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OMRI Pursuing Balkan Peace, No. 25, 96-06-25

Open Media Research Institute: Pursuing Balkan Peace Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: Open Media Research Institute <http://www.omri.cz>

Pursuing Balkan Peace
No. 25, 25 June 1996


CONTENTS

  • [01] KARADZIC NOMINATED FOR BOSNIAN SERB PRESIDENCY.
  • [02] BOSNIAN SERB POLITICAL UPDATE.
  • [03] PALE SETS AGENDA FOR BRCKO.
  • [04] SERBIAN WOMEN HOLD OSCE REPRESENTATIVES CAPTIVE.
  • [05] PALE TO SET UP SPECIAL WAR CRIMES COURT.
  • [06] SERBS BEING BULLIED OUT OF SARAJEVO.
  • [07] BIGGEST MASS GRAVE TO DATE EXHUMED NEAR SARAJEVO.
  • [08] ARMS EMBARGO FOR FORMER YUGOSLAVIA ENDS.
  • [09] U.S. STARTS FIRST MAJOR REDEPLOYMENT OUT OF BOSNIA.
  • [10] UPDATE ON EMPLOYMENT OF DEMOBILIZED SOLDIERS.
  • [11] BOSNIAN MILITARY SHORTS.
  • [12] COTTI VISITS BOSNIA AHEAD OF DECISION ON ELECTIONS.
  • [13] MORE FALLOUT OVER B-H CROAT "GOVERNMENT..."
  • [14] ...AND THE ROW CONTINUES.
  • [15] INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS WARN CROATS NOT TO TRY TO PRESERVE HERCEG-BOSNA.
  • [16] BOSNIAN CROATS DENY ATTEMPTING TO PRESERVE HERCEG-BOSNA.
  • [17] HOW DO THE MOSTAR ELECTIONS WORK?
  • [18] TUDJMAN SKEPTICAL BOSNIA STATE WILL SURVIVE.
  • [19] SERBIAN LEADERS ON BOSNIAN ELECTIONS.
  • [20] SERBIAN "DEMOCRATS" WOULD SUPPORT A KARADZIC CANDIDACY.
  • [21] RUMP YUGOSLAVIA PARDONS DRAFT DODGERS.
  • [22] OMRI INTERVIEW -- Soren Jensen Petersen

  • [01] KARADZIC NOMINATED FOR BOSNIAN SERB PRESIDENCY.

    The Pale regional group of the governing Serbian Democratic Party (SDS) on 20 June nominated the current president of the Republika Srpska (RS), Radovan Karadzic, to run in the direct elections for the presidency. He is, however, also an indicted war criminal, and the Dayton agreement specifies that such people cannot hold political office and must be sent to The Hague to face charges. The latest move of the SDS regional chapter thus constitutes a direct challenge to those responsible for implementing the Dayton treaty.

    Whether or not Karadzic will actually head the SDS ticket will be settled at the party's convention slated for 28 June, Onasa reported. That day is Vidovdan -- a major Serbian holiday with momentous historical overtones -- and the date was doubtlessly selected to maximize the propaganda value of the convention. There have recently been orchestrated demonstrations on behalf of Karadzic and fellow indicted war criminal Gen. Ratko Mladic across the RS. Slogans used at the rallies stress that Karadzic is the Bosnian Serbs' leader and that the people will defend him. These views were echoed by SDS official Stevan Milic, whom Beta quoted as saying: "We will elect the best, and Karadzic is the best. If he does not accept [the nomination], we will make him." Karadzic's hard-line deputy, Biljana Plavsic, added: "If IFOR tries to arrest Karadzic in the meantime, our reaction will be very strong and therefore we actually don't care whether they will try to do it or not."

    Karadzic's nomination also comes amid reports that Belgrade and its loyalists in Pale are trying to oust him before sanctions are reimposed. AFP quoted U.S. Undersecretary of State Peter Tarnoff as stating: "We have had some indications that the authorities... are thinking about the consequences to them if... Karadzic is not removed from power and removed from influence. I can't tell you if they will act in time, but [Secretary of State Warren Christopher] is quite serious about it."

    Karadzic and his followers, however, probably have little to fear from the international community, which so far has failed to uphold the civilian provisions of the Dayton agreement that it itself sponsored. Karadzic and Mladic continue to move about freely, unhindered by the presence of 60,000 of some of NATO's finest troops. Western protests about Karadzic's continuing political role thus ring increasingly hollow, as did the statement of State Department spokesman Nicholas Burns on Karadzic's nomination: "His name will not be on the ballot. He cannot hold office whether he has 100 or 1,000 votes."

    Karadzic, however, is likely to be nominated regardless of the objections from Washington, Sarajevo, or anywhere else. Perhaps the only power he really has to fear is Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic, who might like to see Karadzic silenced lest some day he tell what he knows about Milosevic's role in starting the war and carrying out war crimes. There area already jokes in Serbia about the possibility of Karadzic's having "an auto accident." -- Patrick Moore

    [02] BOSNIAN SERB POLITICAL UPDATE.

    There was thus predictably widespread anger in the international community following the nomination, the BBC reported on 22 June. Leaks then came from within the RS to news agencies to suggest that Karadzic will leave the presidency this week to concentrate on SDS affairs, and that hard-line Foreign Minister Aleksa Buha will replace him. Buha himself subsequently denied the story as "journalistic speculation," Nasa Borba reported on 24 June. The paper added that a campaign has begun in the RS to support Karadzic's presidential candidacy. He has been endorsed by the Banja Luka SDS and by the Society of Refugees in Brcko, which claims to represent 15,000 people. Also in Banja Luka, however, Mayor Predrag Radic said he will oppose Karadzic for the presidency, AFP reported on 23 June. Radic recently broke with Karadzic and the SDS, and will run as the candidate of the opposition Democratic Patriotic Bloc of the Republika Srpska. -- Patrick Moore

    [03] PALE SETS AGENDA FOR BRCKO.

    Back in Pale, the Republika Srpska's legislature met on 19 June and elected Vitomir Pavlovic, a professor of international law in Banja Luka, as the Serbs' representative to the arbitration commission that will settle the fate of Brcko, as specified in the Dayton agreement. The parliament also directed the cabinet to set down the Serbian position on the future of the northern Bosnian town and the surrounding land corridor that links the western and eastern halves of the RS, Nasa Borba noted. Pavlovic said that previous international conferences had "never disputed" that Brcko will remain Serbian and that "it was agreed in Dayton that the RS should have 20 km more in that region," Onasa reported. The Bosnian government favors making a neutral zone out of Brcko, which had a mainly Muslim population before the war. -- Patrick Moore

    [04] SERBIAN WOMEN HOLD OSCE REPRESENTATIVES CAPTIVE.

    Some other Bosnian Serbs, for their part, have decided on taking a more direct approach to dealing with their problems. Dozens of women who want help in finding relatives missing since the Croatian offensive last summer surrounded the OSCE offices in Banja Luka on 17 June, preventing staff from leaving the building, AFP reported. Twenty-four hours later, they left following talks with Michael Steiner, who is the deputy of High Representative Carl Bildt. The leader of the Bosnian Serb missing persons' group said the women's action was "political" and aimed at drawing the attention of UN organizations to the problem of missing Serbs in Bosnia. But Alexander Ivanko, a UN spokesman in Sarajevo, said the UN international police consider it "not a political but a criminal action." -- Daria Sito Sucic

    [05] PALE TO SET UP SPECIAL WAR CRIMES COURT.

    The Bosnian Serb parliament, meanwhile, also adopted a proposal to establish a war crimes court to try Bosnian Serbs indicted by the Hague-based International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Nasa Borba reported on 20 June. Speaker Momcilo Krajisnik proposed setting up the new body because the RS constitution prohibits the extradition of its citizens. This all serves to "legalize" Pale's persistent refusal to extradite indicted war criminals Karadzic and Mladic, and otherwise to cooperate with the court, as the Dayton agreement obliges it to do. The Bosnian Serb parliament also passed a partial amnesty for people charged with or convicted for "disturbing the Republika Srpska's social order." -- Daria Sito Sucic

    [06] SERBS BEING BULLIED OUT OF SARAJEVO.

    Back in the Bosnian capital, Onasa on 21 June quoted UN spokesman Ivanko as saying that 72 Serbs have been intimidated into leaving formerly Serb-held suburbs. He added that more are preparing to go if the situation does not improve. "We are especially concerned over the harassment of [members of the] Serbian Democratic Initiative (SDI), the only organization that is trying to protect Serbs in those areas." Ivanko added that the UN is especially concerned about SDI member Bogdan Jovanovic, whom federal police arrested some weeks ago on suspicion of war crimes. Jovanovic remains in jail but no charges have been brought against him and no evidence has been produced. -- Patrick Moore

    [07] BIGGEST MASS GRAVE TO DATE EXHUMED NEAR SARAJEVO.

    Evidence has indeed come to light, however, in another case. Bosnian forensic and judicial experts and a U.S. forensic anthropologist from the Hague-based war crimes tribunal uncovered the bodies of 47 Muslims men in the hamlet of Ravne. The people came from the village of Ahatovici and were killed by the Serbs on 14 June 1992, AFP reported on 24 June. The story came to light because eight additional Muslims escaped from the bus in which all had been held as the Serbs raked it with rocket-propelled grenades and small-arms fire, Reuters added. The Serbs left the bodies in the bus, but Muslims from Ravne buried the victims a few days later. -- Patrick Moore

    [08] ARMS EMBARGO FOR FORMER YUGOSLAVIA ENDS.

    Turning to military affairs, international restrictions on the export of weapons to that troubled region became history on 18 June, AFP reported. The move became possible according to the terms of the Dayton agreement following the signing of a regional arms control agreement on 14 June (see ).

    Serbia-Montenegro, Croatia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina will now enjoy parity in heavy weapons in a ratio of 5:2:2. Within the Bosnian allotment, the Croat- Muslim federation will be allowed more weapons than the Bosnian Serbs. The embargo went into effect on 25 September 1991 following Serbia's invasion of Slovenia and Croatia. The ban served to preserve Belgrade's existing military preponderance, but all sides found ways of circumventing the restrictions, the BBC noted. It is unlikely that the latest arms control agreement will be any more water-tight than was the embargo. Reports are already circulating that the Bosnian Serbs will circumvent the restrictions by simply sending their heavy guns and other hardware to Montenegro for storage. -- Patrick Moore

    [09] U.S. STARTS FIRST MAJOR REDEPLOYMENT OUT OF BOSNIA.

    Soldiers of the 1st Armored Division Headquarters, the Division Support Command and various liaison groups will begin IFOR's first significant move out of the war-torn republic on 23 June. They will leave Lukavica in northern Bosnia for Slavonski Brod in Croatia, AFP reported on 19 June. There has been much discussion in Western capitals about keeping the peacekeepers on in Bosnia into 1997 to deter any renewal of fighting, and U.S. Secretary of Defense William Perry has endorsed the idea. President Bill Clinton, however, has made election year promises that U.S. forces will leave Bosnia by December 1996. Meanwhile in the Adriatic, NATO and WEU ships suspended their arms control patrols know as operation Sharp Guard following the end of the UN's arms embargo on the former Yugoslavia. Finally, British commander Gen. Michael Jackson said he will leave his post on 26 June with mixed feelings. He is especially concerned with the failure to enforce the Dayton agreement's civilian provisions. Britain's 8,700 troops constitute IFOR's second largest contingent. -- Patrick Moore

    [10] UPDATE ON EMPLOYMENT OF DEMOBILIZED SOLDIERS.

    Among the three sides within Bosnia, however, much concern centers on demobilizing tens of thousands of men for whom there are probably no jobs. Sarajevo officials report that employment of demobilized Bosnian Army soldiers is not going well, Oslobodjenje said on 14 June. While 23,000 troops have been released from the army since the start of demobilization process in November 1995, 10,000 more are still slated to be released. The city assembly defense secretary noted that only 7,500 of the men have found jobs so far. Onasa reported on 20 June, however, that the major steel plant in Zenica will reopen two departments that will provide jobs for some 1,000 demobilized soldiers who were laid off and waiting for jobs. -- Daria Sito Sucic

    [11] BOSNIAN MILITARY SHORTS.

    All parties in Bosnia-Herzegovina have signed an agreement to fine-tune the demarcation line between the Croat-Muslim federation and the Republika Srpska. The text covers 44 points of contention, AFP reported on 20 June. Still unresolved are border issues in the formerly Serb-held Sarajevo suburb of Dobrinja, and in the Sapna region of eastern Bosnia between Tuzla and Zvornik. Meanwhile in nearby Bijeljina, IFOR news officials said that future briefings on Bosnian Serb territory will be held in that town rather than in Pale, Onasa noted. IFOR stopped the press conferences in the Bosnian Serb capital two weeks ago because of a picture of Karadzic hanging on the wall. -- Patrick Moore

    [12] COTTI VISITS BOSNIA AHEAD OF DECISION ON ELECTIONS.

    Meanwhile on the civilian political front, much attention this week centered on the elections. Swiss Foreign Minister and OSCE President Flavio Cotti arrived in Bosnia-Herzegovina on 23 June for a series of meetings with both Bosnian and RS officials, international and local media reported. After talks with Bosnian Prime Minister Hasan Muratovic, Cotti said the OSCE was not subject to any pressure, though all Western governments want the Bosnian elections to be held by the agreed September deadline, Hina reported. Muratovic said Bosnian authorities would take all measures necessary to create conditions for free elections, whenever they take place. Cotti is expected to announce the decision on the elections date on 25 June. In an unrelated development, refugees from Mostar living in rump Yugoslavia said after visiting Mostar that a mass return of Mostar Serbs to their homes is out of the question due to the displaced Muslims who are currently settled there, Nasa Borba reported on 24 June. -- Daria Sito Sucic

    [13] MORE FALLOUT OVER B-H CROAT "GOVERNMENT..."

    The local Croats were in the news as well. The leading Croatian political party in both Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ), denied on 18 June that recent political changes in the self- proclaimed Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosna are a breach of the Dayton agreement (see ). The HDZ's Bozo Rajic said that the changes involve only reorganizing an existing cabinet, and that the Republic remains legal until the Croat-Muslim federation truly comes into effect. The Muslims charge that the quasi-state should have been disbanded long ago. Federal Vice President Ejup Ganic has demanded the recall of federal Foreign Minister Jadranko Prlic, a Croat, since his appointment had been conditional on the dissolution of Herceg-Bosna, Onasa reported. The Russian Foreign Ministry has also protested the Croatian moves as a breach of Dayton, Nasa Borba wrote on 19 June . Most observers would probably agree that the Muslim position is the one most in keeping with peace agreement, but would also note that western Herzegovina functions in any event as a part of Croatia. -- Patrick Moore

    [14] ...AND THE ROW CONTINUES.

    Ganic then warned the Bosnian Federation Constituent Assembly on 19 June that the situation in the federation was difficult, and underscored that setting up the new government of Herceg-Bosna was a "huge step backward," Onasa reported. He also deplored the "lack of political liberties" on the territory controlled by the Croatian Defense Council (HVO). Opposition parties have proposed that both Federation President Kresimir Zubak and Vice President Ganic be relieved of their duties because they have not upheld the signed agreements on the federation. Zubak himself said he and Ganic are unable to perform 80% of their duties because the institutional framework is lacking, Hina reported. Zubak also defended Bosnian Croat government structures, saying they have been reduced to a level necessary for "normal work and life of citizens." In addition, he denied Ganic's assertion that Prlic obtained his post as a return favor for abolishing Herceg-Bosna. -- Daria Sito Sucic

    [15] INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS WARN CROATS NOT TO TRY TO PRESERVE HERCEG-BOSNA.

    The discussion had echoes outside Bosnia-Herzegovina, too. The EU warned the Bosnian Croats that efforts to preserve Herceg-Bosna are a clear violation of the Dayton peace accord and run contrary to the goal of consolidating the federation, AFP reported on 20 June. The Italian EU Presidency urged the Croatian government to pressure the local Croat leadership to cooperate in the peace process. Meanwhile, UN spokesman Ivanko, warning of growing "separatist tendencies" in Bosnia, said on 19 June that Bosnian Croats in particular are not cooperating with peace implementation officials because of their desire to maintain their para-state, Oslobodjenje reported. Ivanko also called on Zagreb to force Herceg-Bosna leaders to comply with the peace agreement. -- Daria Sito Sucic

    [16] BOSNIAN CROATS DENY ATTEMPTING TO PRESERVE HERCEG-BOSNA.

    But then, after having been heavily criticized both at home and abroad, three Bosnian Croat leaders on 23 June denied the Croats are trying to preserve their mini-state, AFP reported. Prlic, Rajic, and Federal Defense Minister Vladimir Soljic said their move to restructure rather than disband the Herceg- Bosna government was misunderstood, and was actually a way to gradually transfer authority to the federation. Meanwhile, Bosnian Croats on 22 June stoned buses carrying more than 200 Bosnian Muslims who were trying to visit their former homes in town of Pocitelj, south of Mostar, AFP reported, quoting a Bosnian radio report. While Croat refugees surrounded and stoned the buses, the local Croat police did not react, AFP added. -- Daria Sito Sucic

    [17] HOW DO THE MOSTAR ELECTIONS WORK?

    The big story in Mostar, is, however, the elections. An EU administration representative told OMRI that voters will have three votes on 30 June. With the first they will elect the city's six municipalities, each of which has 25 seats. With the second and the third ones they will elect the 37-seat city council. Among those two votes one will decide 24 seats which will be filled by four representatives from each of the six municipalities. The third ballot will elect the remaining 13 seats at large.

    During the whole election process the voters will not decide on candidates directly but exclusively about party lists. In addition, the ethnic representation in both the municipalities and the city council has been defined in advance. The ethnic representation in the six municipalities will match the pre-war demographic situation and every candidate running on a party list is required to declare his "nationality" before the elections. The parties, who win seats in the respective district according to proportional representation, are then required to fill the seats with appropriate candidates. This means for example that the Croatian Democratic Community has to nominate Serbian candidates if it wins a majority and still wants to claim all the seats to which it is entitled. This is because only a certain predesignated percentage -- and no higher -- can be filled with ethnic Croat officials. The same rule applies to the City Council, but the ethnic key has been defined regardless of pre-war demography as being 16 Muslims, 16 Croats and 5 members of other nationalities.

    There will be altogether 77 polling stations. The EU itself will finance, but not administer the ballot. Meanwhile, The EU and IFOR said that refugees from Mostar who are currently in Germany, Switzerland, Sweden or Norway will be able to vote on 30 June. The EU will pay bus travel expenses for those refugees opting to return to Mostar just to vote, according to spokesman Dragan Gasic. It remains unclear, however, how many refugees will accept the offer and how they will be informed about their rights. Gasic stressed the importance of allowing voters to go back to their country of residence after the ballot, Onasa reported on 20 June. -- Fabian Schmidt

    [18] TUDJMAN SKEPTICAL BOSNIA STATE WILL SURVIVE.

    If one wonders from where the Croat hard-liners are taking their cues outside Bosnia, one need not look far. NATO diplomatic sources in Brussels described the recent talks between NATO Secretary-General Javier Solana and Croatian President Franjo Tudjman as having been "extremely difficult," Nasa Borba reported on 19 June. The NATO official was "not impressed" by Tudjman's readiness to cooperate in solving Bosnian problems. Moreover, he was discouraged to find out that the president does not believe Bosnia-Herzegovina will survive as a single state and that he feels that the Dayton peace accord is valid only temporarily. Tudjman holds that in the long run Bosnia will be divided between Serbs and Croats, Nasa Borba reported. -- Daria Sito Sucic

    [19] SERBIAN LEADERS ON BOSNIAN ELECTIONS.

    Turning to Serbia, much attention has centered in recent weeks on the role that Belgrade-based parties will or will not play in the upcoming RS elections. Vuk Draskovic, leader of the opposition Serbian Renewal Movement, has said his party will not take part in the upcoming elections in the Republika Srpska. Nasa Borba on 19 June quoted him as saying that "the preconditions for an open and democratic" vote are lacking. Meanwhile, in an interview with OMRI, Democratic Party (DS) leader Zoran Djindjic said his party will participate in the vote. He said that he believed that the elections would be "relatively fair" or would at least reflect the strength of the various parties involved. -- Stan Markotich in Belgrade

    [20] SERBIAN "DEMOCRATS" WOULD SUPPORT A KARADZIC CANDIDACY.

    At a 21 June Belgrade press conference, moreover, DS representative Slobodan Vuksanovic said that his party could endorse a possible run by Karadzic in the upcoming vote. Vuksanovic described as "legitimate" a possible Karadzic candidacy and underscored his party's position that the Bosnian Serb leader "thus far has shown that he is responsible to his people, always seemingly placing their interests above his own." Djindjic had told OMRI that Karadzic's Serbian Democratic Party (SDS) had "a legitimate tradition [wing]....that can be worked with." -- Stan Markotich

    [21] RUMP YUGOSLAVIA PARDONS DRAFT DODGERS.

    Still in Serbia, the rump Yugoslav parliament on 18 June approved an amnesty for some 12,500 conscripts who avoided military service or deserted during the wars in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina between 1991 and 1995, Reuters reported. The law does not apply to professional soldiers and active officers. Previously, draft dodgers and deserters faced up to 10 years in prison if convicted. Tens of thousands of young men -- particularly ethnic Albanians and other minorities -- fled rump Yugoslavia to avoid having to fight in the war. Rump Yugoslav authorities repeatedly rounded up men born in Croatia and Bosnia and sent them to fight there, according to human rights monitors. -- Stefan Krause

    [22] OMRI INTERVIEW

    The OMRI special correspondents in Sarajevo recently spoke with Soren Jensen Petersen, the UNHCR special envoy for the former Yugoslavia.

    On the stalled return of refugees:

    We see absolutely no return of refugees. We see people going back spontaneously to places in their own ethnic majority areas. There are very few organized returns. We have had thousands of [Bihac pocket kingpin Fikret] Abdic supporters coming back from the Croatian camp in Kuplensko. But otherwise the remaining 70,000-80,000 returnees are all spontaneous and all to majority areas. We have seen no return to areas where the people would today constitute an ethnic minority where they were a majority before the war -- in other words, mainly the [Muslims] from eastern Bosnia... I honestly believe that, in the present circumstances, there is nothing the UNHCR could do in terms of bringing people back. If we had pushed return now, and I don't see how we could have done it, it would have been already a contribution to ethnic separation, because since it is impossible for the people to go back to areas they have fled from, we would have to push them to other areas. And this, I am afraid would cement the division...

    On the local obstacles to repatriation:

    And not only do we see no return; even when we try to organize simple visits... they are being blocked... Leaders who took this country to war are still there, and it is obvious that they are pursuing exactly the same policy in peace time. This is why the return of refugees is obviously impossible...We have to keep this problem on the agenda, reminding those who have signed Dayton that they committed themselves to accept people coming back. Under the present circumstances, there is no way you could bring people back...If our goal is to bring people back and if the goal of some politicians is to keep them out, then it is clear that they view the UNHCR as a direct threat. This is, for instance, why those few UNHCR bus lines connecting both entities are being blocked and obstructed on the Serbian side. And I must say that I take this almost as a compliment.

    On the need for the international community to take a more active role:

    ...we have developed some new strategies like concentrating our efforts on 19 target areas...We are trying to create the conditions for return by much more aggressively involving the international community. By identifying 19 target areas, we are saying: "To these areas, displaced persons might be able to return, if we can mobilize reconstruction assistance, rehabilitation processes, and the presence of IFOR. People could come back to these areas, because there the problem is destruction and not security." There are three areas where we would like to see more resolve of the international community: speeding up reconstruction, freedom of movement, and security.

    On the March exodus of Serbs from Sarajevo:

    It was clearly a provoked exodus. But in many ways, after speaking to many of those who left and now live in appalling conditions in Eastern Bosnia, and asking them when they are planning to go back, I realized that they do not want to go back. In a way they said they went back to "their own country." Because after the formalization of the division into two entities, they regard the Republika Srpska as "their" country. In a very sad way, you could say this was repatriation.

    On the upcoming elections and the post-election role of UNHCR:

    I think in the long run the elections will legitimize and therefore consolidate the leadership whose policy clearly is ethnic division. And if that is so, there will be evidently no prospect for return and we will have to look for other solutions... Concerning the accusation [that the UNHCR would then be] helping to finish the job of ethnic cleansing, I first must say that it is absolutely not sure that the UNHCR would be involved in such a situation after elections... today we realize that we cannot do what we thought we could do seven, eight months ago. But on the other hand, we still refuse to throw in the towel and say it is impossible... We still have an important protection role in both entities. But if there is no return to the Republika Srpska and there is no respect for human rights there, we would have to ask ourselves: "Is there still a job to do?" And if the answer is no, we would have to go...We are in a dilemma. As we never called for the use of force to get a humanitarian convoy through in war, we cannot call for the use of force to push visits through nowadays. That would be disastrous. But just as we used to say in war -- deterrence is presence -- it is about being around. To show that we are ready to intervene when there is a problem. Jan Urban and Yvonne Badal, in Sarajevo

    Compiled by Patrick Moore


    This material was reprinted with permission of the Open Media Research Institute, a nonprofit organization with research offices in Prague, Czech Republic.
    For more information on OMRI publications please write to info@omri.cz.


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