MEMBERS OF THAT COMMUNITY UPSET, WHILE OTHERS SAY THE ACTION IS LONG OVERDUE. VOA'S MICHAEL LELAND HAS MORE.

    TEXT: // MUSIC ACT (ESTABLISH, FADE) //

    ALONG LINCOLN STREET ON CHICAGO'S NORTHWEST SIDE, MUSIC PLAYED OVER LOUDSPEAKERS WELCOME PASSERSBY ALONG A STRIP OF SHOPS AND CAFES OWNED BY BOSNIANS, SERBS AND OTHER BALKAN IMMIGRANTS. LOOK THROUGH WINDOWS AND YOU SEE PATRONS WATCHING THE LATEST NEWS REPORTS FROM YUGOSLAVIA ON LARGE-SCREEN TELEVISIONS.

    WHEN I WALK INTO ONE CAFE OWNED BY A SERBIAN IMMIGRANT, THE MANAGER BEGINS SHOUTING, "WHAT GOOD DOES IT DO TO TALK TO THE MEDIA NOW THAT THE BOMBS ARE FALLING? YOU MAY SIT AND BE A GUEST, BUT NO INTERVIEWS." A WOMAN NEARBY SAYS, "HE IS UPSET. WE ALL ARE. THIS IS WORSE THAN WHEN THE NAZIS ATTACKED."

    DOWN THE STREET AT A BOSNIAN-OWNED RESTAURANT, THE MOOD IS LIGHTER. MEN WATCHING TELEVISION JOKE ABOUT THE BOMBINGS WHILE WATCHING THE NEWS AND PLAYING VIDEO GAMES. THE MANAGER, MICKEY, SAYS THE NATO ACTION IS LONG OVERDUE.

    // MICKEY ACT //

    THE SERBIANS, YOU DO NOT KNOW WHERE THEY WOULD STOP, CONSIDERING THEY BELIEVE KOSOVO HAS BEEN THEIRS FOR THE LAST 600 YEARS OR WHATEVER. KOSOVO IS 90 PERCENT ALBANIAN AND THE MAJORITY OF THEM ARE MUSLIM.

    // END ACT //

    A CUSTOMER, RAIS MEHMEDI, AGREES.

    // MEHMEDI ACT //

    KOSOVO NEVER BELONGED TO THEM. NEVER DID, NEVER WILL. OTHERWISE THE PEOPLE WOULD NEVER HAVE COME UP AND FIGHT FOR WHATEVER THEY HAVE TO.

    // END ACT //

    AT A CHURCH SERVICE WEDNESDAY EVENING AT A LOCAL SERBIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH, PRAYERS WERE OFFERED FOR FAMILY MEMBERS AND FRIENDS IN YUGOSLAVIA. A LOCAL SERBIAN ORGANIZATION PLANNED A RALLY IN DOWNTOWN CHICAGO FOR FRIDAY AFTERNOON, TO PROTEST THE BOMBINGS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ML/ENE/KL
    25-Mar-99 12:59 PM EST (1759 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [28] U-N / YUGOSLAVIA (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247163
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE YUGOSLAV AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS IN GENEVA SAYS HIS COUNTRY WILL RESIST NATO AIR STRIKES. BUT, LISA SCHLEIN IN GENEVA REPORTS A FORMER YUGOSLAV PRIME MINISTER SAYS HE EXPECTS YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO CHANGE HIS MIND AND SEEK TO RENEW PEACE NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE WESTERN POWERS.

    TEXT: YUGOSLAV AMBASSADOR BRANKO BRANKOVIC SAYS HIS COUNTRY WILL NEVER GIVE IN TO NATO AGGRESSION.

    MR. BRANKOVIC ACCUSES NATO OF LAUNCHING WHAT HE CALLS A BARBARIC ATTACK AGAINST A SOVEREIGN COUNTRY. HE SAYS NATO IS BRINGING DEATH, DESTRUCTION AND SORROW TO THE YUGOSLAV PEOPLE, AND HAS COMMITTED A CRIME AGAINST HUMANITY. THE AMBASSADOR SAYS THE YUGOSLAV PEOPLE WILL STAND UP TO THE AMERICANS JUST LIKE -- AS HE PUTS IT -- THE HEROIC VIETNAMESE PEOPLE DID YEARS AGO.

    /// BRANKOVIC ACT ///

    THE CITIZENS OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA ARE UNIFIED IN THEIR DETERMINATION TO FIRMLY DEFEND THEIR COUNTRY AND DO NOT FEAR AMERICAN HORDES. EUROPE HAS ALLOWED THIS STATE OF YESTERDAY, NAMELY THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, TO SPIT ON THE MORE THAN THOUSANDS YEAR OLD HISTORY AND DIGNITY OF EUROPE. MY DEAR EUROPE, SHAME ON YOU.

    /// END ACT ///

    ANOTHER VIEW IS EXPRESSED BY A FORMER YUGOSLAV PRIME MINISTER, MILAN PANIC. MR. PANIC SAYS HE DOES NOT BELIEVE THE YUGOSLAV PEOPLE WILL FIGHT NATO TO THE DEATH. AND HE SAYS THAT EVENTUALLY, YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC WILL WANT TO RETURN TO THE NEGOTIATING TABLE.

    /// PANIC ACT ONE ///

    MILOSEVIC NOW, AFTER A FEW WAVES OF BOMBING, IN MY VIEW, WILL ASK FOR NEGOTIONS.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT MR. PANIC SAYS HE DOES NOT BELIEVE WESTERN NEGOTIATORS SHOULD RESUME TALKS WITH THE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT.

    /// PANIC ACT TWO ///

    MY ADVICE TO ALL NEGOTIATORS WHICH LOOKED SO SILLY TODAY AFTER THEY FAILED IN NEGOTIATING WITH HIM WHEN THEY WERE TOLD NOT TO NEGOTIATE WITH MILOSEVIC MANY TIMES SHOULD NOT NEGOTIATE WITH MILOSEVIC. MILOSEVIC IS THE PROBLEM, NOT THE SOLUTION. HE'S NOT THE PARTNER WHOM YOU CAN TRUST. MY ADVICE IS NEGOTIATE WITH OTHER LEADERS IN SERBIA.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. PANIC SAYS THE NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN IS CAUSING THE SERBIAN PEOPLE TO RALLY AROUND THE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT. BUT, HE SAYS MR. MILOSEVIC IS NOT A TRULY POPULAR FIGURE. HE SAYS PEOPLE IN SERBIA DO NOT SUPPORT THE PRESIDENT'S POLICIES. BUT, HE SAYS THEY ARE TOO AFRAID TO OPPOSE HIM. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/JWH
    25-Mar-99 11:14 AM EST (1614 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [29] U-N / KOSOVO / RUSSIA (L) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247179
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIA HAS SUBMITTED A DRAFT RESOLUTION TO THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL TODAY (THURSDAY) DEMANDING AN IMMEDIATE END TO THE USE OF FORCE AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. BRITAIN AND THE UNITED STATES SAY THEY WILL VETO THE PROPOSAL. V-O-A'S UNITED NATIONS CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON HAS A REPORT.

    TEXT: THE DRAFT RESOLUTION DESCRIBES THE USE OF FORCE AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA AS A FLAGRANT VIOLATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER. RUSSIAN AMBASSADOR SERGEI LAVROV:

    /// LAVROV ACT ///

    WE TABLED A DRAFT RESOLUTION DEMANDING THE IMMEDIATE END OF THE USE OF FORCE AND RESUMPTION OF NEGOTIATIONS. WE WOULD BE DISCUSSING IT TOMORROW MORNING, I UNDERSTAND, WHEN THE MEMBERS WOULD RECEIVE INSTRUCTIONS.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE DRAFT RESOLUTION SAYS THE USE OF FORCE BY NATO AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA CONSTITUTES A THREAT TO INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY.

    DIPLOMATS SAY RUSSIA IS LIKELY TO INSIST THE COUNCIL VOTE ON THE DRAFT RESOLUTION FRIDAY, DESPITE CLEAR INDICATIONS IT WILL NOT BE APPROVED.

    U-S REPRESENTATIVE TO THE UNITED NATIONS PETER BURLEIGH SAYS THE UNITED STATES WILL OPPOSE THE RESOLUTION.

    /// BURLEIGH ACT ///

    WE WILL ACTIVELY OPPOSE IT, WE TOLD THEM IN THE COUNCIL. IT IS COMPLETELY UNHELPFUL. IF IT WERE ADOPTED, IT WOULD PROLONG THE CRISIS IN KOSOVO. IT WOULD ENCOURAGE (YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT) MILOSEVIC TO PURSUE HIS CURRENT COURSE. THAT IS WHY WE TOTALLY REJECT IT.

    /// END ACT ///

    BRITAIN ALSO SAYS IT WILL OPPOSE THE RUSSIAN DRAFT RESOLUTION.

    IN AN OPEN COUNCIL MEETING LATE WEDNESDAY, RUSSIA AND CHINA STRONGLY CONDEMNED THE NATO STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. MOST OTHER COUNCIL MEMBERS APPROVED OF THE STRIKES, SAYING THEY WERE MADE NECESSARY BY THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT'S REFUSAL TO REACH A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT WITH ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO PROVINCE. (SIGNED) NEB/UN/MPR/LSF/JO
    25-Mar-99 1:45 PM EST (1845 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [30] U-S / RUSSIA / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247193
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES SAYS RUSSIAN ANGER AT THE USE OF NATO AIR STRIKES IN YUGOSLAVIA SHOULD NOT HINDER COOPERATION IN OTHER IMPORTANT AREAS. AS VOA'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, THE TWO COUNTRIES HAVE A NUMBER OF COMMON INTERESTS.

    TEXT: SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT SAYS MAINTAINING CONTACTS WITH RUSSIA IS ONE OF HER TOP DIPLOMATIC PRIORITIES.

    // ALBRIGHT ACT //

    WE ARE AND WILL REMAIN IN CLOSE TOUCH. BOTH SIDES RECOGNIZE THE IMPORTANCE OF OUR RELATIONSHIP AND THE NEED TO CONTINUE TO WORK TOGETHER ON MANY SHARED CONCERNS.

    // END ACT //

    THOSE CONCERNS INCLUDE THE STILL UNRATIFIED START TWO NUCLEAR ARMS REDUCTION TREATY AND EFFORTS TO HALT THE SPREAD OF MISSILE AND NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY. RUSSIA IS ALSO ANXIOUS TO SECURE BILLIONS OF DOLLARS IN WESTERN BACKED LOANS TO HELP STABILIZE ITS SAGGING ECONOMY.

    RUSSIAN ANGER AT THE USE OF NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST THEIR TRADITIONAL ALLIES IN SERB-DOMINATED YUGOSLAVIA HAS STRAINED RELATIONS BETWEEN MOSCOW AND WASHINGTON.

    RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN RESPONDED TO THE AIR STRIKES BY RECALLING RUSSIA'S ENVOY TO NATO AND SUSPENDING PARTICIPATION WITH NATO'S PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE PROGRAM.

    RUSSIAN PRIME MINISTER YEVGENY PRIMAKOV CANCELED A LONG PLANNED VISIT TO WASHINGTON. BUT OFFICIALS IN BOTH COUNTRIES ARE TRYING TO DOWNPLAY THE DISAGREEMENT.

    SINCE ABRUPTLY CANCELING HIS U-S VISIT, MR. PRIMAKOV HAS SAID RUSSIA DOES NOT WANT TO ISOLATE ITSELF.

    PRESIDENT CLINTON'S NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR, SANDY BURGER SAYS MR. MILOSEVIC SHOULD NOT BE ALLOWED TO SOUR TIES BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA.

    // BURGER ACT //

    THIS IS A VERY IMPORTANT RELATIONSHIP WHICH WE HOPE TO CONTINUE TO NURTURE AND DO NOT BELIEVE MR. MILOSEVIC SHOULD BE ABLE TO TEAR ASUNDER.

    // END ACT //

    IN A SIGN OF CONTINUED U-S SUPPORT FOR RUSSIA, AMERICAN OFFICIALS HAVE WELCOMED A VISIT TO MOSCOW LATER THIS WEEK BY THE MANAGING DIRECTOR OF THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND.

    THE TALKS COULD BRING PROGRESS ON RUSSIA'S EFFORT TO SECURE NEW LOANS TO HELP PAY ITS MASSIVE FOREIGN DEBT.

    RUSSIA'S ENERGY MINISTER HAS ALSO BEEN IN WASHINGTON FOR TALKS ON THE POSSIBLE SALE OF RUSSIAN NUCLEAR FUEL, A DEAL THAT COULD BE WORTH BILLIONS OF DOLLARS. ANALYSTS SAY SUCH PRACTICAL CONCERNS HAVE LIMITED THE DAMAGE CAUSED BY THE CRISIS IN KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/PT
    25-Mar-99 5:18 PM EST (2218 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [31] U-N / KOSOVO (L-UPDATE) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247134
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// EDS: UPDATES CR 2-247107, WITH SECURITY COUNCIL MEETING ///

    INTRO: NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA RECEIVED A MIXED REACTION AT UNITED NATIONS HEADQUARTERS IN NEW YORK WEDNESDAY, WITH RUSSIA, CHINA AND INDIA SPEAKING OUT IN OPPOSITION TO THE STRIKES AND MOST OTHER COUNTRIES SUPPORTING THE NATO ACTION. V-O-A'S UNITED NATIONS CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON REPORTS.

    TEXT: IN AN OPEN MEETING OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL, RUSSIA EXPRESSED OUTRAGE AT THE NATO STRIKES, DENOUNCING THEM AS VIOLATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW. CHINESE AMBASSADOR QIN HUASUN SPEAKING THROUGH AN INTERPRETER -- OFFERED SIMILAR OBJECTIONS, SAYING THE STRIKES VIOLATE THE U-N CHARTER.

    /// QIN INTERPRETER ACT ///

    THIS ACT AMOUNTS TO A BLATANT VIOLATION OF THE U-N CHARTER, AS WELL AS THE ACCEPTED NORMS IN INTERNATIONAL LAW. THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT STRONGLY OPPOSES SUCH AN ACT.

    /// END ACT ///

    BOTH CHINA AND RUSSIA DEMANDED AN IMMEDIATE END TO THE NATO STRIKES. INDIA ALSO OPPOSED THE STRIKES.

    BUT MOST OTHER MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL, INCLUDING THE UNITED STATES, INDICATED SUPPORT FOR THE STRIKES, SAYING YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES LEFT NATO WITH LITTLE CHOICE BUT TO INTERVENE.

    U-S REPRESENTATIVE PETER BURLEIGH:

    /// BURLEIGH ACT ///

    WE AND OUR ALLIES HAVE BEGUN MILITARY ACTION ONLY WITH THE GREATEST RELUCTANCE. BUT WE BELIEVE THAT SUCH ACTION IS NECESSARY TO RESPOND TO BELGRADE'S BRUTAL PERSECUTION OF KOSOVAR ALBANIANS, VIOLATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW, EXCESSIVE AND INDISCRIMINATE USE OF FORCE, REFUSAL TO NEGOTIATE TO RESOLVE THE ISSUE PEACEFULLY, AND RECENT MILITARY BUILDUP IN KOSOVO, ALL OF WHICH FORESHADOW A HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE OF IMMENSE PROPORTIONS.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. BURLEIGH SAID THE THREAT OF A HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE JUSTIFIED THE NATO ACTIONS. RUSSIAN AMBASSADOR SERGEI LAVROV, SPEAKING THROUGH AN INTERPRETER, STRONGLY DISPUTED THAT.

    /// LAVROV INTERPRETER ACT ///

    ATTEMPTS TO JUSTIFY NATO'S STRIKES BY USING ARGUMENTS OF PREVENTING HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE IN KOSOVO ARE COMPLETELY UNTENABLE. NOT ONLY ARE THESE ATTEMPTS IN NO WAY BASED ON THE [U-N] CHARTER OR OTHER GENERALLY-RECOGNIZED RULES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW, BUT UNILATERAL USE OF FORCE IN FACT WILL PRECISELY LEAD TO A SITUATION WITH TRULY DEVASTATING HUMANITARIAN CONSEQUENCES.

    /// END ACT ///

    U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN SAID THE SECURITY COUNCIL SHOULD HAVE BEEN INVOLVED IN DECIDING WHETHER TO LAUNCH THE STRIKES. BUT, IN AN APPARENT EXPRESSION OF SUPPORT FOR THE STRIKES, HE SAID THERE ARE TIMES WHEN THE USE OF FORCE MAY BE LEGITIMATE IN THE PURSUIT OF PEACE.

    YUGOSLAVIA'S U-N REPRESENTATIVE URGED THE SECURITY COUNCIL TO DEMAND AN IMMEDIATE END TO WHAT HE DESCRIBED AS NATO AGGRESSION AGAINST HIS COUNTRY.

    BECAUSE OF THE DIVISIONS AMONG MEMBER STATES, THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL IS UNLIKELY TO APPROVE ANY RESOLUTIONS, EITHER SUPPORTING OR OPPOSING THE NATO AIR STRIKES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/UN/MPR/WTW
    24-Mar-99 8:13 PM EST (0113 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [32] U-N / KOSOVO (S-3RD UPDATE) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=3/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247135
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// EDS: UPDATES CR 2-247127 WITH SECURITY COUNCIL MEETING ///

    INTRO: NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA RECEIVED A MIXED REACTION AT UNITED NATIONS HEADQUARTERS IN NEW YORK WEDNESDAY, WITH RUSSIA AND CHINA SPEAKING OUT IN OPPOSITION TO THE BOMBING. V-O-A'S UNITED NATIONS CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON REPORTS.

    TEXT: IN AN OPEN MEETING OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL, RUSSIA EXPRESSED OUTRAGE AT THE NATO STRIKES, DENOUNCING THEM AS VIOLATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW. CHINA OFFERED SIMILAR OBJECTIONS, SAYING THE STRIKES AMOUNT TO A BLATANT VIOLATION OF THE U-N CHARTER.

    BUT MOST OTHER MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL, INCLUDING THE UNITED STATES, SUPPORTED THE STRIKES, SAYING YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES LEFT NATO WITH LITTLE CHOICE BUT TO INTERVENE.

    U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN SAID THE SECURITY COUNCIL SHOULD HAVE BEEN INVOLVED IN DECIDING WHETHER TO LAUNCH THE STRIKES. BUT IN AN APPARENT EXPRESSION OF SUPPORT FOR THE STRIKES, HE SAID THERE ARE TIMES WHEN THE USE OF FORCE MAY BE LEGITIMATE IN THE PURSUIT OF PEACE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/UN/MPR/WTW
    24-Mar-99 8:09 PM EST (0109 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [33] U-S KOSOVO / DIPLOMACY - S ONLY BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247184
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SECRETARY OF STATE MADELINE ALBRIGHT SAYS A DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION TO THE CRISIS IN KOSOVO IS STILL POSSIBLE. BUT SHE SAYS SO FAR THERE IS NO INDICATION YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC WANTS A PEACEFUL SETTLEMENT. FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, V-O-A'S KYLE KING.

    TEXT: SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT SAYS MR. MILOSEVIC KNOWS WHAT HE HAS TO DO TO END THE CRISIS IN KOSOVO.

    // ALBRIGHT ACT //

    I THINK THAT FIRST OF ALL IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT HE STOP WHAT HE IS DOING ON THE GROUND.

    // END ACT //

    MS. ALBRIGHT SAYS SHE REGRETS THAT SERB FORCES ARE CONTINUING THEIR OFFENSIVE IN KOSOVO PROVINCE AND SHE EXPRESSED CONCERN ABOUT THE INCREASING NUMBERS OF ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES.

    SHE SAYS THE KOSOVO PEACE ACCORDS THAT HAVE ALREADY BEEN SIGNED BY THE ETHNIC ALBANIANS ARE STILL ON THE TABLE, BUT SHE SEES NO INDICATION MR. MILOSEVIC WANTS A DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION. MEANWHILE, YUGOSLAVIA SAYS IT IS CUTTING TIES WITH LEADING MEMBERS OF THE NATO ALLIANCE, INCLUDING THE UNITED STATES.

    MS. ALBRIGHT SAYS THERE WILL BE TIME FOR DIPLOMACY, BUT FOR NOW NATO ALLIES ARE UNITED IN THEIR SUPPORT FOR AIR STRIKES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/JO
    25-Mar-99 3:42 PM EST (2042 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [34] NEW NATO MEMBERS BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-42937
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA HAVE RAISED ANXIETIES AMONG THREE NEW MEMBERS OF THE ALLIANCE -- POLAND, THE CZECH REPUBLIC, AND ESPECIALLY HUNGARY, WHICH BORDERS YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN IN LONDON TAKES A LOOK AT THE TOUGH INITIATION FOR THREE FORMER COLD WAR ENEMIES.

    TEXT: THE CZECH REPUBLIC'S PRIME MINISTER, MILOS ZEMAN, SAYS THE NATO MILITARY OPERATION PUTS THE THREE NEW MEMBERS IN A TOUGH POSITION. THE NATO OPERATION WAS APPROVED BEFORE THE CZECH REPUBLIC, HUNGARY, AND POLAND JOINED THE ALLIANCE EARLIER THIS MONTH.

    /// ZEMAN ACT - IN CZECH - FADE UNDER ///

    MR. ZEMAN SAYS HIS GOVERNMENT IS OBLIGED TO RESPECT ITS COMMITMENTS TO NATO, BUT HE DOES NOT WANT THE CZECH REPUBLIC TO BE SEEN AS BELIEVING THAT BOMBS CAN SOLVE EVERYTHING.

    HUNGARIAN OFFICIALS EXPRESS SIMILAR CONCERNS. BUT FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESMAN GABOR HORVATH SAYS NATO DOES UNDERSTAND HUNGARY'S SPECIAL POSITION.

    /// HORVATH ACT ///

    THEY TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION THE FACT THAT WE ARE A NEIGHBORING COUNTRY WITH SERBIA AND YUGOSLAVIA, AND, SECONDLY, BECAUSE HUNGARY MUST TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION THE FATE AND EXISTENCE OF A SIZABLE HUNGARIAN ETHNIC MINORITY IN VOJVOJDINA PROVINCE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MILITARY ANALYST EDWARD FOSTER OF LONDON'S' ROYAL INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS SAYS POLAND IS LESS ANXIOUS ABOUT BEING LINKED WITH THE NATO OFFENSIVE.

    /// FOSTER ACT ///

    AT THE OTHER END OF THE SPECTRUM WE HAVE POLAND, WHICH IS A COUNTRY WITH A MUCH MORE ROBUST MILITARY TRADITION AND MUCH BETTER ABLE TO LIVE UP TO THE VOWS THAT THE NEW COUNTRIES WILL CONTRIBUTE, RATHER THAN FREELOAD, TO PUT IT CRUDELY. AND FOR THE POLES, THIS MIGHT OFFER AN OPPORTUNITY OF SORTS TO SHOW THAT SOLIDARITY.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. FOSTER SAYS RUSSIA'S OUTRAGE WITH THE NATO ACTIONS DOES NOT PRESENT A PROBLEM FOR THE FORMER WARSAW PACT ALLIES.

    /// FOSTER ACT ///

    THE FACT IS THAT AS MEMBERS OF NATO NOW, THESE COUNTRIES HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO EMPHASIZE A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THEM AND RUSSIA.

    /// END ACT ///

    STILL, MR. FOSTER SAYS THE THREE GOVERNMENTS HAVE TO BE CONCERNED WITH PUBLIC OPINION, WHICH IS QUESTIONING THE POLITICAL GOALS OF NATO'S MILITARY ACTION.

    /// FOSTER ACT ///

    THE POLES, HUNGARIANS, AND CZECHS ARE IN THE SAME POSITION AS EVERY OTHER MEMBER OF THE ALLIANCE. WE ARE EMBARKED ON A FAIRLY RISKY VENTURE. PROBABLY BECAUSE ESSENTIALLY THERE SEEMS TO BE NO OTHER WAYS OUT.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE SHOW OF NEWFOUND SOLIDARITY WITH THE WESTERN DEFENSE ALLIANCE IS APPARENT IN OFFICIAL STATEMENTS FROM THE THREE NEW MEMBERS. FOR EXAMPLE, CZECH REPUBLIC PRESIDENT VACLAV HAVEL CALLS THE NATO ACTION EXTREME BUT ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY.

    AND NOW THE THREE NEW NATO MEMBERS -- THEMSELVES ONCE SHUNNED BY THE WEST -- ARE URGING YUGOSLAVIA'S LEADER TO END HIS COUNTRY'S OWN ISOLATION BY ENDING THE REPRESSION OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS AND ACCEPTING A PEACE PLAN FOR KOSOVO PROVINCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH
    25-Mar-99 12:23 PM EST (1723 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [35] KOSOVO / JOURNALISTS (L ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN ()

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247160
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BELGRADE AUTHORITIES ARE EXPELLING ALL JOURNALISTS FROM NATO COUNTRIES INVOLVED IN THE AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN SPOKE WITH REPORTER PHILIP SMUCKER IN PRISTINA WHO, ALONG WITH OTHER FOREIGN JOURNALISTS, WAS ON HIS WAY TO THE MACEDONIAN BORDER UNDER POLICE ESCORT.

    TEXT: THE EXPULSION ORDER SAYS THE WESTERN REPORTERS IN THE SERB REPUBLIC HAD INSTIGATED WHAT IT CALLS THE AGGRESSIVE ACTS OF NATO FORCES AIMED AT VIOLENT DESTRUCTION OF YUGOSLAVIA'S TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY.

    REPORTER PHILIP SMUCKER SAYS THE JOURNALISTS ARE BEING ESCORTED OUT OF THE SERB REPUBLIC UNDER POLICE GUARD.

    /// SMUCKER ACT ONE ///

    THIS ACTUALLY APPLIED TO SERBIA PROPER. SOME PEOPLE WERE THINKING OF GETTING TO MONTENEGRO, THE OTHER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC, BUT SOME OF US ALSO GOT SPECIAL STAMPS ON OUR PASSPORTS -- PERSONA NON GRATA (I.E. NOT WELCOME). SO I THINK IT'S PRETTY CLEAR THEY DON'T WELCOME THE FOREIGN PRESS HERE. AND THEY'RE QUICKLY GETTING US OUT BECAUSE THEY DON'T WANT US TO COVER THE STORY.

    /// END ACT ///

    BELGRADE IS ALSO CRACKING DOWN ON THE INDEPENDENT YUGOSLAV MEDIA. AN INDEPENDENT RADIO STATION HAS BEEN CLOSED IN BELGRADE. PRISTINA'S ALBANIAN LANGUAGE NEWSPAPER KOHA DITTORE -- WHOSE EDITORS PARTICIPATED IN THE KOSOVO PEACE TALKS -- NOW HAS BEEN SHUT DOWN AND POLICE GUARDS STATIONED OUTSIDE.

    BEFORE THE EXPULSION ORDER WAS IMPLEMENTED, MR SMUCKER AND HIS COLLEAGUES TRIED TO REPORT ON DAMAGE FROM THE NATO AIR STRIKES.

    /// SMUCKER ACT TWO ///

    WE SAW ONE SITE IN THE CENTER OF TOWN, BELOW A WATCH TOWER, BELOW A FLYING SERB FLAG, WHICH APPEARED TO BE A WATCH TOWER OR RADAR TOWER. THERE WAS GRAY SMOKE COMING UP. BUT IT WAS VERY DIFFICULT TO MOVE OUT TO OTHER AREAS OF KOSOVO THAT HAVE BEEN HIT.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR SMUCKER SAYS THE SERB MILITARY HAS SHARPLY INCREASED ITS PRESENCE IN THE PROVINCIAL CAPITAL.

    /// SMUCKER ACT THREE ////

    IN TOWN, MEN WEARING BLACK BALACLAVA MASKS ARE STANDING ON THE CORNERS, ON TOP OF TANKS. THERE'S A VERY INTIMIDATING ATMOSPHERE. THE ONLY PEOPLE OUT ON THE STREETS ARE THE SERBS, WHO MAKE UP ONLY TEN PERCENT OF THE POPULATION OF KOSOVO.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR SMUCKER SAYS POLICE ALSO HAVE DETAINED A LEADING ETHNIC ALBANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVIST AND REFUSE TO TELL HIS FAMILY WHERE HE AND HIS SON ARE BEING HELD. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH/GE
    25-Mar-99 11:07 AM EST (1607 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [36] Q&A /W/ PHILLIP SMUCKER BY KASSMAN/BUEL (PRISTINA)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247183
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: V-O-A REPORTER PHILIP SMUCKER HAS BEEN DECLARED PERSONA NON GRATA BY YUGOSLAVIA AND EXPELLED FROM SERBIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE ALONG WITH OTHER JOURNALISTS WORKING FOR NEWS OPERATIONS BASED IN NATO COUNTRIES. HE WAS TAKEN FROM PRISTINA BY YUGOSLAV TROOPS LATE THURSDAY AND PUT IN A CONVOY HEADED TO MACEDONIA. HE SPOKE TO V-O-A'S LAURIE KASSMAN AND MEREDITH BUEL ABOUT WHAT HE SAW BEFORE HE WAS FORCED TO LEAVE. BUEL: CAN YOU PLEASE DESCRIBE WHAT IT WAS LIKE DURING THE BOMBING? SMUCKER: WELL, THE ALBANIANS WERE SLOWLY STARTING TO REALIZE IT WAS GOING TO HAPPEN, BUT THE SERBS HERE WHO MAKE UP ABOUT 10-PERCENT OF THE POPULATION WERE RATHER SHOCKED AND AGHAST WHEN IT REALLY DID HAPPEN. THEY COULD NOT BELIEVE THAT THIS, NATO, THE WORLD'S MOST POWERFUL MILITARY ALLIANCE WAS CRASHING DOWN ON THEM. THEY WERE ASKING, "WHY?", BUT THEY WERE RATHER ANGRY, THEY ARE BITTER, DISAPPOINTED. MOST OF THEM, AS YOU CAN IMAGINE, BECAUSE OF THE MILITARIZED STATE DOWN HERE IN KOSOVO, MOST FAMILIES HAVE A SON OR A BROTHER IN THE MILITARY OR THE POLICE FORCE. SO, EVERYBODY IS DIRECTLY INVOLVED IN THIS WAR. KASSMAN: WHAT DID YOU SEE TODAY? SMUCKER: WELL, WE WERE IN THE HOME OF BAJRAM KELMENDI TALKING TO HIS WIFE AND ALSO TO THE WIFE OF HIS SON, KASTRIOT KELMENDI. BAJRAM KELMENDI, ONE SHOULD KNOW, IS THE MOST PROMINENT HUMAN RIGHTS LAWYERS FOR THE ALBANIAN COMMUNITY. HE HAS BEEN FIGHTING FOR HUMAN RIGHTS NOW FOR 10 TO 15-YEARS. HE IS ALSO ONE OF THE WEALTHIER ALBANIANS.

    THEY CAME INTO HIS HOUSE LAST NIGHT AT 1:00 AM. POLICE, FIVE OF THEM, KNOCKED DOWN THE DOOR AND THEY SCREAMED THAT YOU HAVE TO COME IMMEDIATELY TO THE FOYER WITHIN FIVE-SECONDS OR WE ARE GOING TO BLOW YOUR HOUSE UP. EVERYBODY WAS PINNED TO THE GROUND. AND THEY TOLD KASTRIOT, BAJRAM KELMENDI'S SON, TO KISS HIS TWO CHILDREN. THEY SAID THAT THIS IS THE LAST TIME HE WOULD SEE HIS CHILDREN. KASSMAN: WHAT DOES HIS WIFE KNOW TODAY ABOUT ANYTHING ABOUT HIS WHEREABOUTS OR HIS WELL-BEING.? SMUCKER: WELL, THEY WENT TO THE POLICE AND THEY ASKED AND THE POLICE WERE INCREDIBLY RUDE, THEY SAID. THE POLICE SAID ASK NATO WHERE YOUR HUSBAND IS. SO, IN OTHER WORDS, IT WAS ALMOST THIS AGAIN, THROWING DOWN THE GAUNTLETT AT NATO, SAYING, YOU KNOW, YOU BOMB US AND WE ARE GOING TO TAKE CARE OF THE ALBANIAN COMMUNITY THAT IS GIVING US TROUBLE HERE. SO, AGAIN IT IS THE SAME PATTERN OF VIOLENCE. KASSMAN: TELL ME, HAVE THE JOURNALISTS BEEN ALLOWED TO GO, BEFORE THIS ORDER TO BE EXPELLED...TO GET OUTSIDE PRISTINA TO THE AIR BASE OR ANYWHERE AROUND TO SEE WHAT DAMAGE HAS BEEN INFLICTED? SMUCKER: YES. WE DROVE AROUND, WE SAW SOME BURNING SITES. WE SAW ONE SITE IN THE CENTER OF TOWN, BELOW A WATCH TOWER, BELOW A FLYING SERBIAN FLAG, THAT APPEARED TO BE SOME KIND OF A RADAR OR WATCH TOWER. SOMETHING WAS SMOKING, THERE WAS GREY SMOKE COMING UP TO THE SKY. BUT, IT WAS VERY DIFFICULT TO MOVE OUT INTO THE OTHER AREAS OF KOSOVO THAT HAD BEEN HIT. IN TOWN, THE MEN ARE WEARING THE BLACK BALACLAVA MASK. THEIR STANDING ON THE CORNERS ON TOP OF TANKS. THERE IS A VERY INTIMIDATING ATMOSPHERE. THE ONLY PEOPLE OUT ON THE STREET AT THE MOMENT ARE THE SERBS. WHICH MAKE UP JUST 10-PERCENT OF THE POPULATION IN KOSOVO. KASSMAN: THIS IS SOMETHING I WANTED TO ASK, IF YOU COULD GET A SENSE OF HOW THE KOSOVAR ALBANIANS ARE REACTING, RESPONDING TO WHAT IS GOING ON.? SMUCKER: WELL, IT WAS INTERESTING IN THE HOUSE OF BAJROM KELMINDI BECAUSE ONE PERSON, A RELATIVE, SAID ABOUT THE NATO BOMBING. HE SAID -- I GUESS THIS WAS A BAD IDEA. BUT, INTERESTINGLY ENOUGH BAJRAM KELMENDI'S WIFE, WHO WITH HER HUSBAND, HAS BEEN FIGHTING FOR HUMAN RIGHTS. SHE SAID BASICALLY, THAT NATO WAS DOING THE RIGHT THING AND SHOULD CONTINUE ITS CAMPAIGN TO STOP THE SERB TERRORISM.

    THIS COMING FROM A WIFE OF A HUSBAND WHO HAS JUST BEEN ABDUCTED BECAUSE OF THE NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN. WHICH IS RATHER ASTOUNDING, BUT THAT IS HOW MUCH THE FEELING IS NOW THAT THIS THING HAS TO END AND HAS TO BE BROUGHT TO A CONCLUSION. NEB/PS/MB/LMK/LTD/RAE
    25-Mar-99 2:03 PM EST (1903 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [37] JOURNALISTS BY CAROL PINEAU (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247188
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // CORRECTS SPELLING OF COLOMBIA IN FIRST GRAF OF TEXT //

    INTRO: THE COMMITTEE TO PROTECT JOURNALISTS SAYS FREEDOM OF THE PRESS HAS IMPROVED IN SOME COUNTRIES THIS YEAR, BUT IS STILL SERIOUSLY AT RISK IN SEVERAL PLACES AROUND THE WORLD. THE ORGANIZATION RELEASED ITS ANNUAL STUDY IN WASHINGTON TODAY (THURSDAY). CAROL PINEAU HAS THE DETAILS.

    TEXT: THE "ATTACKS ON THE PRESS IN 1998" REPORT LISTS COLOMBIA AS THE MOST LETHAL COUNTRY FOR JOURNALISTS WITH 43 REPORTERS KILLED IN THE PAST DECADE. THE 400-PAGE SURVEY ALSO NOTES SIERRA LEONE AND CONGO-KINSHASA HAVE BECOME DANGER ZONES FOR REPORTING THE NEWS.

    THE REPORT -- SPONSORED BY THE NEW YORK-BASED COMMITTEE TO PROTECT JOURNALISTS -- COVERS MORE THAN 500 ATTACKS AGAINST JOURNALISTS WORLDWIDE. IN 1998, 24 JOURNALISTS WERE KILLED AND 118 WERE IMPRISONED. THE AUTHORS OF THE REPORT SAY THEY ARE STILL INVESTIGATING THE DEATHS OF 12 OTHER JOURNALISTS.

    TURKEY -- FOR THE FIFTH CONSECUTIVE YEAR -- HELD MORE JOURNALISTS IN PRISON THAN ANY OTHER COUNTRY. CHINA AND ETHIOPIA WERE ALSO NOTED FOR THEIR HIGH NUMBERS OF IMPRISONED REPORTERS.

    THE DIRECTOR OF THE COMMITTEE TO PROTECT JOURNALISTS ANN COOPER SAYS THE NUMBERS ARE ABOUT THE SAME IN 1998 AS IN 1997, BUT SHE NOTES THERE HAVE BEEN SOME SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENTS AMIDST THE DISMAL FAILURES.

    /// COOPER ACT ///

    ALL THE NIGERIAN JOURNALISTS WHO WERE IMPRISONED AT THE BEGINNING OF 1998 ARE ALL FREE. WE'VE SEEN SOME GREAT STRIDES FORWARD IN INDONESIA. BUT TRAGICALLY WHAT WE ARE SEEING JUST THIS WEEK IS AN ENORMOUS CRACKDOWN AGAIN -- YET AGAIN, I EMPHASIZE THAT -- ON THE INDEPENDENT MEDIA IN SERBIA (YUGOSLAVIA'S DOMINANT REPUBLIC).

    /// END ACT ///

    FOLLOWING NATO'S BOMBING OF YUGOSLAVIA, BELGRADE EXPELLED ALL FOREIGN CORRESPONDENTS. MS. COOPER SAYS THE EXPULSIONS ARE A PART OF A LONG TERM CAMPAIGN AGAINST FREEDOM OF THE PRESS.

    ///COOPER ACT ///

    THIS ISN'T SOMETHING THAT JUST STARTED THIS WEEK. THIS STARTED YEARS AGO. (YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT) MILOSEVIC HAS BEEN CRACKING DOWN ON THE INDEPENDENT JOURNALISTS IN SERBIA FOR SEVERAL YEARS. IT INTENSIFIED LAST YEAR AND NOW WITH FOREIGN CORRESPONDENTS IN THERE, THEY ARE GETTING A TASTE OF WHAT HE HAS BEEN DOING.

    /// END ACT ///

    MS. COOPER SAYS TOTALITARIAN GOVERNMENTS OFTEN USE INTIMIDATION TACTICS LIKE ASSAULT, WRONGFUL IMPRISONMENT, CENSORSHIP AND LEGAL HARASSMENT TO SILENCE JOURNALISTS. SHE ADDS SEVERAL COUNTRIES, LIKE JORDON, ARE INCREASINGLY PASSING LAWS BANNING CRITICAL REPORTING. SHE SAYS THE LAWS FORCE JOURNALISTS TO MAKE CHOICES BETWEEN SELF-CENSORSHIP AND IMPRISONMENT FOR HONEST REPORTING.(SIGNED)
    NEB/CP/JO
    25-Mar-99 4:44 PM EST (2144 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [38] EURO MEDIA REACT (L ONLY) BY CHRISTINE FURNELL (LONDON)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247167
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: EUROPEAN NEWSPAPERS OFFERED A MIXED RESPONSE TO THE NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAV MILITARY TARGETS. NEWSPAPERS FROM BRITAIN, GERMANY AND SPAIN EXPRESSED CAUTIOUS SUPPORT. BUT A PAPER IN SWITZERLAND CALLED THE ACTION 'A DANGEROUS MISCALCULATION' AND ONE IN ITALY SAID IT WAS 'A GREAT LEAP BACKWARD'. V-O-A'S CHRISTINE FURNELL IN LONDON HAS A ROUNDUP OF EUROPEAN EDITORIAL REACTION.

    TEXT: EUROPE'S NEWSPAPERS REFLECTED THE MORAL DILEMMA WESTERN LEADERS FACE OVER KOSOVO, AND MOST AGREED THE NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN ITSELF WOULD NOT BRING PEACE TO THE REGION.

    BRITAIN'S MASS CIRCULATION 'SUN' SAID 'AIR STRIKES MAY NOT END THE WAR, THEY MAY JUST BEGIN IT'.

    BEHIND THE BANNER HEADLINES REPORTING THE START OF THE ONSLAUGHT, COMMENTATORS EXPRESSED APPREHENSION THAT THE CONFLICT MIGHT SPREAD TO MACEDONIA, ALBANIA, AND BEYOND.

    RUSSIA OPPOSED ANY MILITARY ACTION AGAINST THE SERBS AND THE RUSSIAN MEDIA SAID THE NATO OPERATION WAS A SIGN THE WEST NO LONGER SAW RUSSIA AS AN IMPORTANT WORLD POWER.

    GREECE'S INDEPENDENT DAILY 'POLITIS' ACCUSED NATO OF ADOPTING DOUBLE STANDARDS SAYING 'NATO ALLIES WOULD BE CREDITED WITH SINCERE INTENTIONS IF THEY ADOPTED THE SAME MORAL STANDARDS TO TURKEY, WHICH IS OPPRESSING 17-MILLION KURDS IN ITS TERRITORY'.

    IN BRITAIN, THE RESPONSE WAS MORE FAVORABLE. 'THE INDEPENDENT' SAID 'OUR FIRST INSTINCT IS TO WELCOME MILITARY ACTION AGAINST A REGIME THAT HAS SYSTEMATICALLY ATTACKED THE RIGHTS OF THE PEOPLE OF KOSOVO.' BUT IT SAID 'SERBIA IS NO IRAQ. WITH WELL EQUIPPED AIR DEFENCES AND A TRAINED, TESTED AND COMMITTED ARMY, IT WILL BE NO MILITARY PUSHOVER'. 'THE TIMES' SAYS 'NATO WILL PREVAIL, PROVIDED IT STAYS THE HARD COURSE IT HAS SET. BUT HAD IT NOT DELAYED SO LONG, IT WOULD NOT NOW BE CONFRONTED WITH SO MASSIVE AND LONG-TERM A COMMITMENT'.

    THIS WAS A SENTIMENT EXPRESSED BY THE FRENCH DAILY 'LE FIGARO' WHICH SAID, 'AS NATO TAKES THE STEP FROM DETERRENCE TO MILITARY ACTION, OUR WHOLE SYSTEM OF COLLECTIVE SECURITY TIPS OVER INTO THE UNKNOWN'.

    IT IS THE FIRST TIME GERMANY HAS JOINED ANY MILITARY ACTION SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR, AND GERMAN NEWSPAPERS GAVE CAUTIOUS SUPPORT TO THE AIR STRIKES. THE MASS CIRCULATION 'BILD' SAID 'THE AIM OF THE ACTION IS DEFINITELY MORALLY JUSTIFIED, BUT QUESTIONABLE IN TERMS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW'.

    TURKISH PAPERS WELCOMED THE AIR STRIKES AS A BLOW IN DEFENSE OF FELLOW MUSLIMS. THE 'MILLIYET' SAID IT WAS 'A SLAP FOR THE SERB HITLER', WHILE SPAIN'S 'EL PAIS' PROCLAIMED 'NATO IS ACTING WITH LEGITIMATE MORAL PURPOSE'.

    BUT BRITAIN'S 'DAILY MAIL' TEMPERS THE BRAVADO, ASKING IF NATO'S OVERSTRETCHED FORCES CAN AFFORD TO MAINTAIN A PERMANENT PRESENCE IN THE REGION. IT SAYS 'WHILE OUR HEARTS TELL US THAT THERE IS THE STRONGEST HUMANITARIAN CASE FOR HELPING THE REFUGEES, OUR HEADS WARN US THAT THERE IS A HUGE DANGER OF WANDERING INTO A MORASS FROM WHICH IT WILL BE DIFFICULT TO ESCAPE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/CEF/JWH
    25-Mar-99 12:28 PM EST (1728 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [39] E-U/SAF (L-ONLY) BY JONATHAN BRAUDE (BERLIN)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247177
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE EUROPEAN UNION AND SOUTH AFRICA'S NEW TRADE AGREEMENT IS BEING HAILED ON BOTH SIDES AS AN HISTORIC ACHIEVEMENT. IT WAS SEALED DURING THE EU SUMMIT MEETING IN BERLIN. BUT JONATHAN BRAUDE REPORTS FROM BERLIN THE WORDING ON SOUTH AFRICAN EXPORTS PORT AND SHERRY -- IS DELIBERATELY AMBIGUOUS.

    TEXT: IT TOOK FOUR YEARS TO NEGOTIATE. BUT NOW EUROPE'S 15 MEMBER NATIONS AND SOUTH AFRICA HAVE SIGNED A FREE TRADE AGREEMENT WORTH AN ESTIMATED 16 BILLION DOLLARS.

    THE CURRENT PRESIDENT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION, GERMAN CHANCELLOR GERHARD SCHROEDER, AND SOUTH AFRICAN PRESIDENT NELSON MANDELA HAVE EXPRESSED THEIR SATISFACTION WITH THE AGREEMENT. IT IS THE FIRST E-U FREE TRADE PACT WITH A NATION OUTSIDE THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA AND EASTERN EUROPE AND THE FIRST TO OFFER FREE TRADE IN BOTH AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL GOODS. BUT, A FINAL DEAL ON THE WORDING COULD STIR UP TROUBLE IN THE FUTURE.

    THE AGREEMENT SAYS SOUTH AFRICA CAN CONTINUE SELLING FORTIFIED WINES AS ''SOUTH AFRICAN PORT'' OR ''SOUTH AFRICAN SHERRY'' FOR THE NEXT 12 YEARS. BUT SPAIN AND PORTUGAL CLAIM THESE NAMES DENOTE WINES FROM THE REGIONS OF PORTO AND JEREZ. SO NEW NAMES FOR THE DRINKS WILL HAVE TO BE AGREED BY NEGOTIATION BEFORE THE END OF THE TRANSITION PERIOD.

    A SPANISH SPOKESMAN SAYS THAT MEANS AN END OF SOUTH AFRICAN SHERRY. BUT SOUTH AFRICA'S INTERPRETATION IS REPORTEDLY MORE SUBTLE. OFFICIALS SAY THE OUTCOME OF NEGOTIATIONS CANNOT BE DECIDED IN ADVANCE.

    THE E-U'S CHIEF NEGOTIATOR PHILIP LOWE SAYS THE AMBIGUITY IS DELIBERATE AND CONSIDERS IT IS NOT SO MUCH A COMMERCIAL DISPUTE AS A QUESTION OF DOCTRINE.

    THE IDEA OF A TRANSITION PERIOD MEANS THE PRINCIPLE COULD STILL BE NEGOTIATED DURING MULTILATERAL TALKS IN THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION OVER THE NEXT FEW YEARS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JB/LMK
    25-Mar-99 1:39 PM EST (1839 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [40] SAF/ E-U / TRADE (L ONLY) BY DELIA ROBERTSON (JOHANNESBURG)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247162
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SOUTH AFRICAN PRESIDENT NELSON MANDELA HAS WELCOMED THE FREE TRADE AGREEMENT CONCLUDED BETWEEN HIS COUNTRY AND THE EUROPEAN UNION. V-O-A'S DELIA ROBERTSON IN JOHANNESBURG REPORTS THE AGREEMENT WAS MORE THAN FOUR YEARS IN THE MAKING.

    TEXT: NELSON MANDELA SAID THROUGH HIS SPOKESMAN THAT HE IS PARTICULARLY PLEASED WITH THE AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL ELEMENTS OF THE FREE TRADE AGREEMENT WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION. THE SOUTH AFRICAN PRESIDENT SAYS THE AGREEMENT BRINGS WITH IT GREATER CERTAINTY ON TRADE RELATIONS BETWEEN SOUTH AFRICA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    IN ANNOUNCING THE AGREEMENT IN PARLIAMENT, TRADE MINISTER ALEX ERWIN SAID THE AGREEMENT IS OF STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE TO SOUTH AFRICA.

    /// ERWIN ACT ///

    THIS IS FAR AND AWAY THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE AGREEMENT SIGNED WITH ANY OF OUR STRATEGIC PARTNERS, COVERING A VERY WIDE AREA. I THINK IT MAY WELL BE THE LAST OF SUCH AGREEMENTS SIGNED WITH THE E-U. IT IS STRATEGIC FOR US. IT DOES GIVE US CONSIDERABLE AND MASSIVE ACCESS IN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS, AND I THINK WE MADE GAINS IN AGRICULTURE THAT WERE NOT FORESEEABLE WHEN WE FIRST STARTED.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE AGREEMENT COVERS TRADE, POLITICAL DIALOGUE, ECONOMIC COOPERATION, FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE, AND SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. SOUTH AFRICA ALSO GAINS PARTIAL ACCESS TO OTHER PREFERENTIAL TRADE ARRANGEMENTS.

    THE AGREEMENT WILL PHASE OUT DUTIES ON 90 PERCENT OF TRADE BETWEEN SOUTH AFRICAN AND THE EUROPEAN UNION DURING A 12-YEAR PERIOD. TRADE BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND SOUTH AFRICA IS AT PRESENT WORTH 18-AND-ONE-HALF-BILLION U-S DOLLARS.

    /// REST OPT ///

    TRADE MINISTER ERWIN SAYS SOUTH AFRICA HAS DEMONSTRATED THAT OF ALL THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, IT IS CAPABLE OF GIVING LEADERSHIP.

    /// ERWIN ACT ///

    THIS IS A TEAM OF YOUNG NEGOTIATORS WHO HAVE NEGOTIATED ONE OF THE MOST COMPLEX AGREEMENTS IN RECENT TIMES, I THINK IN WORLD TRADE. THEY'VE DONE IT WITH A HIGH DEGREE OF PROFESSIONALISM, THEY'VE SHOWN THEIR ABILITY TO DEAL WITH MASSIVE COMPLEXITY AND I THINK SOUTH AFRICA HAS COME OF AGE, WE HAVE SHOWN OUR CAPACITY TO NEGOTIATE ACROSS A WIDE SPECTRUM OF IMMENSELY COMPLEX MATTERS.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE AGREEMENT WAS WELCOMED BY ALL PARTIES IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN PARLIAMENT. LOCAL ANALYSTS SAY THE AGREEMENT, WHICH COMES INTO FORCE ON THE FIRST DAY OF THE NEXT CENTURY, WILL GREATLY BENEFIT THE SOUTH AFRICAN ECONOMY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAR/JWH
    25-Mar-99 11:16 AM EST (1616 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [41] EAST EURO PROPERTY (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247191
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE AMERICAN HELSINKI COMMISSION (THE COMMISSION ON SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE) THURSDAY CONDUCTED A HEARING ON THE PROBLEMS OF PROPERTY RESTITUTION IN POST-COMMUNIST EUROPE. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS ON A COMPLICATED AND SENSITIVE ISSUE.

    TEXT: UNDER-SECRETARY OF STATE STUART EIZENSTAT SAID PROPERTY RESTITUTION IS EASTERN EUROPE'S UNFINISHED BUSINESS. HE SAID THE COUNTRIES OF THE REGION HAVE A MIXED RECORD ON RESTITUTION. JEWISH PROPERTY, HE SAID, WAS OFTEN STOLEN TWICE, FIRST BY THE NAZIS AND THEN BY THE COMMUNISTS. JEWISH RESTITUTION IS BEING AGGRESSIVELY PURSUED BY THE U-S GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS. THIS HEARING CONCERNED NON-JEWISH CLAIMS.

    MR. EIZENSTAT POINTED TO PROBLEMS IN SLOVENIA AND ROMANIA WHERE RESTITUTION TO NON-RESIDENTS IS CONTROVERSIAL. HE ADMONISHED SLOVENIA, THE RICHEST NORTHERN MOST PART OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, TO UNBLOCK ITS STALLED RESTITUTION PROCESS. VLADISLAV BEVC HEADS THE AMERICAN CHAPTER OF THE SLOVENIAN ASSOCATION OF FORMER OWNERS OF EXPROPRIATED PROPERTY.

    // BEVC ACT //

    THE PROCESSING OF THE UNRESOLVED CLAIMS HAS GROUND TO A HALT, PRECISELY THE EFFECT DESIRED BY THE REGIME (IN LJUBLJANA). PROPERTY RIGHTS ARE ONE OF THE MAINSTAYS OF ALL OTHER PROPERTY RIGHTS. PEOPLE WHOSE PROPERTY CAN BE TAKEN AWAY AT THE WHIM OF THE GOVERNMENT CAN NEVER BE POLITICALLY INDEPENDENT.

    // END ACT //

    THE SLOVENIAN ASSOCIATION HAS CLAIMS FOR 48 THOUSAND PROPERTIES. SLOVENIA HAS MOVED SLOWLY BECAUSE IT FEARS CLAIMS BY THOUSANDS OF ITALIANS WHO DEPARTED AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR.

    IN ROMANIA THE GREEK CATHOLIC CHURCH HAS GOTTEN BACK ONLY A FEW OF THE HUNDREDS OF CHURCHES, MOSTLY IN TRANSYLVANIA, THAT WERE CONFISCATED AND HANDED TO THE ORTHODOX CHURCH AFTER 1948. BISHOP JOHN BOTEAN REPRESENTS ROMANIAN CATHOLICS IN CANTON, OHIO.

    //BOTEAN ACT//

    WE HAD THE INCREDIBLE IRONY OF ONE OF OUR BISHOPS, WHO PASSED AWAY RECENTLY, HAVING TO GIVE PERMISSION TO THE OCCUPYING ORTHODOX COMMUNITY WHO WANTED TO PAINT THE INTERIOR OF THE CATHEDRAL IN ORADEA. BECAUSE THE CITY SAID IT IS THE GREEK CATHOLIC CHURCH SO YOU HAVE TO GO TO BISHOP HOSU (SP?) FOR PERMISSION TO DO THAT. AND HE GAVE THAT PERMISSION. BUT WHEN HE DIED, OF COURSE, THEY WOULDN'T ALLOW HIM TO BE BURIED IN THIS CATHEDRAL, WHICH IS HISTORICALLY THE GREEK CATHOLIC CATHEDRAL OF THAT CITY.

    //END ACT//

    OTHER WITNESSES TOLD OF FRUSTRATIONS IN TRYING TO GET BACK PROPERTIES IN LITHUANIA AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC. UNDER SECRETARY EIZENSTAT SAID THE OVERALL SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM IS MASSIVE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/PT
    25-Mar-99 4:52 PM EST (2152 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [42] N-Y ECON WRAP (S&L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=3/25/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-247192
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP STRONGLY TODAY (THURSDAY), AND THERE WAS RENEWED TALK OF THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE RISING ABOVE THE 10-THOUSAND MARK. V-O-A BUSINESS CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 98-HUNDRED-36, UP 169 POINTS, OR ALMOST TWO PERCENT. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 12-HUNDRED-89, UP 21 POINTS. AND THE NASDAQ INDEX CLOSED UP ALMOST THREE PERCENT.

    STOCK PRICES WERE STRONG ALL DAY, FUELED BY A COMBINATION OF STRENGTH IN MANY TECHNOLOGY ISSUES AND FORECASTS OF BETTER-THAN-EXPECTED FIRST-QUARTER EARNINGS RESULTS. FOR THE FIRST TIME IN A WEEK, SOME PEOPLE AGAIN BEGAN TALKING ABOUT THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSING ABOVE 10-THOUSAND. THE MARKET TOUCHED 10-THOUSAND THREE TIMES LAST WEEK, BUT PRICES FAILED TO STAY AT THAT LEVEL.

    // OPT //

    NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA DO NOT SEEM TO HAVE HAD ANY NEGATIVE EFFECT ON THE STOCK MARKET. HOWEVER, SOME ANALYSTS, SUCH AS JOSEPH CANGEMI [PRON: CAN-'GEM-EE] OF THE MAGLIO INVESTMENT FIRM, SAY THE POSSIBLE LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF THAT MILITARY ACTION ARE NOT CLEAR.

    /// CANGEMI ACT ///

    SO FAR I DO NOT SEE ANY NEGATIVE REPORTS COMING FROM OUR [NATO] CAMPAIGN OVERSEAS RIGHT NOW. BUT I AM NOT SO SURE THAT EVERYTHING IS CLEAR YET, AND IF IT IS GOING TO BE A LONG CAMPAIGN, I DO NOT KNOW WHAT THE LONG-TERM EFFECTS WILL BE.

    /// END ACT ////// END OPT ///

    A NUMBER OF LARGE COMPANIES SAID THEY EXPECT THEIR PROFITS IN THE FIRST QUARTER OF 1999 TO EXCEED WALL STREET EXPECTATIONS. AMONG THEM ARE CONAGRA, THE SECOND-LARGEST U-S FOOD PROCESSOR; MAYTAG, THE HOME APPLIANCE MAKER; KAUFMAN AND BROAD (BRODE), THE HOME BUILDER; AND THE MORGAN STANLEY DEAN WITTER INVESTMENT FIRM.

    /// REST OPT ///

    THE STOCK OF THE E-BAY ONLINE AUCTION COMPANY ROSE 10 PERCENT AFTER AMERICA ONLINE, A MAJOR INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER, ANNOUNCED IT WILL PROMOTE E-BAY AS A PREFERRED AUCTION SITE. THE 36-BILLION-DOLLAR MERGER OF THE ASTRA PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANY OF SWEDEN AND THE ZENECA DRUG FIRM OF BRITAIN HAS PASSED ITS FINAL REGULATORY HURDLE. THE U-S FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GAVE ITS APPROVAL TO THE DEAL. EUROPEAN UNION REGULATORS APPROVED THE MERGER EARLIER THIS MONTH.

    THE RAVENOUS APPETITE FOR INTERNET-RELATED STOCKS CONTINUED WITH THE FIRST ISSUE OF STOCK IN "ONEMAIN DOT COM." ON THEIR FIRST DAY OF TRADING, SHARES OF THAT INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER SOARED MORE THAN 80 PERCENT.

    THE FORD MOTOR COMPANY IS STRONGLY DENYING RUMORS THAT IT PLANS TO SHUT DOWN ITS MERCURY AUTO DIVISION. FORD SAYS MERCURY HAS A LOYAL BASE OF CUSTOMERS, AND THE COMPANY PLANS TO EXPAND MERCURY'S APPEAL WITH NEW MODELS. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/WTW
    25-Mar-99 5:32 PM EST (2232 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [43] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=03/25/99
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11207
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// EDS: MATERIAL DATED AFTER 10 P-M EST ////

    INTRO: THE NATO AIR ATTACK ON YUGOSLAVIA IS THE DOMINANT SUBJECT IN THURSDAY'S U-S EDITORIALS, ALTHOUGH A SURPRISINGLY LARGE NUMBER OF PAPERS HAVE CHOSEN TO WAIT A BIT BEFORE COMMENTING. THEREFORE, MANY EDITORIAL COLUMNS, WHICH FOR WEEKS HAVE BEEN TALKING ABOUT ALMOST NOTHING ELSE, DO N O T, TODAY, CONTAIN ANY REFERENCE TO THE ATTACK, OR THE SITUATION IN KOSOVO. OTHER TOPICS UNDER REVIEW INCLUDE: EFFORTS TO STUDY THE GENOCIDE IN RWANDA;THE PINOCHET DECISION IN LONDON; AND REFORMING THE U-S AIRLINE'S TREATMENT OF PASSENGERS. NOW, HERE IS ___________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK AND SOME EXCERPTS IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THERE IS A WIDE DIVERGENCE OF VIEWS IN THE AMERICAN PRESS ABOUT THE U-S LED, NATO AERIAL ASSAULT. WE GO FIRST TO "THE NEW YORK POST" AND A HEADLINE THAT READS, "THE PROPER USE OF FORCE."

    VOICE: PRESIDENT CLINTON'S EXPLANATION OF WHY HE ORDERED AMERICAN'S FORCED INTO COMBAT IN THE BALKANS ... WAS NOTHING IF NOT LOW KEY. AT THIS POINT, IT APPEARS, HE'S LETTING THE CRUISE MISSILES DO HIS TALKING FOR HIM - - AND HERE'S HOPING (YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT) SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IS LISTENING. ... THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS STRUCK PRECISELY THE RIGHT NOTES: HE WALKED THE COUNTRY THROUGH THE IMMEDIATE TRIGGER FOR THE ACTIONS - - SERBIAN BRUTALITY IN KOSOVO - - BUT ALSO EXPLAINED THE STAKE AMERICA HAS IN A STABLE EUROPE.

    TEXT: THE OPPOSING VIEW NOW FROM TODAY'S "ORLANDO SENTINEL," UNDER AN EDITORIAL HEADLINE THAT READS, "GLARING ERROR."

    VOICE: PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON'S ANNOUNCEMENT ... STRESSED OBJECTIVES OVER RISKS. THOSE OBJECTIVES, HOWEVER, REMAIN VAGUE WHILE THE RISKS - - ESPECIALLY TO U-S MILITARY MEN AND WOMEN - - LOOM LARGE. /// OPT /// ... MR. CLINTON ALSO HAS LIKENED THE SERBS' TREATMENT OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS TO THE GENOCIDE OF WORLD WAR TWO. THAT'S A GROSS EXAGGERATION. THE LOSS OF EVEN A SINGLE LIFE WARRANTS CONCERN, BUT THE DEATHS IN KOSOVO FALL FAR SHORT OF THE MILLIONS WHO DIED UNDER THE NAZIS OR UNDER THE KHMER ROUGE IN CAMBODIA, A COUPLE OF GLARING CASES OF GENOCIDE. /// END OPT /// ... IN SUM, AMERICANS SHOULD SUPPORT THE MEN AND WOMEN SENT INTO KOSOVO. BUT AMERICANS SHOULDN'T STOP QUESTIONING THE FLAWED POLICY THAT COMMITTED THEIR SONS AND DAUGHTERS TO THAT BATTLE.

    TEXT: THE "NEW YORK TIMES," NOTING THAT THE AIR ATTACKS ARE "FULLY WARRANTED," SUGGESTS:

    VOICE: .../// OPT /// THE LONG-RUNNING CRISIS OVER KOSOVO HAS ENTERED A NEW, UNCERTAIN AND DECIDEDLY MORE DANGEROUS PHASE. MORE BROADLY, THE ATTACKS MARK AN IMPORTANT WATERSHED FOR THE ATLANTIC ALLIANCE. WHILE NATO PLANES ATTACKED SERBIAN MILITIAS IN BOSNIA A FEW YEARS AGO, THE ALLIANCE HAD NEVER BEFORE UNLEASHED ITS MILITARY POWER AGAINST A SOVEREIGN STATE. /// END OPT /// ... FACED WITH MR. MILOSEVIC'S INTRANSIGENCE AND BRUTALITY, NATO HAS FOUND IT RELATIVELY EASY TO REACH A UNITED STAND. THAT IS ENCOURAGING, SINCE IT IS A REASONABLE BET THAT NATO MAY AGAIN BE CALLED ON TO ACT AGAINST ETHNIC CONFLICT IN EUROPE IN THE YEARS AHEAD.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: HOWEVER IN FLORIDA, "THE TAMPA TRIBUNE" SEES "AMERICA'S ... PROSPECTS [AS] "MURKY," WHILE "PLAYING POLICEMAN IN REGIONS RENT [TORN] BY RELIGION."

    VOICE: THE MIDDLE EAST, THE SOUTHERN SAHARA, THE BALKANS, THE CAUCASUS, CENTRAL ASIA, AND SOUTHERN ASIA ARE WHERE ISLAM, CHRISTIANITY, JUDAISM, BUDDHISM, AND HINDUISM INTERSECT .... IT IS ALSO WHERE MOST WARS HAVE BROKEN OUT IN THE LAST 50 YEARS. /// END OPT /// ... IN KOSOVO, NATO IS HOPING TO FORCE A VAGUE COMPROMISE THAT, IN [PRESIDENT] CLINTON'S WORDS, BRINGS 'A DURABLE PEACE THAT RESTORES KOSOVARS TO SELF-GOVERNMENT. BY THAT HE MEANS SOME SORT OF INTERIM SELF-RULE THAT FALLS SHORT OF SOVEREIGNTY. BEHIND THAT GOAL IS NATO'S FEAR THAT KOSOVO SECESSIONISTS WILL ATTEMPT TO UNITE ALL ALBANIAN MUSLIMS LIVING IN ALBANIA, KOSOVO AND MACEDONIA TO FORM A NEW MUSLIM STATE, POSSIBLY SPREADING THE WAR. /// END OPT /// ... IF THE UNITED STATES IS TO APPOINT ITSELF THE POLICE CHIEF OF GLOBAL STRIFE, IT WILL FOREVER BE IN THE MIDST OF CONFLICTS WHERE DEEPLY HELD BELIEFS COLLIDE. IT IS TIME FOR SERIOUS REFLECTION UPON WHICH OF THESE CONFLICTS MERIT INTERVENTION ...

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: IN NEW YORK, "THE DAILY NEWS" SAYS IN ITS EDITORIAL HEADLINE, [THE] "BALKAN BUTCHER MUST PAY [A] PRICE, BUT "NEWSDAY" ON LONG ISLAND, HAS QUESTIONS IN ITS EDITORIAL HEADLINE: "IF KOSOVO IS SO IMPORTANT, WHY NOT PLAN ON GROUND TROOPS? [AND] WHAT ABOUT THE PEACE PLAN? IN FLORIDA, "THE MIAMI HERALD" EDITORIAL HEADLINE SUGGESTS THAT PAPER'S POSITION. IT READS, "INTO THE QUAGMIRE" ...QUESTIONS OUTNUMBER ANSWERS." AND IN KANSAS, "THE TOPEKA CAPITAL-JOURNAL," WHICH SUPPORTS THE ATTACK, NOTING THAT "THE FIRE IN KOSOVO COULD ENGULF THE WHOLE BALKANS," SAYS IN ITS EDITORIAL HEADLINE: "AMERICANS MAY NOT HAVE COUNTED UP ALL THE FAILED TRIES AT PEACE. BUT WE KNOW WHEN ENOUGH IS ENOUGH"

    /// OPT ///

    TURNING TO OTHER TOPICS OF THE DAY, THERE IS CONCERN IN "USA TODAY," THE NATIONAL DAILY PUBLISHED IN THE WASHINGTON SUBURBS, ABOUT ANOTHER CASE OF WHAT SOME CALLED GENOCIDE, THIS TIME IN RWANDA.

    VOICE: AS NATO BOMBS RAINED ON THE BALKANS WEDNESDAY, MEMBERS OF THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL WERE CONSIDERING A REQUEST BY GENERAL SECRETARY KOFI ANNAN TO SUPPORT AN INVESTIGATION OF THE UNITED NATION'S ROLE IN THE 1994 RWANDAN GENOCIDE. IT WAS A MOMENT OF SHEER COINCIDENCE, YET THE CONTRAST BETWEEN THE INTERVENTION IN YUGOSLAVIA AND THE DITHERING IN RWANDA IS COMPELLING. THE ABILITY TO CONFRONT HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES - - IN EASTERN EUROPE OR CENTRAL AFRICA - - REQUIRES NEW INSIGHTS. ... IT'S NO SECRET THAT THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY, LARGELY REPRESENTED BY THE U-N FAILED IN CENTRAL AFRICA. IF AN INVESTIGATION CAN SHED LIGHT ON HOW THAT OCCURRED AND HOW IT MAY BE PREVENTED NEXT TIME, IT'S WELL WORTH THE EFFORT.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: TODAY'S "MIAMI HERALD" REACTS TO THE BRITAIN'S HOUSE OF LORDS DECISION ON THE FUTURE OF CHILE'S FORMER MILITARY DICTATOR AUGUSTO PINOCHET. IT RULED THAT HE MAY BE EXTRADITED TO SPAIN FOR SOME CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY, BUT ONLY EVENTS THAT TOOK PLACE AFTER 1988, WHEN BRITAIN SIGNED THE INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION AGAINST TORTURE.

    VOICE: ... YESTERDAY'S RULING ... NARROW AS IT WAS, KEEPS HIM IN ENGLAND FOR NOW. MEANWHILE IT PUSHES FORWARD THE DEBATE ON WHO MAY BE BROUGHT TO JUSTICE FOR CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY A DEBATE SORELY NEEDED. /// OPT /// THE SAD REALITY, THOUGH, IS THAT THE WORLD ISN'T QUITE THERE YET. TYRANTS SUCH AS IDI AMIN, 'THE BUTCHER OF UGANDA,' ENJOY RETIREMENT IN EXILE. FIDEL CASTRO FREELY TRAVELS, DESPITE HIS REGIME'S LONG RECORD OF REPRESSION, TORTURE AND MURDER ..... MAYBE IT'S TOO MUCH TO ASK FOR A WORLD THAT JUSTLY PUNISHES GROSS HUMAN-RIGHTS VIOLATORS. BUT SURELY THIS RULING IN THE PINOCHET CASE MOVES US FORWARD. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: IN KANSAS, "THE TOPEKA CAPITAL-JOURNAL" SOMEWHAT WHIMSICALLY SUGGESTS THAT THE 100-MILLION DOLLAR DAMAGE LAW SUIT FILED BY FORMER ASSOCIATED PRESS CORRESPONDENT TERRY ANDERSON, FOR BEING IMPRISONED IN LEBANON BY IRANIAN-SPONSORED TERRORISTS, MAY BE MORE EFFECTIVE THAN ALL THE U-S AND WESTERN FOREIGN POLICY EFFORTS.

    VOICE: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S POLICY OF APPEASEMENT [TOWARD IRAN] IS A DUBIOUS ONE. ... IRANIAN OFFICIALS SAY THEY HAVE NOT SPONSORED TERRORISM. FINE. PROVE IT IN COURT. THE FACT IS, FEW BELIEVE IT - - AND THE OPPOSITE IS BEING PROVED IN AMERICA'S COURTS. WHOSE FOREIGN POLICY APPROACH IS MORE PROMISING, MORE HONEST, MORE FORTHRIGHT AND MORE LIKELY TO RESULT IN JUSTICE - - THE PRESIDENT'S OR TERRY ANDERSON'S?

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: LASTLY, AN EFFORT IN CONGRESS TO IMPROVE SERVICE ON U-S AIRLINES, DRAWS THIS SUPPORT FROM "THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION."

    VOICE: ... THE IDEA OF ORDERING AIRLINES TO TREAT CUSTOMERS BETTER IS NOT UNREASONABLE. AIRLINES MAKE THEIR PROFITS BY USING PUBLIC AIR SPACE AND PUBLIC FACILITIES OVERSEEN BY FEDERAL AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS. IN MANY CASES, CARRIERS OPERATE AS MONOPOLISTS WHO HAVE CUSTOMERS COMPLETELY TRAPPED. BECAUSE OF THEIR MANY FAILINGS AS A SERVICE PROVIDER, THE AIRLINES THEMSELVES HAVE CREATED NEED FOR NEW REGULATIONS. IF THEY DON'T LIKE IT, THEY CAN COMPLAIN TO THE FACES THEY SEE IN THE MIRROR.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF U-S EDITORIAL COMMENT FROM THURSDAY'S DAILY PAPERS.
    NEB/ANG/GE
    25-Mar-99 11:58 AM EST (1658 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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