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Voice of America, 99-05-31

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] NATO / KOSOVO (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)
  • [02] KOSOVO / HUMAN RIGHTS (L ONLY) BY GORDON MARTIN (GENEVA)
  • [03] ALBANIA/REFUGEE CAMP (L-ONLY) BY AMY BICKERS (FIER, ALBANIA)
  • [04] CLINTON / KOSOVO (L) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [05] CHINA / U-S (L) BY ROGER WILKISON (BEIJING)
  • [06] RUSSIA/YUGOSLAVIA BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)
  • [07] RUSSIA POLITICS (L ONLY) BY PETER HEINELIN (MOSCOW)
  • [08] WAR IMPACT: TRUCKING IN THE BALKANS BY BARRY WOOD (VINGA, ROMANIA)
  • [09] OCALAN NEWSMAKER BY SCOTT BOBB (MUDANYA, TURKEY)
  • [10] TURKEY/TRIAL OVERNITER (S) BY SCOTT BOBB (MUDANYA, TURKEY)
  • [11] TURKEY TRIAL BEGINS (L) BY SCOTT BOBB (MUDANYA)
  • [12] TURKEY TRIAL BEGINS (L UPDATE) BY SCOTT BOBB (MUDANYA)
  • [13] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY KEVIN LYNCH (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] NATO / KOSOVO (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=5/31/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-250034
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO SAYS IT IS STEPPING UP ITS MILITARY PRESSURE ON YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A'S RON PEMSTEIN AT NATO HEADQUARTERS REPORTS THE ALLIANCE IS SIDE-STEPPING QUESTIONS ABOUT CIVILIAN CASUALTIES CAUSED BY THE NATO ATTACKS.

    TEXT: THE SERBS SAY THERE WERE A SCORE OF CASUALTIES FROM A NATO AIR STRIKE ON A SANITARIUM AND RETIREMENT HOME IN THE SOUTHERN SERBIAN TOWN OF SURDALICA. BUT NATO MILITARY SPOKESMAN KONRAD FREYTAG SAYS THE NATO PLANES HIT THEIR PROPER TARGETS IN SURDALICA -- AN ARMY BARRACKS AND AN AMMUNITION STORAGE FACILITY. ..

    /// FREYTAG ACT ///

    BOTH THESE TARGETS WERE LEGITIMATE MILITARY TARGETS AND BOTH WERE ALREADY ATTACKED BEFORE. ALL MUNITIONS HIT THE PLANNED AIMING POINTS. NATO CANNOT CONFIRM ANY SERB CLAIMS OF CASUALTIES OR COLLATERAL DAMAGE IN SURDALICA.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE SERBS SAY SOME FOREIGN JOURNALISTS TRAVELING IN A CONVOY IN KOSOVO WERE BOMBED BY A NATO AIR STRIKE. NATO'S VERSION IS THAT A HIGHWAY TUNNEL WAS BOMBED IN THE SAME AREA. ON SUNDAY, SERBIAN MEDIA REPORTED A BRIDGE WAS BOMBED IN CENTRAL YUGOSLAVIA KILLING AT LEAST NINE CIVILIANS WHO CROSSING THE BRIDGE AT THE TIME. NATO'S VERSION IS THAT THE HIGHWAY BRIDGE AT VARVARIN IS A MAJOR LINE OF COMMUNICATION AND A LEGITIMATE TARGET. NATO SAYS FOUR AIRCRAFT HIT THEIR DESIGNATED TARGETS SUCCESSFULLY. BUT NATO SPOKESMEN IGNORED QUESTIONS ABOUT WHY THE BRIDGE WAS HIT DURING THE DAY RATHER THAN AT NIGHT WHEN FEWER PEOPLE WOULD BE USING IT.

    THESE ATTACKS HAVE COME IN THE MIDST OF NATO'S MOST INTENSIVE BOMBING WITH 415 STRIKE MISSIONS. IN KOSOVO ALONE, NATO ATTACKED 12 TANKS, SEVEN ARTILLERY PIECES, AND SIX ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIERS.

    NATO SPOKESMAN JAMIE SHEA SAYS THE ALLIANCE WILL MAINTAIN THE PRESSURE UNTIL YUGOSLAVIA BECOMES MORE CLEAR ABOUT WHAT CONDITIONS IT ACCEPTS BEYOND THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES SET OUT BY THE G-8, MAJOR INDUSTRIAL NATIONS AND RUSSIA.

    /// SHEA ACT ///

    WE WILL NOT LET UP. WE WILL NOT STOP. WE WILL NOT FLINCH UNTIL THE REFUGEES ARE ALLOWED TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES AND NATO IS ALLOWED TO HELP PLAY ITS JUST ROLE IN GUARANTEEING THEIR SECURITY.

    /// END ACT ///

    STILL TO BE DETERMINED IS WHETHER THE G-8 PRINCIPLES WILL INCLUDE A NATO LED PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN KOSOVO AND WHETHER ALL SERBIAN MILITARY FORCES WILL LEAVE THE PROVINCE.

    NATO MILITARY HEADQUARTERS BEGINS A CONFERENCE (TUESDAY) TO ASK NATO COUNTRIES HOW MANY SOLDIERS THEY CAN CONTRIBUTE TO A LARGER PEACEKEEPING FORCE FOR KOSOVO. NATO MILITARY COMMANDER WESLEY CLARK SAYS HE WANTS THOSE TROOPS TO BE READY TO MOVE TO MACEDONIA RIGHT AWAY TO BE READY TO ENFORCE A KOSOVO PEACE SETTLEMENT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RDP/JWH
    31-May-99 11:29 AM EDT (1529 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] KOSOVO / HUMAN RIGHTS (L ONLY) BY GORDON MARTIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=5/31/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-250041
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS' CHIEF HUMAN RIGHTS OFFICIAL, FORMER IRISH PRESIDENT MARY ROBINSON, HAS ISSUED HER FIRST MAJOR REPORT ON THE KOSOVO CONFLICT. GORDON MARTIN REPORTS FROM GENEVA.

    TEXT: MRS. ROBINSON FLATLY CONTRADICTS STATEMENTS BY YUGOSLAVIA THAT THE MASSIVE EXODUS OF REFUGEES FROM KOSOVO IS CAUSED BY NATO AIR STRIKES. IN A 15-PAGE REPORT, MRS. ROBINSON SAYS A HIGH NUMBER OF CORROBORATING REPORTS INDICATE SERBIAN MILITARY AND POLICE FORCES AND PARAMILITARY UNITS HAVE CONDUCTED A WELL-PLANNED AND IMPLEMENTED PROGRAM OF FORCIBLE EXPULSION.

    SHE SAYS THE EXPULSIONS APPEAR TO HAVE AFFECTED VIRTUALLY ALL AREAS OF KOSOVO AS WELL AS VILLAGES IN SOUTHERN SERBIA, INCLUDING PLACES NEVER TARGETED BY NATO AIR STRIKES OR IN WHICH THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY HAS NEVER BEEN PRESENT.

    SHE REPORTS REFUGEES SAY THAT SERB FORCES ARE USING ETHNIC ALBANIANS AS HUMAN SHIELDS TO PROTECT MILITARY CONVOYS FROM NATO ATTACKS. SHE SAYS ILL-TREATMENT OF REFUGEES ALSO HAS INCLUDED BEATINGS WITH FISTS AND RIFLE BUTTS, RAPE AND OTHER FORMS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT, MUTILATION, SHOOTING, AND THREATS OF VIOLENCE.

    MRS. ROBINSON'S REPORT ALSO INCLUDES SECTIONS CRITICAL OF NATO.

    SHE SAYS NATO CLUSTER BOMBS HAVE A HIGH FAILURE RATE, LEAVING UNEXPLODED BOMBS ACROSS A WIDE AREA OF SERBIA WHICH CAN BE DETONATED ON CONTACT. SHE REPORTS YUGOSLAV OFFICIALS ALSO SAY THE AIR STRIKES HAVE PRODUCED SERIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE TO AGRICULTURAL LAND, PLANTS, CATTLE, AND WILDLIFE. AND SHE SAYS NATO'S USE OF GRAPHITE BOMBS TO SHORT-CIRCUIT LONG-DISTANCE POWER LINES HAS LEFT AREAS OF YUGOSLAVIA WITHOUT WATER AND ELECTRICITY, CAUSING ENORMOUS HARDSHIP TO CIVILIANS.

    IN THE REPORT, MRS. ROBINSON CALLS ON ALL CONCERNED TO INTENSIFY POLITICAL NEGOTIATIONS AND FIND A SOLUTION TO THE CRISIS.

    ONE OF THE OFFICIALS HEAVILY INVOLVED IN THE SEARCH FOR PEACE IN KOSOVO IS FORMER SWEDISH PRIME MINISTER CARL BILDT WHO RECENTLY WAS NAMED ONE OF TWO SPECIAL BALKANS ENVOYS BY U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN. MR. BILDT WARNS OF WHAT HE CALLS THE SCALE AND COMPLEXITY OF THE TASK AHEAD.

    /// BILDT ACT ///

    WE SHOULD BE AWARE OF THE FACT WHEN SOME SORT OF PEACE ARRIVES -- AND I WOULD NOT VENTURE INTO ANY SPECULATIONS ON WHEN THAT MIGHT HAPPEN -- WE ARE HEADING INTO THE MOST COMPLEX PEACE IMPLEMENTATION OPERATION EVER UNDERTAKEN BY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY. WE ARE LIKELY TO ENTER A WASTE-LAND, DESTROYED BY WAR AND TO A VERY LARGE EXTENT DEPRIVED OF ITS POPULATION. AND, OF COURSE, THAT REQUIRES CONCERTED EFFORTS BY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO AN EXTENT WE HAVE NEVER DONE BEFORE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. BILDT SAYS THE CRISIS IS NOT LIMITED TO KOSOVO. HE SAYS THE ENTIRE BALKAN REGION HAS SUFFERED A MAJOR ECONOMIC IMPACT AND WILL NEED A COMPREHENSIVE AND LONG-TERM STABILIZATION EFFORT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GM/JWH
    31-May-99 1:32 PM EDT (1732 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] ALBANIA/REFUGEE CAMP (L-ONLY) BY AMY BICKERS (FIER, ALBANIA)

    DATE=5/31/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-250045
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES FROM KOSOVO ARE POURING INTO NORTHERN ALBANIA, BUT FOR MANY THE JOURNEY DOES NOT STOP THERE. AS AMY BICKERS REPORTS FROM FIER, ALBANIA -- MORE REFUGEES ARE HEADING SOUTH WHERE ONE U-S-RUN CAMP HAS BEEN ENLARGED AND ANOTHER IS NOW UNDER CONSTRUCTION.

    TEXT: REFUGEE TAHIBE AND HER 25-YEAR OLD DAUGHTER BEHIJA, WHO IS ALMOST NINE MONTHS PREGNANT, ARE DOING THEIR BEST TO MAKE A HOME OUT OF A LARGE GREEN TENT AT "CAMP HOPE" FOR ALBANIAN KOSOVAR REFUGEES, NEAR THE SOUTHEWESTERN ALBANIAN TOWN OF FIER.

    THEY ARRIVED SUNDAY NIGHT WITH OTHER FAMILY MEMBERS AFTER LEAVING KOSOVO LAST WEEK. TAHIBE SAYS THEY CAME WITHOUT HER SON-IN-LAW, WHO HAD EARLIER ESCAPED TO SWITZERLAND AFTER ANOTHER RELATIVE WAS KILLED BY SERBS.

    ///TAHIBE ALBANIAN ACT///

    SHE SAID HER SON-IN-LAW'S FATHER WAS HOME WHEN THE SERBS CAME AND TOOK EVERYTHING AND KILLED HIM. THEY WANTED TO KILL HER SON-IN-LAW TOO, BUT HE RAN AWAY. THIS IS TRAGIC, SHE ADDS.

    TAHIBE AND HER FAMILY WERE EAGER TO STAY IN KUKES, THE NORTHERN ALBANIAN PREFECTURE WHERE MORE THAN ONE-QUARTER OF ALBANIA'S REFUGEE POPULATION NOW RESIDES. THEY WERE HOPING TO FIND OTHER FAMILY MEMBERS THERE, BUT AID WORKERS ENCOURAGED THEM TO MOVE TO THE U-S-RUN "CAMP HOPE" IN THE SOUTHWESTERN PART OF THE COUNTRY.

    MANY REFUGEES PREFER TO STAY NORTH SO THAT WHEN THE CRISIS ENDS, THEY CAN QUICKLY RE-ENTER KOSOVO. BUT AS TAHIBE'S FAMILY FOUND, CAMP HOPE HAS ITS ADVANTAGES. UNLIKE THE CAMPS LOCATED IN THE NORTH, IT IS OUT OF RANGE OF SERB ARTILLERY SHELLS. IT IS ALSO ONE OF THE FEW CAMPS WHERE WATER IS AVAILABLE 24-HOURS A DAY. AND FOR NOW AT LEAST, IT IS NOT CROWDED.

    //OPT//

    CURRENTLY THE CAMP HOLDS FIVE THOUSAND REFUGEES BUT HAS BEEN EXPANDED TO ACCOMODATE JUST OVER 17-THOUSAND, WITH TENTS READY AND WAITING FOR NEW ARRIVALS. A SCHOOL HAS JUST OPENED WHERE REFUGEE TEACHERS WILL HOLD CLASSES, AND A LARGE RECREATION AREA FOR CHILDREN HAS JUST BEEN CONSTRUCTED. //END OPT//

    BUT SHQIPE -- A REFUGEE WITH THREE CHILDREN UNDER TEN -- SAYS THAT AFTER THREE WEEKS IN THE CAMP SHE IS DESPERATE TO LEAVE.

    ///STIPE ACT///

    I CAN'T STAY HERE. I DON'T LIKE TO STAY HERE. I HAVE THREE CHILDREN AND I CAN'T LIVE HERE. IT'S A TERRIBLE LIFE HERE. I WOULD LIKE TO GO ANYWHERE.

    ///END ACT///

    SHQIPE IS HOPING TO EMIGRATE TO HAMBURG, GERMANY, WHERE HER SISTER LIVES. BUT CAMP HOPE OFFICIALS SAY IT COULD BE A LONG TIME BEFORE SHE AND THOUSANDS OF OTHER REFUGEES CAN EMIGRATE TO OTHER COUNTRIES OR RETURN KOSOVO. THEY EXPECT THE FLOOD OF REFUGEES TO ALBANIA WILL CONTINUE AND HAVE JUST BROKEN GROUND ON A NEW CAMP, ALSO NEAR FIER. "CAMP EAGLE" WILL HOLD AT LEAST TEN-THOUSAND REFUGEES AND WILL BE READY TO RECEIVE THEM WITHIN EIGHT WEEKS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AB/WFR
    31-May-99 5:53 PM EDT (2153 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] CLINTON / KOSOVO (L) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=5/31/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-250043
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS DEFENDED THE U-S ROLE IN KOSOVO AMID SIGNS AMERICAN PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR THE CAMPAIGN IS ERODING. HE MADE HIS COMMENTS IN HIS ANNUAL MEMORIAL DAY ADDRESS AT ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETERY OUTSIDE WASHINGTON. CORRESPONDENT DEBORAH TATE REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: AFTER A SOLEMN WREATH-LAYING CEREMONY AT THE TOMB OF THE UNKNOWN SOLDIER, MR. CLINTON RECALLED THOSE WHO GAVE THEIR LIVES IN DEFENSE OF FREEDOM -- INCLUDING TWO U-S PILOTS WHO WERE KILLED IN A HELICOPTER TRAINING MISSION IN ALBANIA TWO-WEEKS AGO.

    MOST OF THE PRESIDENT'S SPEECH WAS DEVOTED TO DEFENDING U-S INVOLVEMENT IN YUGOSLAVIA.

    IN THE WAKE OF THE NATO BOMBING OF THE CHINESE EMBASSY IN BELGRADE THREE-WEEKS AGO AND OTHER AIRSTRIKES THAT HAVE KILLED CIVILIANS IN YUGOSLAVIA -- A NEW GALLUP POLL SHOWS AMERICAN SUPPORT FOR THE NATO CAMPAIGN HAS DROPPED TO 49-PERCENT. THAT IS DOWN 12-PERCENT FROM MID-APRIL.

    DRAWING PARALLELS BETWEEN MASS KILLINGS AND ETHNIC CLEANSING IN KOSOVO AND THE NAZI CAMPAIGN TO EXTERMINATE JEWS IN WORLD WAR TWO, MR. CLINTON URGED AMERICANS NOT TO LOSE SIGHT OF WHAT HE DESCRIBED AS THEIR COUNTRY'S MORAL OBLIGATIONS.

    // CLINTON ACTUALITY //

    OUR COMMITMENT TO LEAVE, TO OUR CHILDREN, A WORLD WHERE PEOPLE ARE NOT UPROOTED AND RAVAGED AND SLAUGHTERED EN MASSE BECAUSE OF THEIR RACE, THEIR ETHNICITY OR THEIR RELIGION, OUR FUNDAMENTAL INTEREST IN BUILDING A LASTING PEACE IN AN UNDIVIDED AND FREE EUROPE, A PLACE WHICH SAW TWO WORLD WARS WHEN THAT DREAM FAILED IN THE 20TH CENTURY.

    // END ACT //

    ACKNOWLEDGING THE UNITED STATES HAS BORNE A LARGE SHARE OF THE BURDEN IN THE MILITARY CAMPAIGN, HE SAID ONCE THE CONFLICT IS OVER, THE EUROPEANS WILL PAY MOST OF THE RECONSTRUCTION IN KOSOVO, AND WILL MAKE UP THE MAJORITY OF THE PEACEKEEPING FORCE THERE.

    THE PRESIDENT ASKED AMERICANS TO REMEMBER U-S SERVICEMEN FLYING NATO MISSIONS OVER YUGOSLAVA, AND URGED THEM TO SUPPORT EFFORTS TO RELIEVE THE SUFFERING OF THE PEOPLE OF KOSOVO.

    EARLIER MONDAY, MR. CLINTON SPOKE BY TELEPHONE TO RUSSIAN PRIME MINISTER SERGEI STEPASHIN TO REVIEW THE PROGRESS OF DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS TO END THE CONFLICT. THE CONVERSATION CAME ON THE EVE OF A MEETING IN BONN AMONG U-S, RUSSIAN, AND EUROPEAN UNION REPRESENTATIVES TO DISCUSS THE KOSOVO CRISIS.

    // REST OPT //

    MEANWHILE, U-S OFFICIALS ARE REACTING CAUTIOUSLY TO REPORTS FROM BELGRADE THAT YUGOSLAVIA IS WILLING TO ACCEPT A KOSOVO PEACE PLAN PUT FORWARD BY RUSSIA AND THE SEVEN MAJOR INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS.

    WHITE HOUSE AIDES SAY IT IS NOT CLEAR THAT YUGOSLAVIA HAS ACCEPTED ALL OF NATO'S DEMANDS NECESSARY FOR THE AIR CAMPAIGN TO END. THOSE DEMANDS INCLUDE THE WITHDRAWAL OF SERB FORCES FROM KOSOVO, THE RETURN OF ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES AND THE DEPLOYMENT OF AN INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING FORCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAT/RAE
    31-May-99 2:20 PM EDT (1820 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] CHINA / U-S (L) BY ROGER WILKISON (BEIJING)

    DATE=5/31/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-250024
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: CHINA HAS AGAIN HIT OUT AT A U-S CONGRESSIONAL REPORT ALLEGING THAT BEIJING STOLE U-S NUCLEAR SECRETS BY MOUNTING A 20-YEAR-LONG SPYING OPERATION TARGETED AT U-S WEAPONS LABORATORIES. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ROGER WILKISON REPORTS A SENIOR CHINESE OFFICIAL SAYS CHINA HAS DEVELOPED ITS OWN NATIONAL DEFENSE TECHNOLOGY AND DOES NOT NEED TO STEAL FROM OTHER COUNTRIES.

    TEXT: USING WORDS LIKE "ABSURD", "RIDICULOUS" AND "NONSENSE", CHINESE CABINET SPOKESMAN ZHAO QIZHENG DISPARAGED THE CONGRESSIONAL REPORT MONDAY, CALLING IT A FARCE TO INSTIGATE ANTI-CHINA FEELINGS AND UNDERMINE SINO/U-S RELATIONS.

    THE REPORT, PREPARED BY A SPECIAL COMMITTEE CHAIRED BY REPUBLICAN REPRESENTATIVE CHRISTOPHER COX, SAYS CHINA STOLE BLUEPRINTS FOR SEVEN TYPES OF U-S NUCLEAR WARHEADS AND THE NEUTRON BOMB.

    SPEAKING THROUGH AN INTERPRETER, MR. ZHAO DISMISSED THE CHARGE, SAYING CHINA IS AN INDUSTRIOUS AND INGENIOUS NATION AND HAS NEVER NEEDED TO STEAL INFORMATION FROM OTHERS TO DEVELOP ITS OWN WEAPONS.

    /// INTERPRETER ACTUALITY ///

    CHINA IS FULLY CAPABLE OF INDEPENDENTLY DEVELOPING ANY SOPHISTICATED NATIONAL DEFENSE TECHNOLOGY. COX AND OTHER ANTI-CHINA POLITICIANS IN THE UNITED STATES, TURNING A BLIND EYE TO (IGNORING) THESE FACTS, HAVE TRIED THEIR BEST TO PLAY DOWN AND DENY THE CHINESE PEOPLE'S INNOVATIVE CAPACITY IN DEVELOPING SOPHISTICATED NATIONAL DEFENSE TECHNOLOGY.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    MR. ZHAO ACCUSES THE COX COMMITTEE OF SLANDERING THE CHINESE NATION AND ENGAGING IN RACIAL PREJUDICE BY BELITTLING ITS SCIENTIFIC ACCOMPLISHMENTS. HE SAYS THAT, DURING THE 1960'S -- WHEN THERE WERE VIRTUALLY NO CONTACTS BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES BEIJING DEVELOPED ITS OWN ATOMIC AND HYDROGEN BOMBS AS WELL AS ITS OWN MISSILE PROGRAM. MR. ZHAO SAYS THE COX COMMITTEE JUST CANNOT SEEM TO ACCEPT THAT CHINA WAS ABLE TO DEVELOP ON ITS OWN ADVANCED WARHEADS SIMILAR TO THOSE IN THE AMERICAN ARSENAL.

    /// INTERPRETER ACTUALITY ///

    IF WE GO ALONG THE LINES OF THIS LOGIC, THEN THAT IS TO SAY ANY SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL ACHIEVEMENT ATTAINED BY OTHER COUNTRIES -- PARTICULARLY THOSE DEVELOPED FASTER THAN THE UNITED STATES -- COME FROM THE TECHNOLOGY STOLEN FROM THE UNITED STATES. THIS IS WILDLY ARROGANT.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    MR. ZHAO SAYS CHINA DID NOT NEED TO STEAL ANYTHING. HE SAYS BLUEPRINTS OF NUCLEAR WARHEADS AND OTHER U-S WEAPONS ARE PUBLICLY AVAILABLE AND CAN EVEN BE ACCESSED ON THE INTERNET. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RW/FC/KL
    31-May-99 7:42 AM EDT (1142 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] RUSSIA/YUGOSLAVIA BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=5/31/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43537
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIA'S BALKANS ENVOY, VICTOR CHERNOMYRDIN, IS SET TO BEGIN ANOTHER ROUND OF SHUTTLE DIPLOMACY, WITH STOPS IN BONN AND POSSIBLY BELGRADE. MOSCOW CORRESPONDENT PETER HEINLEIN REPORTS RUSSIAN NEGOTIATORS REMAIN HOPEFUL, BUT PROGRESS CONTINUES TO BE SLOW.

    TEXT: THE RUSSIAN ENVOY FLIES TO GERMANY TUESDAY. HE WILL MEET AGAIN WITH DEPUTY U-S SECRETARY OF STATE STROBE TALBOTT AND THE FINNISH PRESIDENT MARTTI AHTISAARI. SOURCES IN MR. CHERNOMYRDIN'S OFFICE SAY HE IS LIKELY TO CONTINUE ON TO BELGRADE FOR WHAT WOULD BE HIS FIFTH MEETING WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC SINCE THE BOMBING OF YUGOSLAVIA BEGAN IN LATE MARCH. MONDAY, MR. CHERNOMYRDIN REPORTED TO PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN AND PRIME MINISTER SERGEI STEPASHIN ON HIS LATEST MISSION. AFTERWARD, MR. STEPASHIN TOLD JOURNALISTS THE YUGOSLAV LEADER APPEARS TO BE SOFTENING HIS OPPOSITION TO NATO'S DEMANDS.

    /// STEPASHIN ACT IN RUSSIAN, THEN FADE TO ... ///

    HE SAYS "MR. CHERNOMYRDIN'S VISIT RESULTED IN SOME POSITIVE ADVANCEMENT BY MR. MILOSEVIC." THE PRIME MINISTER SAYS THE NEXT STEP WILL BE TO FORMULATE A JOINT RUSSIA-NATO RESPONSE TO THE YUGOSLAV LEADER'S APPARENT CONCESSIONS.

    BUT WESTERN ANALYSTS AND OBSERVERS IN MOSCOW SAY THOSE INDICATIONS OF PROGRESS MAY BE LITTLE MORE THAN RUSSIAN WISHFUL THINKING. ALAN ROUSSO, DIRECTOR OF THE MOSCOW CARNEGIE CENTER, SAYS HE SEES LITTLE WILLINGNESS TO COMPROMISE ON EITHER SIDE.

    ///ROUSSO ACT//

    I DON'T SEE MUCH MOVEMENT EXCEPT THERE HAS BEEN A LOT OF SLIGHT REFORMULATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SECURITY FORCE CONCEPT.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. ROUSSO SAYS THE INDICTMENT HANDED DOWN AGAINST PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC BY THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL HAS DEALT A SERIOUS BLOW TO THE NEGOTIATING PROCESS.

    ///2ND ROUSSO ACT///

    THE FURTHER THIS DRAGS OUT, THE LESS LIKELIHOOD THERE IS THAT A DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION WILL EVEN BE LOCATABLE SOMEWHERE OUT THERE. WITH THE (WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE) HAGUE HAVING JUST INDICTED MILOSEVIC AS A WAR CRIMINAL, SOME HAVE SUGGESTED NEGOTIATIONS ARE NOW FECKLESS. I DON'T AGREE THAT'S TRUE, BUT IT'S UNLIKELY TO YIELD POSITIVE RESULTS IN THE SHORT TERM.

    ///END ACT///

    RUSSIAN OFFICIALS SAY THEY WILL BE WATCHING TO SEE IF THE EUROPEAN UNION REPRESENTATIVE, PRESIDENT AHTISAARI ACCOMPANIES MR. CHERNOMYRDIN ON HIS NEXT BELGRADE MISSION. THAT COULD COME AS EARLY AS WEDNESDAY. OFFICIALS HERE BELIEVE A WILLINGNESS BY MR. AHTISAARI TO GO TO BELGRADE WOULD BE A SIGN THAT A BREAKTHROUGH IS IMMINENT.

    BUT SENIOR WESTERN DIPLOMATIC SOURCES POINT OUT MR. AHTISAARI HAS BEEN UNYIELDING IN HIS DEMAND THAT MR. MILOSEVIC FULLY ACCEPT NATO'S FIVE BASIC CONDITIONS FOR AN END TO AIR STRIKES. FOR INSTANCE, THE FINNISH PRESIDENT IS REPORTED TO BE INSISTENT THAT HIS COUNTRY WOULD ONLY PARTICIPATE IN A KOSOVO PEACEKEEPING FORCE IF IT IS UNDER NATO COMMAND.

    SO WESTERN SOURCES SAY WHILE A VISIT BY MR. AHTISAARI WOULD BE ENCOURAGING, THERE IS STILL MUCH WORK TO BE DONE. AND THE CARNEGIE CENTER'S ALAN ROUSSO SEES INCREASING SIGNS THAT THE VETERAN BALKANS NEGOTIATOR RICHARD HOLBROOKE MAY BE CALLED IN, WHEN A FINAL SETTLEMENT IS AT HAND. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/PCF
    31-May-99 10:04 AM EDT (1404 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] RUSSIA POLITICS (L ONLY) BY PETER HEINELIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=5/31/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-250038
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIA'S PRESIDENT AND PRIME MINISTER HAVE SETTLED ON THE MAKEUP OF A NEW GOVERNMENT FOLLOWING DAYS OF CONFUSION ABOUT CABINET APPOINTMENTS. V-O-A'S PETER HEINLEIN IN MOSCOW REPORTS THE LATEST GOVERNMENT LOOKS A LOT LIKE THE ONE IT REPLACED.

    TEXT: PRIME MINISTER SERGEI STEPASHIN FACED REPORTERS MONDAY AND TRIED TO MAKE THE BEST OF WHAT HAD BEEN A WEEK OF BITTER AND AT TIMES EMBARRASSING POLITICAL INFIGHTING.

    /// STEPASHIN ACT - IN RUSSIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    HE SAYS THE PRESIDENT HAS ACCEPTED MY PROPOSALS.

    BUT IT WAS NOT AS SIMPLE AS THAT.

    PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN HAD IN FACT REJECTED SEVERAL OF HIS EARLIER PROPOSALS, IN SOME CASES WITHOUT EVEN BOTHERING TO INFORM THE NEWLY NAMED PRIME MINISTER. THE RESULT HAD BEEN A HUMILIATION FOR MR. STEPASHIN, WHO WAS FORCED TO RETRACT SOME APPOINTMENTS HE HAD ALREADY ANNOUNCED.

    IN THE END, HOWEVER, CONTROL OF RUSSIA'S ALL IMPORTANT FINANCE AND ECONOMICS MINISTRIES WILL REMAIN IN THE HANDS OF REFORMERS.

    FORTY-ONE-YEAR-OLD FORMER DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER VIKTOR KHRISTENKO WILL TAKE OVER AS FIRST DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER IN CHARGE OF MACRO ECONOMIC POLICY. MR. KHRISTENKO HAS PREVIOUSLY BEEN IN CHARGE OF RUSSIA'S RELATIONS WITH INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND ONCE SERVED AS AN EXECUTIVE WITH THE WORLD BANK.

    PRIME MINISTER STEPASHIN ALSO CONFIRMED MONDAY THAT MIKHAIL KASYANOV WOULD BE FINANCE MINISTER. LAST WEEK, MR. STEPASHIN ANNOUNCED THAT FORMER FINANCE MINISTER MIKHAIL ZADORNOV WOULD REMAIN IN HIS POST. BUT HE WAS FORCED TO RETRACT THE APPOINTMENT WHEN PRESIDENT YELTSIN SIGNED A DECREE NAMING MR. KASYANOV, WHO HAD PREVIOUSLY BEEN MR. ZADORNOV'S DEPUTY. MONDAY, MR. ZADORNOV AGREED TO STAY ON IN A SEMI-OFFICIAL CAPACITY AS RUSSIA'S LIAISON TO INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS.

    WITH THE CABINET SET, PRESIDENT YELTSIN'S SPOKESMAN DMITRY YAKUSHKIN PLEADED FOR AN END TO THE SENSATIONAL STORIES OF KREMLIN INTRIGUE THAT HAVE DOMINATED RUSSIA'S MEDIA FOR DAYS.

    /// YAKUSHKIN ACT - IN RUSSIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    HE SAYS THESE APPOINTMENTS PUT AN END TO THE DISCUSSION OF FORMATION OF A GOVERNMENT, A USELESS DISCUSSION BASED ON RUMORS AND DESIRE TO ALWAYS FIND SECRET ADVISERS AND HIDDEN MEANINGS.

    THAT COMMENT WAS CLEARLY A REFERENCE TO THE FLOOD OF REPORTS THAT THE POLITICAL INFIGHTING WAS THE WORK OF A SMALL GROUP OF KREMLIN ADVISERS, INCLUDING PRESIDENT YELTSIN'S POWERFUL DAUGHTER, TATIANA DYACHENKO, AND THE CONTROVERSIAL BUSINESS TYCOON BORIS BEREZOVSKY. SEVERAL OF THE NEW CABINET APPOINTEES ARE SAID TO BE CLOSE TO MR. BEREZOVSKY.

    BUT IN GENERAL, THE CABINET LOOKS SIMILAR TO THE ONE PRESIDENT YELTSIN DISMISSED MAY 12TH. IGOR IVANOV REMAINS FOREIGN MINISTER, IGOR SERGEYEV STAYS AS DEFENSE MINISTER, AND SOCIAL POLICY REMAINS IN THE HANDS OF DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER VALENTINA MATVIYENKO.

    THE MAIN FACE MISSING FROM THE LINEUP IS THE FORMER PRIME MINISTER, YEVGENY PRIMAKOV. ONE MONTH AGO, MR. PRIMAKOV WAS CONSIDERED THE COUNTRY'S MOST POPULAR POLITICIAN, A LIKELY CONTENDER FOR THE PRESIDENCY. IN THE WEEKS SINCE HIS DISMISSAL, HE HAS DISAPPEARED FROM VIEW AND IS RUSSIA'S ALMOST FORGOTTEN MAN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/JWH
    31-May-99 1:30 PM EDT (1730 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] WAR IMPACT: TRUCKING IN THE BALKANS BY BARRY WOOD (VINGA, ROMANIA)

    DATE=5/31/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43541
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO AIRSTRIKES HAVE FORCED THE CLOSURE OF ROAD, RAIL AND RIVER TRANSPORT LINES THROUGH SERBIA, DISRUPTING ITS ECONOMY AND THAT OF NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES -- FROM UKRAINE AND TURKEY TO BULGARIA, MACEDONIA AND ROMANIA. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD VISITED A ROADSIDE CAFE IN WESTERN ROMANIA AND TALKED WITH SOME TRUCK DRIVERS ABOUT HOW THE WAR IS AFFECTING THEM.

    TEXT: /// SOUND OF TURKISH MUSIC AT CAFE, UNDER AND FADE

    ///

    THE AIR IS THICK WITH A MIXTURE OF CIGARETTE SMOKE, SWEAT, AND DIESEL FUEL IN THIS SMALL CAFE, WHERE A DOZEN MEN AND TWO WOMEN SIT ON BENCHES DRINKING COFFEE AND SOFT DRINKS. OUTSIDE, A LARGE TRUCK WITH A YELLOW TRAILER PULLS OFF THE ROAD. DIMITRY, A GREEK, CLIMBS DOWN, REACHES FOR A PAIL AND SPLASHES WATER ONTO HIS FACE. HE'S BEEN ON THE ROAD FOR 30 HOURS CARRYING PLASTICS FROM SALONIKA, GREECE TO HOF, GERMANY.

    ///ACTUALITY OF DIMITRY IN GERMAN///

    DIMITRY SAYS HIS BIGGEST DELAY WAS AT THE DANUBE RIVER CROSSING AT VIDEN, BULGARIA WHERE TRUCKS WAITED SEVERAL HOURS FOR THE SMALL FERRY TO THE ROMANIAN VILLAGE OF CALAFAT.

    TRUCK TRAFFIC HERE IN WESTERN ROMANIA HAS DOUBLED SINCE THE NATO BOMBING BEGAN. DIMITRY SAYS HIS NORMAL ROUTE FROM GREECE TO GERMANY WOULD HAVE TAKEN HIM THROUGH SERBIA.

    ///SECOND DIMITRY ACTUALITY IN GERMAN///

    DIMITRY SAYS THE CLOSURE OF SERBIA HAS AFFECTED ALL TRUCKERS IN THE BALKANS. IT HAS DOUBLED HIS TRANSIT TIME TO GERMANY TO 60 HOURS. HE COMPLAINS ABOUT BAD ROADS IN BULGARIA AND ROMANIA.

    BUT IT'S NOT JUST TRUCKERS IN GREECE, BULGARIA AND ROMANIA WHO ARE AFFECTED BY THE DETOUR. SEVERAL DRIVERS HERE, BOUND FOR TURKEY FROM GERMANY AND HOLLAND, COMPLAIN THAT THE WAITING TIME AT THE BORDERS HAS DOUBLED SINCE THE YUGOSLAV CONFLICT BEGAN. SEMMI, A DRIVER BOUND FOR ISTANBUL, SAYS HE WAITED 10 HOURS AT THE ROMANIAN-HUNGARIAN BORDER, TWICE THE NORMAL TIME.

    //SEMMI ACT IN ENGLISH//

    TEN HOURS. NOT NORMAL. SHE IS WORKING VERY SLOWLY. VERY, VERY SLOW.

    //END ACT//

    NATO BEGAN BOMBING YUGOSLAV DANUBE RIVER BRIDGES ON APRIL FIRST. THEY WERE USED TO CARRY MUCH OF THE HEAVY CARGO BETWEEN WESTERN EUROPE AND THE BALKANS. WITH THAT ROUTE CUT, AND WHAT WAS A GOOD HIGHWAY BETWEEN GREECE AND HUNGARY THROUGH SERBIA CLOSED, THESE TRUCKERS HAVE TO MAKE THEIR WAY AROUND SERBIA. THEY ARE DOING SO, AND THE TRUCKS ARE GETTING THROUGH. BUT IT'S FORCED THE COST OF SHIPPING THROUGH THE BALKANS UP SHARPLY, AND THERE ARE MANY DELAYS. WHAT'S MORE, NOBODY KNOWS WHEN THE BOMBING WILL END AND THE BRIDGES GET REPAIRED. UNTIL THEN, MANY TRANS-BALKAN TRUCKERS ARE RESIGNED TO MANY EXTRA HOURS ON THE ROAD.

    /// SOUND OF TRUCKS ON ROAD...UNDER AND FADE ///

    (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/PCF
    31-May-99 1:39 PM EDT (1739 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [09] OCALAN NEWSMAKER BY SCOTT BOBB (MUDANYA, TURKEY)

    DATE=5/31/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43543
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: KURDISH REBEL LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN WENT ON TRIAL TODAY (EDS: MONDAY) ON AN ISLAND PRISON OFF THE COAST OF TURKEY. HE IS ON TRIAL FOR TREASON AND IF CONVICTED WILL RECEIVE A MANDATORY DEATH SENTENCE. THE TRIAL SEEMS DESTINED TO END -- ONE WAY OR ANOTHER -- THE REBEL CAREER OF A MAN REVERED BY MANY KURDS AS THE FOUNDER OF THEIR AUTONOMY MOVEMENT AND BY MANY TURKS, AS A RUTHLESS TERRORIST. CORRESPONDENT SCOTT BOBB, WHO IS COVERING THE TRIAL, HAS THIS PROFILE OF THE KURDISH LEADER.

    TEXT: DURING HIS CAREER AS ONE OF THE MOST FEARED OPPONENTS OF THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT, ABDULLAH OCALAN HAS BEEN A MIX OF CONTRADICTIONS -- DUE IN PART TO THE FOLKLORE THAT SURROUNDS HIS NAME, AND THE NATURE OF THE STRUGGLE HE HAS WAGED.

    CONSIDERED BRUTAL AND THUGGISH BY HIS OPPONENTS, HE IS VIEWED AS GIFTED AND CHARISMATIC BY HIS FOLLOWERS. A RESPECTED LEADER OF THE ARMED KURDISH MOVEMENT, HE REPORTEDLY NEVER SAW BATTLE. AND ALTHOUGH HE IS ONE OF THE FATHERS OF THE MOVEMENT TO PROMOTE KURDISH CULTURE, HE REPORTEDLY IS MORE COMFORTABLE SPEAKING TURKISH THAN THE KURDISH LANGUAGE.

    ABDULLAH OCALAN WAS BORN 50-YEARS AGO TO A POOR FARMING FAMILY IN SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY ALONG THE SYRIAN BORDER. AS A YOUNG MAN, HE WANTED TO BE A SOLDIER AND APPLIED TO ENTER THE TURKISH ARMY. BUT, HE WAS REJECTED BECAUSE, HE SAYS, HE IS OF KURDISH ORIGIN. SO INSTEAD HE APPLIED AND WAS ACCEPTED AT ANKARA UNIVERSITY'S COMPETITIVE POLITICAL SCIENCE FACULTY. HE SOON BECAME A MARXIST SYMPATHIZER AND A KURDISH NATIONALIST. IN 1972, HE WAS IMPRISONED FOR A NUMBER OF MONTHS FOR A PRO-KURDISH ACTIVITIES AND LEFT THE UNIVERSITY. HE SUBSEQUENTLY FOUNDED THE KURDISTAN WORKER'S PARTY, OR P-K-K, AND LAUNCHED THE KURDISH AUTONOMY MOVEMENT.

    JUST BEFORE THE MILITARY COUP IN TURKEY IN 1980, ABDULLAH OCALAN FLED TO SYRIA AND SET UP TRAINING CAMPS IN THE LEBANESE PLAINS WHICH WERE UNDER SYRIAN CONTROL.

    OPAL -- AS HE IS KNOWN TO HIS SUPPORTERS -- LAUNCHED HIS ARMS STRUGGLE ON AUGUST 15, 1984. IN SUBSEQUENT YEARS, THE P-K-K STAGED MANY ATTACKS ON TURKISH SECURITY FORCES AND ON KURDISH VILLAGES THAT SUPPORTED THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT.

    AN ESTIMATED 30-THOUSAND PEOPLE, INCLUDING MANY WOMEN AND CHILDREN, WERE KILLED IN THE ATTACKS. DURING THE 1990'S MR. OCALAN DECLARED A CEASEFIRE ON SEVERAL OCCASIONS AND OFFERED TO ENTER INTO PEACE NEGOTIATIONS. BUT THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT REFUSED ANY DEAL AND VOWED TO CRUSH HIS ORGANIZATION.

    THE GOVERNMENT MOVED THREE-THOUSAND VILLAGES AWAY FROM KURDISH AREAS OF SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY AND SUCCESSIVE GOVERNMENT OFFENSIVES DROVE MANY P-K-K FIGHTERS OUT OF TURKEY INTO NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES.

    LAST OCTOBER, THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT THREATENED TO INVADE SYRIA IF IT CONTINUED TO SUPPORT MR. OCALAN. RAPID MEDIATION BY EGYPT AVOIDED ANY OFFENSIVE AND BROUGHT ASSURANCES BY DAMASCUS THAT MR. OCALAN HAD LEFT SYRIA.

    IN NOVEMBER, MR. OCALAN SURRENDERED TO POLICE IN ITALY AND ASKED FOR POLITICAL ASYLUM. HE WAS REFUSED, AFTER PROTESTS BY TURKEY AND LEFT TWO MONTHS LATER. A NUMBER OF OTHER EUROPEAN GOVERNMENTS ALSO TURNED DOWN HIS REQUEST FOR ASYLUM, FEARING A BACKLASH FROM TURKEY, AND MR. OCALAN EVENTUALLY TOOK REFUGE IN GREECE-- A REGIONAL RIVAL. HOWEVER, HIS PRESENCE MADE EVEN THE GREEK GOVERNMENT UNCOMFORTABLE, AND IN FEBRUARY MR. OCALAN WAS FLOWN TO KENYA REPORTEDLY SEEKING ASYLUM IN SOUTHERN AFRICA.

    UNDER CIRCUMSTANCES WHICH HAVE NOT YET BEEN FULLY EXPLAINED, HE ENDED UP DRUGGED ON A PRIVATE PLANE FLYING TO TURKEY AND IN THE CUSTODY OF THE TURKISH SPECIAL AGENTS. HE ARREST SPARKED VIOLENT PROTESTS BY KURDISH SYMPATHIZERS IN A NUMBER OF EUROPEAN CAPITALS.

    SINCE THEN, MR. OCALAN HAS BEEN IMPRISONED ON THE PENAL ISLAND IMRALI IN THE MARMARA SEA SOUTHWEST OF ISTANBUL. HE IS CHARGED WITH TREASON AND FACES THE DEATH PENALTY.

    IN HIS OPENING REMARKS MONDAY, THE FEARED REBEL LEADER PLEADED TO THE VICTIM'S FAMILIES FOR FORGIVENESS. HE URGED THE COURT TO ALLOW HIM TO LIVE, SO THAT HE COULD WORK FOR PEACE AND RECONCILIATION BETWEEN HIS PEOPLE AND THE TURKS AGAINST WHOM HE HAS FOUGHT FOR MORE THAN 14 YEARS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/SB/TMD-T/WFR
    31-May-99 4:14 PM EDT (2014 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] TURKEY/TRIAL OVERNITER (S) BY SCOTT BOBB (MUDANYA, TURKEY)

    DATE=5/31/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-250047
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN TURKEY, THE TRIAL OF KURDISH REBEL LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN IS SET TO ENTER ITS SECOND DAY TUESDAY, AFTER A DAY OF DRAMATIC OPENING TESTIMONY ON MONDAY. VOA CORRESPONDENT SCOTT BOBB REPORTS FROM MUDANYA.

    TEXT: THE FACT THAT THERE IS A SESSION TUESDAY SURPRISED MANY PEOPLE. DEFENSE LAWYERS REQUESTED, AS EXPECTED, AN ADJOURNMENT BUT THEIR REQUEST WAS DENIED. MR. OCALAN DELIVERED AN OPENING STATEMENT MONDAY MORNING IN WHICH HE APOLOGIZED TO FAMILIES OF THE VICTIMS OF REBEL ATTACKS. HE SAID IF ALLOWED TO LIVE HE WOULD WORK FOR RECONCILIATION BETWEEN TURKS AND KURDS.

    IN RAMBLING REMARKS LATER IN THE DAY, HE ALSO SAID HE WOULD CALL FOR AN END TO THE VIOLENCE IF THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT SHOWED CLEMENCY. OBSERVERS SAY THE DEFENDANT ADMITTED PARTIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE 30-THOUSAND DEATHS OF WHICH HE IS ACCUSED. BUT HE SEEMED TO BE GROPING FOR A POLITICAL SOLUTION. IF CONVICTED HE FACES THE DEATH PENALTY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/SB/WFR
    31-May-99 7:58 PM EDT (2358 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] TURKEY TRIAL BEGINS (L) BY SCOTT BOBB (MUDANYA)

    DATE=5/31/99
    TYPE=CORESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-250021
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE TRIAL OF KURDISH REBEL LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN HAS OPENED ON A HEAVILY GUARDED PRISON ISLAND SOUTHWEST OF ISTANBUL. CORRESPONDENT SCOTT BOBB REPORTS FROM THE NEARBY TOWN OF MUDANYA THE JUDGES TURNED DOWN A REQUEST BY THE DEFENSE FOR AN ADJOURNMENT IN ORDER TO BETTER PREPARE THEIR CASE.

    TEXT: ABDULLAH OCALAN APPEARED BEFORE HIS ACCUSERS MONDAY LOOKING SOMBER BUT IN GOOD HEALTH. HE SAT AND AT TIMES STOOD BEHIND AN ENCLOSURE OF BULLET PROOF GLASS. IN HIS OPENING STATEMENT THE KURDISH REBEL LEADER ASKED FOR FORGIVENESS FROM THE FAMILIES FOR THE REBEL ATTACKS AND HE SAID HE SHOULD BE ALLOWED TO LIVE IN ORDER TO WORK FOR PEACE AND BROTHERHOOD BETWEEN TURKS AND KURDS. THEN HE LISTENED IMPASSIVELY AS THE CHARGES AGAINST HIM WERE READ OUT.

    THE NEWLY BUILT COURTROOM ON THE PRISON ISLAND OF IMRALI WAS FILLED WITH SCORES OF PEOPLE INCLUDING FOREIGN DIPLOMATS, JOURNALISTS, AND RELATIVES OF THE VICTIMS. SOME OF THE RELATIVES HELD PHOTOGRAPHS OF FAMILY MEMBERS KILLED BY THE REBELS IN THEIR CAMPAIGN FOR AN INDEPENDENT KURDISH HOMELAND..

    THE GREATEST PRESENCE BY FAR, HOWEVER, WAS OF SECURITY FORCES WHO ARE SEEKING TO PREVENT ANY ATTACK AGAINST THE REBEL LEADER. MR. OCALAN IS ACCUSED OF RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE DEATHS OF 30-THOUSAND PEOPLE AND IS REVILED BY MANY IN TURKEY AS A TERRORIST AND A KILLER OF CHILDREN.

    THE KURDISH LEADER WAS CAPTURED LAST FEBRUARY IN KENYA AFTER A FOUR MONTH ODYSSEY DURING WHICH HE SOUGHT POLITICAL ASYLUM FROM A NUMBER OF COUNTRIES. HE IS CHARGED WITH TREASON, WHICH CARRIES A MANDATORY DEATH SENTENCED. IF CONVICTED THE SENTENCE IS AUTOMATICALLY APPEALED AND ULTIMATELY MUST BE UP BY THE TURKISH PARLIAMENT.

    HUMAN RIGHTS GROUPS HAVE CALLED FOR A POSTPONEMENT OF THE TRIAL SAYING MR. OCALAN'S LAWYERS HAVE NOT BEEN ABLE TO PREPARE AN ADEQUATE DEFENSE. THEY ARE ALSO CALLING FOR A CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT TO REMOVE THE MILITARY JUDGE IN THE TRIAL -- ONE OF THREE JUDGES WHO SIT ON THESE SPECIAL SECURITY COURTS. SOME TURKISH LEADERS SAY THEY SUPPORT SUCH AN AMENDMENT BUT THEY SAY THE JUDGES ARE INDEPENDENT AND IT IS UP TO THEM TO DECIDE WHETHER TO ADJOURN THE OCALAN TRIAL. (SIGNED") NEB/SB/CB-T/PLM/KL
    31-May-99 7:18 AM EDT (1118 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] TURKEY TRIAL BEGINS (L UPDATE) BY SCOTT BOBB (MUDANYA)

    DATE=5/31/99
    TYPE=CORESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-250035
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // UPDATING INTRO. NO OTHER CHANGES //

    INTRO: IN TURKEY, THE TRIAL OF KURDISH REBEL LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN HAS ENDED FOR THE DAY AND IS DUE TO RECONVENE TUESDAY ON IMRALI PRISON ISLAND, SOUTHWEST OF ISTANBUL. VOA CORRESPONDENT SCOTT BOBB REPORTS FROM THE NEARBY TOWN OF MUDANYA THAT THE THE JUDGES TURNED DOWN A REQUEST BY THE DEFENSE FOR AN ADJOURNMENT IN ORDER TO BETTER PREPARE THEIR CASE.

    TEXT: ABDULLAH OCALAN APPEARED BEFORE HIS ACCUSERS MONDAY LOOKING SOMBER BUT IN GOOD HEALTH. HE SAT AND AT TIMES STOOD BEHIND AN ENCLOSURE OF BULLET PROOF GLASS. IN HIS OPENING STATEMENT THE KURDISH REBEL LEADER ASKED FOR FORGIVENESS FROM THE FAMILIES FOR THE REBEL ATTACKS AND HE SAID HE SHOULD BE ALLOWED TO LIVE IN ORDER TO WORK FOR PEACE AND BROTHERHOOD BETWEEN TURKS AND KURDS. THEN HE LISTENED IMPASSIVELY AS THE CHARGES AGAINST HIM WERE READ OUT.

    THE NEWLY BUILT COURTROOM ON THE PRISON ISLAND OF IMRALI WAS FILLED WITH SCORES OF PEOPLE INCLUDING FOREIGN DIPLOMATS, JOURNALISTS, AND RELATIVES OF THE VICTIMS. SOME OF THE RELATIVES HELD PHOTOGRAPHS OF FAMILY MEMBERS KILLED BY THE REBELS IN THEIR CAMPAIGN FOR AN INDEPENDENT KURDISH HOMELAND..

    THE GREATEST PRESENCE BY FAR, HOWEVER, WAS OF SECURITY FORCES WHO ARE SEEKING TO PREVENT ANY ATTACK AGAINST THE REBEL LEADER. MR. OCALAN IS ACCUSED OF RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE DEATHS OF 30-THOUSAND PEOPLE AND IS REVILED BY MANY IN TURKEY AS A TERRORIST AND A KILLER OF CHILDREN.

    THE KURDISH LEADER WAS CAPTURED LAST FEBRUARY IN KENYA AFTER A FOUR MONTH ODYSSEY DURING WHICH HE SOUGHT POLITICAL ASYLUM FROM A NUMBER OF COUNTRIES. HE IS CHARGED WITH TREASON, WHICH CARRIES A MANDATORY DEATH SENTENCED. IF CONVICTED THE SENTENCE IS AUTOMATICALLY APPEALED AND ULTIMATELY MUST BE UP BY THE TURKISH PARLIAMENT.

    HUMAN RIGHTS GROUPS HAVE CALLED FOR A POSTPONEMENT OF THE TRIAL SAYING MR. OCALAN'S LAWYERS HAVE NOT BEEN ABLE TO PREPARE AN ADEQUATE DEFENSE. THEY ARE ALSO CALLING FOR A CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT TO REMOVE THE MILITARY JUDGE IN THE TRIAL -- ONE OF THREE JUDGES WHO SIT ON THESE SPECIAL SECURITY COURTS. SOME TURKISH LEADERS SAY THEY SUPPORT SUCH AN AMENDMENT BUT THEY SAY THE JUDGES ARE INDEPENDENT AND IT IS UP TO THEM TO DECIDE WHETHER TO ADJOURN THE OCALAN TRIAL. (SIGNED") NEB/SB/CB-T/PLM/KL
    31-May-99 12:01 PM EDT (1601 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY KEVIN LYNCH (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=05/28/99
    TYPE=EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11315
    TELEPHONE=619-2702
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    ///// ED'S: MATERIAL DATED AFTER 10 P-M EASTERN TIME. /////

    INTRO: TODAY IS A NATIONAL HOLIDAY IN THE UNITED STATES -- MEMORIAL DAY -- A DAY TO REMEMBER THOSE WHO DIED DEFENDING THE UNITED STATES. THERE IS ALSO EDITORIAL COMMENT ON THE UPCOMING VOTE ON THE FUTURE OF EAST TIMOR AS WELL AS A COMMENT ON THE HIGH EXPECTATIONS BEING PLACED ON JORDAN'S NEW KING. HERE WITH SOME EXCERPTS FROM MONDAY'S PRESS IS ____________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON POST", ALLUDING TO THE CONFLICT IN THE BALKANS, WRITES THAT THIS IS A "STRANGE SORT OF MEMORIAL DAY."

    VOICE: THE COUNTRY HAS BEEN AT WAR ... FOR MORE THAN TWO-MONTHS NOW, CONDUCTING MILITARY OPERATIONS DAY AND NIGHT IN DISTANT REGIONS AGAINST A DETERMINED ENEMY. AND YET IS HAS SUFFERED NOT ONE COMBAT CASUALTY... REMEMBER THAT THE FIRST OF THESE MEMORIAL OBSERVANCES CAME AFTER THE CIVIL WAR, IN WHICH MORE THAN A HALF-MILLION AMERICANS DIED. IN A NATION OF FEWER THAN 40-MILLION, PRACTICALLY EVERYONE HAD SUFFERED A LOSS, EVEN IF IT WAS ONLY AT SECOND HAND. HOW DIFFERENT FROM TODAY, WHEN AMERICANS ARE A QUARTER-CENTURY REMOVED FROM THE LAST WAR AND THE DAY'S MEANING IS BECOMING MORE AND MORE AN ABSTRACTION -- FOR THOSE WHO GIVE IT ANY THOUGHT AT ALL.

    // OPT //

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON TIMES" DEVOTES ITS EDITORIAL COLUMN TO REMARKS FORMER PRESIDENT RONALD REAGAN MADE IN NORMANDY, FRANCE ON THE FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE INVASION OF D-DAY:.

    VOICE: WE ARE HERE TO MARK THAT DAY IN HISTORY WHEN THE ALLIED PEOPLE JOINED IN BATTLE TO RECLAIM THIS CONTINENT TO LIBERTY. FOR FOUR LONG YEARS, MUCH OF EUROPE HAD BEEN UNDER A TERRIBLE SHADOW. FREE NATIONS HAD FALLEN, JEWS CRIED OUT IN THE CAMPS, MILLIONS CRIED OUT FOR LIBERATION. EUROPE WAS ENSLAVED, AND THE WORLD PRAYED FOR ITS RESCUE. HERE IN NORMANDY THE RESCUE BEGAN. HERE THE ALLIES STOOD AND FOUGHT AGAINST TYRANNY IN A GIANT UNDERTAKING UNPARALLELED IN HUMAN HISTORY. // END OPT //

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" TRACES THE BEGINNING OF THE HOLIDAY BACK TO ITS CIVIL WAR ROOTS AND THEN COMMENTS ON HOW MEMORIAL DAY HAS BECOME PART OF AMERICAN LIFE.

    VOICE: MEMORIAL DAY BEGAN AS A GRAND ARMY PROCLAMATION IN 1868 TO COORDINATE THE DECORATION OF THE GRAVES OF THE UNION DEAD... OVER TIME THE HOLIDAY AND THE DECORATING OF GRAVES WITH FLOWERS HAS EMBRACED THE DEAD OF ALL OF AMERICA'S WARS, EVEN AS THE DAY ITSELF HAS, FOR MANY AMERICANS, LOST ITS COMMEMORATIVE QUALITY.... TO ENTER SUMMER WITH AN ACT OF SOLEMNITY, HOWEVER SLIGHT ... HAS A CERTAIN ELEMENTAL FITNESS... OUR JOB NOW IS TO LIVE OUT ALL THOSE SUMMERS THAT WERE LOST TO THE MEN AND WOMEN WHO DIED IN WARS PAST.

    TEXT: TURNING NOW TO EAST TIMOR, WHERE VOTERS WILL SOON HAVE A CHOICE BETWEEN AUTONOMY OR INDEPENDENCE FROM INDONESIA. "THE WASHINGTON POST" WRITES THE PEOPLE OF EAST TIMOR HAVE REASON TO BE ALARMED.

    VOICE: THE PRIZE OF SELF-DETERMINATION FOR WHICH EAST TIMOR HAS STRUGGLED FOR NEARLY 25-YEARS MAY BE SLIPPING OUT OF ITS GRASP. RESPONSIBILITY FOR SUCH A BITTER OUTCOME WOULD UNDOUBTEDLY FALL ON INDONESIA, THE COLONIAL POWER. IN THE YEAR SINCE THE VETERAN MILITARY STRONGMAN SUHARTO STEPPED DOWN, INDONESIAN ARMED FORCES REMAINING IN THE ISLAND TERRITORY HAVE EITHER CONSPIRED WITH LOCAL PRO-INDONESIA MILITIAS TO STYMIE TIMORESE CHOICE OR LOST CONTROL TO THOSE SAME MILITIAS. EITHER WAY, THE TIMORESE STAND TO BE DENIED RELIEF FROM AN ORDEAL THAT UNFOLDED IN ISOLATION AND OBSCURITY AND TOOK THE LIVES OF AN ESTIMATED FIFTH (200,000) OF THE POPULATION OVER TIME. "THE BALTIMORE SUN" COMMENTS ON THE PRESSURE FACING JORDAN'S NEW RULER, KING ABDULLAH, NOW THAT THERE WILL SOON BE A NEW GOVERNMENT IN ISRAEL. THE PAPER WRITES:

    VOICE: ISRAEL'S ELECTION CATAPULTED JORDAN'S KING INTO CRUCIAL IMPORTANCE THAT WOULD HAVE TAXED HIS LATE FATHER, KING HUSSEIN, WHO DIED IN FEBRUARY. AT 37, THE NEW KING HAD TRAINED ONLY TO LEAD THE ARMY. ALREADY, HE HAS SHUFFLED THE CABINET TO MAKE IT HIS OWN, DECLARED A MORE OPEN ECONOMY, BEGGED FOR DEBT RELIEF AND VISITED WASHINGTON AND GAZA. IT APPEARS TO BE HIS DESTINY TO BROKER PEACE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND THE PALESTINIANS, AND BETWEEN ISRAEL AND SYRIA.... [KING ABDULLAH] HAS FIGURED OUT THAT PEACE AMONG HIS NEIGHBORS WOULD BE JORDAN'S BEST SECURITY -- AND HIS OWN.

    TEXT: WITH THAT COMMENT FROM" THE BALTIMORE SUN" WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF U-S EDITORIAL COMMENT.
    NEB/KL/RAE
    31-May-99 12:16 PM EDT (1616 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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