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Voice of America, 23 October 1995

From: yanni@ix.netcom.com (Ioannis Bousnakis)

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY PHIL HAYNES (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] !!! VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT OCTOBER 23, 1995 !!!

  • [03] CROATIA/SERBS (L) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (ZAGREB)

  • [04] E-U / EAST EUROPE (L ONLY-RERUN) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

  • [05] E-U / FRANCE NUKE (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

  • [06] EUROPE ENVIRONMENT (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

  • [07] THE U-N AT 50: LOOKING BACK BY AMIN FEKRAT (WASHINGTON)

  • [08] THE U.N. AT 50 BY GARY EDQUIST (WASHINGTON)

  • [09] U-N/50 - MONDAY (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)


  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY PHIL HAYNES (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/23/95
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09230
    TELEPHONE=619-0932
    EDITOR=NANCY SMART
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON MONDAY, OCTOBER 23RD //

    INTRO: NO SINGLE TOPIC DOMINATES THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS OF AMERICA'S LEADING NEWSPAPERS THIS MONDAY. THE UNITED NATIONS 50TH ANNIVERSARY OBSERVANCES IS THE MOST PROMINENT INTERNATIONAL SUBJECT, FOLLOWED BY CUBAN LEADER FIDEL CASTRO'S VISIT TO NEW YORK CITY, AND PRESIDENT CLINTON'S SCHEDULED MEETING WITH CHINA'S PRESIDENT JAING ZEMIN. AMONG DOMESTIC CONCERNS ARE CONGRESSIONAL EFFORTS TO REFORM THE NATION'S MEDICARE PROGRAM THAT PROVIDES HEALTH CARE FOR THE ELDERLY. HERE IS _________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" NOTES THAT LEADERS OF NEARLY EVERY NATION ARE MARKING THE 50TH ANNIVERSAY OF THE UNITED NATIONS THIS WEEK, BUT SAYS IT MUST BE "MORE THAN A BIRTHDAY BASH". IN "THE TIMES" WORDS, THE LEADERS "MUST DO MORE THAN FILL THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY HALL WITH PLATITUDES AND SNARL MANHATTAN TRAFFIC":

    VOICE: "WITHOUT SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN ORGANIZATION AND BEHAVIOR, THE U-N WILL LOSE ITS REMAINING EFFECTIVENESS AND PUBLIC SUPPORT. IN RECENT YEARS, THE SECURITY COUNCIL ... HAS DOMINATED THE U-N'S BUSINESS AND FINANCES. THAT HAS LED TO TWO PROBLEMS. ONE IS THE PROLIFERATION OF OVER-AMBTITIOUS PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS THAT HAVE BROUGHT PUBLIC DISCREDIT AND NEAR-BACKRUPTCY TO THE U-N. THE OTHER IS THE DISPROPORTIONATE VOTING POWER OF THE COUNCIL'S FIVE PERMANENT MEMBERS -- THE UNITED STATES, BRITAIN, CHINA, FRANCE AND RUSSIA... THE U-N REMAINS AN UNDER-ACHIEVER IN WHAT SHOULD BE ONE OF ITS NATURAL ENDEAVORS -- ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT... THE BEST WAY FOR ITS MEMBERS TO CELEBRATE ITS IMPERFECT FIRST 50 YEARS IS TO COMMIT THEMSELVES TO SHAPE A MORE PERFECT UNITED NATIONS FOR THE FUTURE."

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON TIMES" SAYS PRESIDENT CLINTON'S PLANNED MEETING IN NEW YORK WITH CHINESE PRESIDENT JIANG ZEMI SHOULD FOCUS ON SEVERAL MAJOR CONCERNS. BUT THE PAPER SAYS FROM CHINA'S PERSPECTIVE, TAIWAN IS PERHAPS THE MOST URGENT:

    VOICE: "EVER SINCE THE ADMINISTRATION, UNDER DIRECTION FROM CONGRESS, ALLOWED TAIWAN'S PRESIDENT LEE TENG-HUI TO VISIT THE UNITED STATES THIS SUMMER TO ATTEND A REUNION AT HIS ALMA MATER, THE MAINLAND CHINESE LEADERSHIP HAS BEEN LIVID. THEY CONTEND THAT IT WAS A VIOLATION OF THE U-S 'ONE-CHINA' POLICY SINCE 1979, WHICH HAS RECOGNIZED ONLY THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA. SINCE THE VISIT WAS PURELY PRIVATE, IT WAS NO SUCH THING, OF COURSE. AND IN ANY EVENT, THE UNITED STATES IS NOT ACCOUNTABLE TO OTHERS FOR ITS VISA DECISIONS.

    TEXT: [OPT] CONCERNING CHINA'S PLEDGE NOT TO INTERFERE IN THE AFFAIRS OF HONG KONG, "THE WASHINGTON TIMES" SAYS THE U-S OUGHT TO "STRONGLY SUPPORT RESPECT FOR THE POLITICAL INTEGRITY OF THE BRITISH COLONY". THE PAPER ALSO EXPRESSES CONCERN ABUT CHINA'S ARMS BUILDUP AND, WHAT IT CALLS, "THE LARGE AREA OF HUMAN RIGHTS". [END OPT] "USA TODAY", THE NATIONAL WEEKDAY PAPER, TOPS ITS EDITORIAL COLUMN WITH AN OPEN LETTER TO CUBA'S PRESIDENT FIDEL CASTRO, WHO HAS BEEN SPEAKING OUT IN NEW YORK AGAINST THE U-S ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST HIS ISLAND STATE. THE NATIONAL DAILY SAYS U-S SANCTIONS SHOULD END, BUT TELLS THE CUBAN LEADER THAT HE CAN DO MORE TO HELP MAKE IT HAPPEN:

    VOICE: "... RELEASING POLITICAL PRISONERS WOULD BE A START... SET FREE, THEY CAN'T CONCEIVABLY DO YOU MUCH HARM; MANY OF THEM MIGHT EVEN LEAVE THE COUNTRY, GIVEN A CHANCE... THEN YOU COULD REITERATE YOUR WILLINGNESS TO NEGOTIATE COMPENSATION FOR BUSINESSES AND INDIVIDUALS WHO HAD ONE-POINT-EIGHT BILLION DOLLARS WORTH OF PROPERTY IN CUBA SEIZED AFTER YOUR REVOLUTION... THE COLD WAR IS OVER, BUT THE DIPLOMATIC LOGJAM BETWEEN OUR COUNTRIES IS HOSTAGE TO THE POLITICAL LOGJAM HERE. WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE TO WORK TOWARD NORMALIZED RELATIONS IS OBVIOUS. YOU CAN HELP TO GET IT STARTED."

    TEXT: AN OPPOSING VIEW ALSO IN "USA TODAY" PUT IT DIFFERENTLY: "IF (MR.) CASTRO REALLY WANTS TO HELP HIS COUNTRY, HE CAN GIVE UP AND GET OUT."

    A CHIEF CONCERN OF SOME EDITORIAL WRITERS IS LEGISLATION PASSED BY THE REPUBLICAN-LED HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES THAT WOULD BEGIN SCALING BACK MEDICARE, THE FEDERAL PROGRAM THAT PAYS FOR HEALTH CARE FOR THE NATION'S ELDERLY. THE "MIAMI HERALD" AGREES MEDICARE NEEDS TO BE CUT, BUT SAYS THE REPUBLICANS' MOVE TO CUT TAXES AT THE SAME TIME MAKES NO SENSE:

    VOICE: "MEDICARE EXPENDITURES GROW AT AN UNMANAGEABLE RATE, AND SOME FISCAL BRAKE ON THAT GROWTH IS INESCAPABLE... BUT NEITHER MUST IT BE CHAIN-SAWED IN A RUSH, AS THE HOUSE REPUBLICAN PLAN WOULD DO. DEMOCRATS OBJECT, RIGHTLY, TO THE SPEED AND SEVERITY OF THE G-O-P SPENDING RESTRAINTS MADE NECESSARY BY THE HOUSE LEADERS' PASSION FOR LOWERING TAXES. THIS IS SIMPLY IRRATIONAL. AT A MOMENT WHEN EVERY GOVERNMENT SERVICE IS BEING SAVAGED AT ONCE TO ACHIEVE A BLANCED BUDGET, CUTTING REVENUE MAKES NO SENSE."

    TEXT: WE GET A SHARPLY DIFFERENT VIEW FROM THE "NEW YORK POST", WHICH CALLS THE HOUSE VOTE ON MEDICARE A "BOLD MOVE":

    VOICE: "IT TOOK GENUINE POLITICAL COURAGE FOR HOUSE REPUBLICANS TO HOLD THEIR RANKS TOGETHER, BITE THE BULLET AND VOTE TO REFORM MEDICARE... FAILURE TO RESTRUCTURE MEDICARE ... WOULD LEAVE THE SYSTEM BANKRUPT WITHIN SEVEN YEARS. THE G-O-P BILL THAT PASSED THURSDAY IN A VIRTUAL PARTY-LINE VOTE ISN'T PERFECT, BUT IT'S FAR BETTER THAN DOING NOTHING."

    TEXT: FINALLY, "THE WASHINGTON POST" TRIES TO JAR PRESIDENT CLINTON'S MEMORY ABOUT WHAT THE CONGRESS HAS, OR HAS NOT, DONE ABOUT HIS ANTI-TERRORISM LEGISLATION:

    VOICE: "PRESIDENT CLINTON COMPLAINED, AT HIS PRESS CONFERENCE ON THURSDAY, THAT CONGRESS SEEMS TO HAVE FORGOTTEN ABOUT HIS TERRORISM BILL... IN FACT, THE SENATE DID PASS THE BILL ON JUNE 7TH, AND THE HOUSE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE REPORTED ITS VERSION ON JUNE 20TH. HOUSE STAFFERS SAY THAT A VOTE IN THE HOUSE HAS NOT BEEN SCHEDULED FOR ONE SIMPLE REASON: THERE ARE NOT ENOUGH VOTES TO PASS THE BILL... OPPONENTS ON BOTH SIDES OF THE AISLE (REPUBLICAN AND DEMOCRAT) ARE ACTING ON THEIR OWN DEEP MORAL CONVICTIONS CONCERNING INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND GOVERNMENT POWER... CALLING FOR A QUICK VOTE WHEN DEFEAT IS A REAL POSSIBLITY IS MORE OF A RISK FOR THE PRESIDENT THAN A POPULAR CALL TO ACTION."

    TEXT: AND WITH THAT COMMENT FROM "THE WASHINGTON POST" WE CONCLUDE TODAY'S REVIEW OF EDITORIALS IN SOME OF THE MAJOR U-S NEWSPAPERS.

    NEB/PCH/NES
    23-Oct-95 12:15 PM EDT (1615 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] !!! VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT OCTOBER 23, 1995 !!!

    DATE=10/23/95
    TYPE=ADVISORY
    CONTENT=

    VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT 10/23/95

    THE FOLLOWING IS A SYNOPSIS OF SIGNIFICANT REPORTING ON BOSNIA BY THE VOICE OF AMERICA THAT HAD BEEN BROADCAST OR FIRMLY SCHEDULED AT THE TIME OF PUBLICATION. THIS SELECTION IS NOT INTENDED TO BE EXHAUSTIVE, AND DOES NOT INCLUDE LATE-BREAKING NEWS OR THE MANY REPORTS IN ALL VOA LANGUAGES THAT ARE BASED ON COMMERCIAL WIRE SERVICES OR OTHER SECONDARY SOURCES. WE REGRET THAT WE CANNOT RESPOND TO REQUESTS FOR TRANSCRIPTS OF SPECIFIC BROADCASTS OR PROGRAM SEGMENTS. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT VOA, OFFICE OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS. TELEPHONE: +1-202-619-2538. ELECTRONIC MAIL: LETTERS@VOA.GOV (FOR CORRESPONDENCE FROM OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES); LETTERS-USA@VOA.GOV (FOR CORRESPONDENCE WITHIN THE UNITED STATES).

    REPORTS BY VOA NEWS SERVICES:

    CLINTON / YELTSIN -- PRESIDENT CLINTON AND RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN MET IN HYDE PARK, NEW YORK, WITH THE CONTENTIOUS ISSUE OF THE COMMAND STRUCTURE OF A POSSIBLE PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AT THE TOP OF THEIR AGENDA. WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DAVID BORGIDA PREVIEWED THE MEETING. (10/23)

    CLINTON / YELTSIN -- PRESIDENT CLINTON AND RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN WILL HOLD A SUMMIT MEETING MONDAY IN HYDE PARK, NEW YORK, TO DISCUSS KEY ISSUES IN THEIR BILATERAL AGENDA, NOTABLY BOSNIA. THIS WILL BE THEIR FIFTH SUMMIT AND THE THIRD ONE THIS YEAR. US OFFICIALS ARE NOT EXPECTING AGREEMENT ON A MAJOR DIFFERENCE OF OPINION. WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DAVID BORGIDA REPORTS. (10/22)

    DOLE / BOSNIA TALKS -- SENATE REPUBLICAN LEADER BOB DOLE SAYS SERBIA'S PRESIDENT SHOULD NOT BE ALLOWED INTO THE UNITED STATES FOR PEACE TALKS ON BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. CORRESPONDENT DAVID SWAN REPORTS THE MEETINGS START IN ABOUT TEN DAYS (OCTOBER 31) AT A MIDWESTERN AIR BASE. (10/20)

    CLINTON / SENATE / BOSNIA -- PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS ASSURED CONGRESS HE WILL REQUEST ITS SUPPORT BEFORE COMMITTING US TROOPS TO A PEACEKEEPING OPERATION IN BOSNIA. CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS THE ADMINISTRATION WANTS TO WAIT UNTIL A PEACE AGREEMENT IS REACHED. (10/20)

    BOSNIA / KILLINGS -- THERE ARE GROWING INDICATIONS OF MORE MASS KILLINGS IN NORTHERN BOSNIA. REFUGEES EXPELLED FROM THE AREA DURING THE PAST MONTH HAVE TOLD UN AND US OFFICIALS THAT HUNDREDS AND PERHAPS THOUSANDS OF MUSLIMS HAVE BEEN MURDERED BY SERB PARAMILITARY GROUPS. CORRESPONDENT DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS FROM GENEVA. (10/20)

    BOSNIA / FIGHTING -- FIGHTING HAS BROKEN OUT IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA, WHERE REPORTS SAY BOSNIAN SERB FORCES HAVE LAUNCHED AN ATTACK TOWARD THE TOWN OF SANSKI MOST. BUT STRINGER DAVID FOLEY IN SARAJEVO REPORTS UN OFFICIALS SAY REPRESENTATIVES FROM ALL SIDES HAVE AGREED TO ISSUE ORDERS TO STOP THE FIGHTING. (10/20)

    EGYPT / CROATIA -- A MILITANT ISLAMIC GROUP HAS CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY FOR A CAR BOMB EXPLOSION IN CROATIA FRIDAY. STRINGER PEYMAN PEJMAN HAS MORE ON THE STORY FROM CAIRO. (10/21)

    FRANCE / RUSSIA -- RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN HAS LEFT PARIS AFTER TALKS WITH HIS FRENCH COUNTERPART. THEY AGREED THAT MOSCOW SHOULD HOST A SUMMIT OF LEADERS OF THE BALKAN REPUBLICS. STRINGER JULIAN NUNDY REPORTS FROM PARIS. (10/21)

    BOSNIA / ARMY -- THE COMMANDER OF THE FIFTH BOSNIAN ARMY CORPS, GENERAL ATIF DUDAKOVIC SAYS BANJA LUKA AND PRIJEDOR WILL BE RETURNED WITHIN THE BORDERS OF BOSNIA. IN AN EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW HE SAID THAT EVERYONE WHO DOES NOT COMMIT CRIMES MAY PEACEFULLY LIVE IN THE COUNTRY. STRINGER LINDA MILISA REPORTS FROM BIHAC. (CROATIAN 10/20)

    CROATIA / WAR CRIMES -- WHILE SANSKI MOST'S MUSLIMS AND CROATS ARE BURYING THEIR DEAD, KILLED AS THE SERBS RETREATED FROM THAT AREA, THE RED CROSS AND UNHCR OFFICES IN BANJA LUKA CHARGED THAT BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT IS HOLDING 500 SERBS DETAINED IN A STADIUM. THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT DENIES IT. FROM SANSKI MOST STRINGER LINDA MILISA REPORTS. (CROATIAN 10/20)

    SARAJEVO / WATER SUPPLY -- STRINGER VLADIMIR BILIC REPORTS ON THE FIRST WATER SUPPLIES THAT REACHED SARAJEVO IN MONTHS. MR. BILIC ALSO REPORTED ON THE BOSNIAN RULLING PARTY LEADERSHIP MEETING, WHERE DELEGATES DISCUSSED POSSIBLE PEACE AGREEMENT FOR BOSNIA. (CROATIAN 10/20)

    CROATIA / HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES -- STRINGER ZELJKO MATIC REPORTS FROM ZAGREB ON THE CROATIAN LAW CENTER PANEL ON THE HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES IN KRAJINA REGION. PARTICIPANTS CRITICIZED THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT FOR IGNORING THE VIOLATIONS OF SERBIAN MINORITY RIGHTS. (CROATIAN 10/20)

    UN / HUMAN RIGHTS / BOSNIA & CROATIA -- THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL DISCUSSED SITUATION IN BOSNIA AND CROATIA. IT HEARD A REPORT THAT SERBIAN SOLDIERS IN BOSNIA, PROBABLY UNITS LEAD BY ZELJKO RAZNJATOVIC ARKAN CONTINUE THE KILLING, RAPING AND EXPELLING OF NON-SERBIAN POPULATION. IN CROATIA THERE ARE REPORTS OF LOOTING OF SERBIAN HOUSES BY PERSONS IN CROATIAN ARMY UNIFORMS. STRINGER IVICA PULJIC REPORTS. (CROATIAN 10/21)

    UN / 50TH ANNIVERSARY / CLINTON / TUDJMAN / YELTSIN -- IN TWO SEPARATE REPORTS, UN STRINGER IVICA PULJIC REPORTS ON REMARKS AT THE CELEBRATION ON THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE UN. HE DETAILS REMARKS BY PRESIDENTS CLINTON, TUDJMAN AND YELTSIN. (CROATIAN 10/22)

    UN / 50TH ANNIVERSARY -- IN THE BIGGEST GATHERING OF WORLD LEADERS AT UNITED NATIONS, CROATIAN PRESIDENT TUDJMAN IS LISTED AS THE 12TH SPEAKER, AND BOSNIAN PRESIDENT IZETBEGOVIC WILL SPEAK ON OCTOBER 24. CROATIAN AND BOSNIAN LEADERS WILL HAVE SIDE-MEETINGS WITH PRESIDENT CLINTON, MEMBERS OF THE CONTACT GROUP, THE TURKISH PRIME MINISTER, AND MEMBERS OF CROATIAN-AMERICAN AND BOSNIAN-AMERICAN COMMUNITIES. SERBIAN PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WILL NOT ATTEND. STRINGER IVICA PULJIC FROM NEW YORK. (CROATIAN 10/22)

    CROATIA / OPPOSITION -- THE STRONGEST CROATIAN OPPOSITION PARTY, THE SOCIAL LIBERAL PARTY OPPOSES THE VIEWS OF THE RULING PARTY THAT BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA SHOULD BE DIVIDED. IN AN INTERVIEW WITH STRINGER ZELJKO MATIC, THE PRESIDENT OF THE PARTY, DRAZEN BUDISA SAYS THAT HIS PARTY VIEWS THE FUTURE OF BOSNIA AS A UNITED CONFEDERATIVE COUNTRY OF THREE ELEMENTS, MUCH LIKE CANTONS. (CROATIAN 10/22)

    RUSSIA / SERBIA / HUNGARY -- RUSSIAN ENVOY IGOR IVANOV VISITED BELGRADE FOR TALKS WITH SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IN PREPARATION FOR BOSNIAN PEACE TALKS IN DAYTON, OHIO. ENVOY IVANOV REAFFIRMED RUSSIAN POSITION ON PEACEFUL REINTEGRATION OF EASTERN SLAVONIA INTO CROATIA. HUNGARIAN PRIME MINISTER GYULA HORN ALSO SPOKE WITH YUGOSLAVIAN AUTHORITIES AND SERBIAN PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC. HE STRESSED THAT PEACE IN BOSNIA AND REINTEGRATION OF EASTERN SLAVONIA IN CROATIA ARE AMONG KEY ELEMENTS FOR ACHIEVING COMPREHENSIVE PEACE AGREEMENT. THE RETURN OF REFUGEES, AND STATUS OF HUNGARIAN MINORITY IN SERBIA WERE ALSO DISCUSSED. STRINGER JADRANKA KRONJA REPORTS FROM BELGRADE. (CROATIAN 10/21)

    SHATTUCK / HUMAN RIGHTS -- US ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE J SHATTUCK WARNED AGAINST HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA AND KRAJINA. HE SPECIFICALLY MENTIONED THE UN REPORTS ABOUT MASSIVE KILLINGS BY SERBIAN PARAMILITARY GROUPS IN NORTHERN BOSNIA. STRINGER STEVICA SUSA REPORTS FROM ZAGREB. (SERBIAN 10/20)

    TUZLA / MEETING -- FIFTY REPRESENTATIVES OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND INDEPENDENT MEDIA FROM THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA GATHERED IN TUZLA FOR THE FOURTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE HELSINKI CIVIC FORUM. MANY SPEAKERS AT THE MEETING STRESSED THAT, AFTER SEVERAL YEARS OF CIVIL WAR, THERE IS NO SURVIVAL WITHOUT RECONCILIATION AND CO-EXISTENCE IN BOSNIA. STRINGER DUSAN MASIC REPORTS FROM TUZLA. (SERBIAN 10/20)

    AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TUZLA / CONFERENCE -- THE US AMBASSADOR TO CROATIA, PETER GALBRAITH ADDRESSED THE FOURTH ASSEMBLY OF THE HELSINKI CONFERENCE IN TUZLA. HE STRESSED THAT THERE ARE NO SIGNS OF AN IMMINENT CROATIAN OFFENSIVE IN EASTERN SLAVONIA. STRINGER DUSAN MASIC REPORTS. (SERBIAN 10/21)

    CROATIA / BALKAN PEACE PROCESS -- UN SOURCES IN ZAGREB CLAIM THAT SITUATION IN EASTERN SLAVONIA IS VERY TENSE. MEANWHILE, CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN LEFT FOR NEW YORK TO ATTEND THE MEETING OF THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY. THE CROATIAN PRESIDENT IS ALSO SCHEDULED TO MEET WITH PRESIDENT CLINTON. STRINGER STEVICA SUSA REPORTS FROM ZAGREB. (SERBIAN 10/21)

    MACEDONIA / GREECE -- GREECE AND MACEDONIA ARE APPROACHING THE NORMALIZATION OF THE BILATERAL RELATIONS. THE LAST HURDLES ARE REMOVED FOR OPENING OF THE BUREAU OF LIAISON IN ATHENS AND SKOPJE. EVEN THOUGH THERE ARE A LOT OF OPTIMISTIC SIGNALS THE TWO SIDES HAVE YET TO RESOLVE THE DISPUTE OVER THE NAME OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC. STRINGER ZELJKO BAJIC REPORTS FROM SKOPJE. (SERBIAN 10/21)

    MONTENEGRO / BALKAN PEACE PROCESS -- THE MONTENEGRIN NATIONAL PARTY SAYS THE DESTINY OF THE MONTENEGRO AND SERBIA ACROSS THE DRINA CAN NOT BE SUCESSFULLY RESOLVED WITHOUT THE UNIFIED PLATFORM. AND IT URGED THAT THE PREVLAKA PENINSULA BECOME PART OF THE REPUBLIKA SRPSKA. STRINGER BOSKO DJUKIC REPORTS FROM PODGORICA. (SERBIAN 10/21)

    CROATIA/ TERRORISM -- OFFICIALS IN CROATIA STILL HAVEN'T REACTED ON THE NEWS THAT THE TERRORIST GROUP GAMMA-AL-ISLAMIA ACCEPTED THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE CAR BOMBING IN RIJEKA. THE CROATIAN MEDIA IN THE MEANTIME HAS DIFFERENT OPINIONS ON THIS EVENT. STRINGER STEVICA SUSA REPORTS FROM ZAGREB. (SERBIAN 10/22)

    MACEDONIA / ALBANIAN UNIVERSITY -- THE MACEDONIAN PARLIAMENT STARTED ITS DISCUSSION ABOUT LOCAL SELF-MANAGEMENT, WHICH COULD BE THE TEST OF THE QUALITY OF THE INTER-ETHNIC RELATIONS IN THE REPUBLIC. STRINGER ZELJKO BAJIC REPORTS FROM SKOPJE. (SERBIAN 10/22)

    GERMANY / PARTICIPATION IN THE PEACE FORCE IN BOSNIA -- THE GERMAN CABINET HAS BEFORE IT A PROPOSAL FOR THE STRUCTURE OF THE GERMAN PEACEKEEPING FORCE FOR BOSNIA. THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT WILL DISCUSS THE PROPOSAL ON TUESDAY. STRINGER DRAGAN BISENIC REPORTS FROM BONN. (SERBIAN 10/22) 23-Oct-95 5:28 PM EDT (2128 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] CROATIA/SERBS (L) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (ZAGREB)

    DATE=10/23/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187351
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THERE ARE SIGNS OF PROGRESS IN NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT AND REBEL SERB LEADERS FROM THE DISPUTED REGION OF EASTERN SLAVONIA. THE TWO SIDES MET MONDAY WITH U-N AND U-S MEDIATORS. AND AFTERWARDS, THE CHIEF CROATIAN DELEGATE SAID SERB LEADERS APPEAR TO HAVE ACCEPTED THE ZAGREB GOVERNMENT'S KEY DEMAND. MORE FROM VOA'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS IN THE CROATIAN CAPITAL.

    TEXT: THE MEETING WAS HELD IN THE EASTERN TOWN OF OSIJEK, ON THE EDGE OF THE DISPUTED TERRITORY THAT HAS BEEN UNDER REBEL SERB CONTROL FOR THE PAST FOUR YEARS.

    EASTERN SLAVONIA, A SWATH OF RICH FARMLAND ALONG THE BORDER WITH YUGOSLAVIA, IS THE LAST REMAINING SERB POSITION IN CROATIA.

    ZAGREB GOVERNMENT FORCES RECAPTURED TWO OTHER REBEL HELD REGIONS EARLIER THIS YEAR. AND CROATIAN LEADERS HAVE WARNED REPEATEDLY THAT EASTERN SLAVONIA WILL BE THEIR NEXT MILITARY TARGET UNLESS THE REBEL LEADERSHIP ACCEPTS CROATIAN SOVEREIGNTY.

    AFTER MONDAY'S FOUR HOUR MEETING IN OSIJEK, CROATIA'S CHIEF NEGOTIATOR INDICATED THAT THAT DEMAND HAS NOW BEEN MET. HRVOJE SARINIC TOLD REPORTERS THE SERB DELEGATION HAS ACCEPTED THE PRINCIPLE OF PEACEFUL REINTEGRATION.

    THERE WAS NO CONFIRMATION OF THIS FROM THE SERB SIDE. DELEGATION LEADER MILAN MILANOVIC SAID ONLY THAT HE WAS PLEASED WITH THE RESULTS OF THE MEETING.

    THE U-S MEDIATOR, AMBASSADOR PETER GALBRAITH, CONFIRMED THAT SOME HEADWAY HAS BEEN MADE. BUT HE CAUTIONED THAT MUCH REMAINS TO BE DONE.

    /// GALBRAITH ACT ///

    I AM MORE OPTIMISTIC. BUT I WANT TO STRESS THAT WE STILL HAVE A GOOD WAY TO GO, AND THERE ARE DIFFICULT ISSUES TO RESOLVE. SO NOBODY SHOULD CONCLUDE THAT PEACE IS AT HAND. NONETHELESS, IT WAS A VERY USEFUL MEETING, AND PROGRESS WAS MADE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE TALKS ARE SCHEDULED TO RESUME WEDNESDAY IN THE SERB-HELD TOWN OF ERDUT. AND MR. GALBRAITH AND U-N ENVOY THORVALD STOLTENBERG PLAN TO PRESENT A DRAFT AGREEMENT AIMED AT RESOLVING THE REMAINING DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO SIDES.

    THE MAIN OBSTACLE, ACCORDING TO CROATIAN OFFICIALS, IS THE DURATION OF A TRANSITIONAL PERIOD PRIOR TO THE RESTORATION OF COMPLETE CROATIAN CONTROL OVER THE REBEL HELD REGION.

    SERB LEADERS HAVE DEMANDED A FIVE YEAR TRANSITION, WHILE ZAGREB INSISTS IT WILL ACCEPT NO MORE THAN EIGHTEEN MONTHS.

    THE TWO SIDES HAVE AGREED THAT U-N PEACEKEEPING FORCES WILL REMAIN IN EASTERN SLAVONIA DURING THE TRANSITIONAL PERIOD.

    AN INTERIM AUTHORITY WILL BE ESTABLISHED TO TEMPORARILY ADMINISTER THE AREA. SOME EIGHTY THOUSAND CROATIAN REFUGEES WILL BE ALLOWED TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES. AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY WILL PROVIDE GUARANTEES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE SERB MINORITY. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DBR/CB/LWM
    23-Oct-95 5:03 PM EDT (2103 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] E-U / EAST EUROPE (L ONLY-RERUN) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=10/23/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187333
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // RERUNNING TO CORRECT GRAF 2 OF TEXT, BILLION NOT MILLION. //

    INTRO: OFFICIALS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION SAY SOME MAJOR FINANCIAL PROBLEMS COULD BLOCK ANY EARLY ENTRY INTO THE ORGANIZATION BY NATIONS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE. AS JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS, SEVERAL EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES HOPE TO JOIN THE E-U BY THE END OF THE CENTURY.

    TEXT: A NEW STUDY DONE FOR E-U REGIONAL POLICY COMMISSIONER MONIKA WULF-MATHIES LOOKS AT THE COSTS OF ADMITTING CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN STATES TO THE UNION. THE NATIONS INTERESTED IN JOINING INCLUDE POLAND, HUNGARY, AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC.

    THE STUDY SAYS IT WOULD COST AN EXTRA 45- BILLION DOLLARS A YEAR IF THESE NATIONS ALL JOIN AT ONCE, AND RECEIVE THE SAME BENEFITS CURRENTLY ENJOYED BY THE E-U'S POOREST NATIONS. MRS. WULF-MATHIES ARGUES THAT THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN STATES CAN _NOT_ FROM DAY ONE ENJOY THE SAME BENEFITS AS EUROPE'S CURRENT FOUR POOREST STATES.

    THESE ARE SPAIN, PORTUGAL, IRELAND, AND GREECE. TOGETHER, THEY ARE GIVEN THE LARGEST SHARE OF E-U REGIONAL AID. EUROPEAN UNION OFFICIALS NOW SEEM TO BELIEVE IT WILL BE DIFFICULT TO PERSUADE BRITISH, DUTCH, AND GERMAN TAXPAYERS -- WHO ARE THE MAIN CONTRIBUTORS TO THE E-U BUDGET -- TO PROVIDE MUCH EXTRA CASH FOR CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE.

    BUT EVEN IF IT WERE POSSIBLE TO FIND THE MONEY, MRS WULF-MATHIES TOLD A MEETING OF REGIONAL POLICY EXPERTS THAT THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES THEMSELVES WOULD _NOT_ BE ABLE TO COPE WITH A VAST INFLOW OF E-U CASH.

    EUROPEAN UNION OFFICIALS BELIEVE THE RESULT WOULD BE WASTE, MISMANAGEMENT, AND FRAUD.

    THE COMMISSIONER CONCLUDED THAT MASSIVE HANDOUTS WOULD NEITHER BE AFFORDABLE NOR MANAGEABLE FOR THE ADMINISTRATIONS OF THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES. THESE WOULD _NOT_ ONLY OVERBURDEN THE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEMS, BUT ALSO THE BUDGETARY AND ABSORPTION CAPACITIES OF THESE COUNTRIES.

    SHE IS THEREFORE ADVOCATING A GRADUAL EXTENSION OF E-U REGIONAL AID TO THE STATES IN QUESTION.

    E-U COMMISSIONERS ARE EXPECTED TO RECOMMEND A SIMILAR STEP-BY-STEP APPROACH TO PHASING IN AGRICULTURAL SUBSIDIES, ONCE THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN STATES JOIN THE UNION.

    IF EUROPE'S COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY WERE TO BE EXTENDED INTO EASTERN EUROPE, THIS AGAIN WOULD COST E-U TAXPAYERS TENS OF BILLIONS OF DOLLARS. (SIGNOFF)

    NEB/JH/JWH/ART
    23-Oct-95 12:26 PM EDT (1626 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] E-U / FRANCE NUKE (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=10/23/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187344
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE EUROPEAN UNION'S EXECUTIVE COMMISSION IS EXPECTED TO ANNOUNCE TUESDAY IF IT WILL TAKE LEGAL ACTION AGAINST FRANCE BECAUSE OF FRENCH NUCLEAR TESTS IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC. JOHN FRASER IN BRUSSELS REPORTS THE 20-MEMBER COMMISSION HAS BEEN WARNED IF IT FAILS TO ACT, IT COULD FACE CHARGES BROUGHT BY THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT.

    TEXT: UNDER A TREATY CALLED EURATOM, THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT HAS TO INFORM THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION -- IN ADVANCE -- OF THE STEPS IT IS TAKING TO PROTECT PUBLIC HEALTH WHEN DANGEROUS EXPERIMENTS ARE CARRIED OUT.

    FOR SOME TIME, THE E-U COMMISSION HAS BEEN SEEKING EXACT DATA FROM THE PARIS GOVERNMENT, SO IT CAN ASSESS WHETHER THE FRENCH ARE CARRYING OUT THEIR OBLIGATIONS REGARDING THE NUCLEAR TESTS.

    CRITICS OF THE COMMISSION -- INCLUDING THE ENVIRONMENTAL GROUP GREENPEACE -- BELIEVE THE FRENCH HAVE USED DELAYING TACTICS, BY CARRYING OUT THE FIRST TWO TESTS BEFORE COMPLETING DISCUSSIONS WITH THE COMMISSION. A RECENT EUROPEAN COMMISSION FACT-FINDING MISSION TO THE SOUTH PACIFIC WAS REFUSED ACCESS TO SOME DATA AND SOME INSTALLATIONS, ADDING TO THE CRITICISM OF FRENCH AUTHORITIES.

    BUT IT APPEARS THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION IS NOW IN A POSITION TO ASSESS WHETHER FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC AND HIS GOVERNMENT HAVE ACTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH E-U LAW. IF NOT, E-U COMMISSION PRESIDENT JACQUES SANTER MAY ANNOUNCE TUESDAY HE IS TO LAUNCH LEGAL PROCEEDINGS AGAINST FRANCE. HE IS TO UNVEIL THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION'S POSITION ON THE ISSUE DURING DEBATE IN THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT.

    IF THE E-U COMMISSION DECIDES THERE IS NO CASE AGAINST FRANCE, IT COULD FIND ITSELF A TARGET. SOCIALIST MEMBERS OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT ARE THREATENING TO TAKE THE COMMISSION TO COURT IF THEY FEEL PRESIDENT SANTER HAS NOT BEEN TOUGH ENOUGH WITH FRANCE.

    TO ADD TO THE E-U PRESIDENT'S EMBARRASSMENT, HIS DANISH COLLEAGUE, RITT BJERREGAARD, IS PUBLISHING A DIARY, IN WHICH SHE ACCUSES PRESIDENT CHIRAC OF TREATING MR. SANTER IN AN OFFHAND AND SUPERFICIAL MANNER.

    MRS. BJERREGAARD IS THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION'S HARSHEST CRITIC OF THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT. BUT IT IS NOT CERTAIN SHE WILL BE ABLE TO SECURE MAJORITY SUPPORT FOR HER CALL TO TAKE PRESIDENT CHIRAC'S GOVERNMENT BEFORE THE E-U COURT. (SIGNED)

    NEB/JF/JWH/RAE
    23-Oct-95 2:55 PM EDT (1855 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] EUROPE ENVIRONMENT (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=10/23/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187331
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ABOUT 700 EXPERTS -- INCLUDING ENVIRONMENT MINISTERS, BANKERS, NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND ECOLOGISTS -- ARE IN SOFIA FOR A THREE-DAY CONFERENCE ON CLEANING UP EASTERN EUROPE'S POLLUTED ENVIRONMENT. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE CONFERENCE IS ENTITLED "ENVIRONMENT FOR EUROPE" AND IT BRINGS TOGETHER SPECIALISTS WHO WANT TO SPEED THE ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUP IN EASTERN EUROPE. MORE THAN 50 COUNTRIES ARE REPRESENTED.

    AT THE OPENING SESSION, BULGARIAN PRIME MINISTER ZHAN VIDENOV CALLED FOR CLOSER COOPERATION BETWEEN THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS IN TACKLING ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS. HE SAID BULGARIA IS TYPICAL OF TRANSFORMING COUNTRIES, SIMULTANEOUSLY FACING CASH SHORTAGES AND SEVERE ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION. MR. VIDENOV, A FORMER COMMUNIST, HAS CALLED FOR INCREASED MULTI-NATIONAL COOPERATION TO COMBAT POLLUTION IN THE BLACK SEA. ON SUNDAY, ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVISTS, WHO ARE CONDUCTING THEIR OWN MEETING IN SOFIA, CALLED FOR ALL OF EUROPE'S NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS TO BE CLOSED BY THE YEAR 2010.

    BULGARIA IS A SPECIFIC TARGET OF PROTESTS. EARLIER THIS MONTH, BULGARIA IGNORED PLEAS FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION AND OTHER INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS AND RESTARTED A TROUBLE-PRONE REACTOR AT ITS KOZLUDUY NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ON THE DANUBE RIVER, _NOT_ FAR FROM SOFIA. THE EUROPEAN UNION HAD WANTED THE NUMBER ONE REACTOR AT KOZLUDUY PERMANENTLY SHUT DOWN.

    THE SIX-REACTOR FACILITY WAS CONSTRUCTED 21-YEARS AGO. AND WHILE IT IS _NOT_ THE SAME TYPE OF PLANT AS CHERNOBYL, SOME BULGARIAN ENVIRONMENTALISTS SAY THAT THE NUMBER-ONE REACTOR THERE IS EVEN MORE DANGEROUS THAN THE UKRAINIAN PLANT, SITE OF THE WORLD'S WORST NUCLEAR ACCIDENT IN 1986. BULGARIA, WHICH RELIES ON KOZLUDUY FOR ABOUT HALF OF ITS ELECTRICITY, SAYS THE REACTOR IS SAFE.

    THE DELEGATES TO THE CONFERENCE ARE ALSO DISCUSSING THE FINANCING OF SEVERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS, THE PRESERVATION OF WETLANDS AND OTHER NATURAL AREAS, THE EXCHANGE OF FOREIGN DEBT FOR FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS, AND INCREASED ENVIRONMENTAL COOPERATION BETWEEN EAST AND WEST EUROPE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/BDW/JWH/ART
    23-Oct-95 12:05 PM EDT (1605 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] THE U-N AT 50: LOOKING BACK BY AMIN FEKRAT (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/23/95
    TYPE=CLOSEUP (UPDATE)
    NUMBER=4-08674 ***
    TELEPHONE=619-0932 (EDITOR)
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // NO INSERTS OR VOICER //
    /// *** EDS, RE-ISSUED WITH INSERT AND CORRECTION ON PAGE FIVE, SECOND GRAF, LINES 8 & 9 ///

    INTRO: THE CELEBRATIONS MARKING THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE FOUNDING OF THE UNITED NATIONS BEGAN IN SAN FRANCISCO IN MARCH AND ARE CULMINATING WITH U-N GENERAL ASSEMBLY OBSERVANCES IN NEW YORK ON TUESDAY. POMP AND CIRCUMSTANCE NOTWITHSTANDING, THE DIFFICULTIES THE U-N HAS FACED IN BOSNIA HAVE FOCUSED ATTENTION ON THE WORLD BODY AND ITS ROLE IN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS AS NEVER

    BEFORE. AMIN FEKRAT OF VOA'S FARSI SERVICE REVIEWS THE

    GENESIS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE UNITED NATIONS IN THIS REPORT.

    TEXT: THE END OF WORLD WAR TWO WAS ACCOMPANIED BY MUCH CELEBRATION. BUT IT ALSO BROUGHT THE SOBERING REALITY THAT THE WORLD COULD FACE A THIRD WORLD WAR IF SOME EFFECTIVE MECHANISM COULD NOT BE FOUND TO HEAD OFF CONFLICT BETWEEN STATES.

    [OPT] THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS, CREATED IN THE WAKE OF WORLD WAR ONE, HAD FAILED TO REALIZE THE DREAM OF INTERNATIONAL PEACE. BUT THE INTRODUCTION OF ATOMIC WEAPONS IN 1945 USHERED IN A NEW ERA WHICH MADE IT IMPERATIVE TO FIND NEW PEACEMAKING MECHANISMS AND INSTITUTIONS. THE LEGACY OF WORLD WAR TWO, FOR BOTH VICTOR AND THE VANQUISHED, WAS COUNTRIES LAID TO WASTE, THEIR CITIES IN RUINS, ECONOMIES A SHAMBLES AND WITH MILLIONS OF CASUALTIES ON ALL SIDES. [END OPT]

    ON OCTOBER 30TH, 1943, AS THE WAR RAGED IN EUROPE, THE WORLD'S MAJOR POWERS -- THE UNITED STATES, BRITAIN, CHINA AND THE SOVIET UNION -- TOOK THE FIRST MAJOR STEP TOWARD FORMING AN NEW WORLD BODY. THEY SIGNED A DECLARATION IN MOSCOW CALLING FOR THE EARLY ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION "TO MAINTAIN PEACE AND SECURITY". THAT GOAL WAS REAFFIRMED AT A MEETING OF AMERICAN, BRITISH AND SOVIET LEADERS IN TEHRAN ON DECEMBER FIRST, 1943.

    A FOLLOW-UP CONFERENCE OF THE BIG FOUR NATIONS WAS HELD AT DUMBARTON OAKS, IN WASHINGTON, D-C, FROM AUGUST TO OCTOBER, 1944. BUT IT ENDED IN DISAGREEMENT ON TWO MAJOR ISSUES -- HOW MANY SOVIET REPUBLICS COULD BE ADMITTED TO U-N MEMBERSHIP AND THE VOTING SYSTEM OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL. THE DUMBARTON PROPOSALS WERE MODIFIED AND AGREED TO BY U-S, BRITISH AND SOVIET LEADERS AT YALTA IN 1945. THEY THEN FORMED THE BASIS OF THE MEETING HELD IN SAN FRANCISCO, ON APRIL 25TH, 1945, TO WRITE A CHARTER FOR THE NEW UNITED NATIONS.

    WHEN THE SAN FRANCISCO CONFERENCE WAS CONVENED, THE WORLD WAS STILL AT WAR IN BOTH EUROPE AND ASIA. PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT HAD JUST DIED AND HARRY TRUMAN, AS THE NEW LEADER OF THE FREE WORLD, SOUNDED A WARNING. IN ONE OF HIS MORE FAMOUS ADDRESSES, PRESIDENT TRUMAN SAID: "WE WHO HAVE LIVED THROUGH THE TRAGEDY AND TORTURE OF THE TWO WORLD CONFLICTS MUST REALIZE THE MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEM BEFORE US... WITH EVER INCREASING BRUTALITY AND DESTRUCTION, MODERN WARFARE, IF UNCHECKED, WOULD ULTIMATELY CRUSH ALL CIVILIZATION." SAID THE PRESIDENT: "WE STILL HAVE A CHOICE BETWEEN ALTERNATIVES: THE CONTINUATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL CHAOS OR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A WORLD ORGANIZATION FOR THE ENFORCEMENT OF PEACE."

    THE CHARTER OF THE NEWLY FORMED WORLD BODY WAS SIGNED ON JUNE 24TH, 1945, BY 51 STATES, WHICH CONSTITUTED THE CHARTER MEMBERS OF THE UNITED NATIONS.

    [OPT] THE ORIGINAL MEMBERS WERE: ARGENTINA, AUSTRALIA, BELGIUM, THE BELORUSSIAN S-S-R, BOLIVIA,BRAZIL, CANADA, CHILE, THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA, COLOMBIA, COSTA RICA, CUBA, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, DENMARK, THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, ECUADOR, EGYPT, EL SALVADOR, ETHIOPIA, FRANCE, GREECE, GUATEMALA, HAITI, HONDURAS, INDIA, IRAN, IRAQ, LEBANON, LIBERIA, LUXEMBOURG, MEXICO, THE NETHERLANDS, NEW ZEALAND, NICARAGUA, NORWAY, PANAMA, PARAGUAY, PERU, THE PHILIPPINES, POLAND, SAUDI ARABIA, SOUTH AFRICA, SYRIA, TURKEY, THE UKRANIAN S-S-R, THE SOVIET UNION, THE UNITED KINGDOM, THE U.S., URUGUAY, VENEZUELA, YUGOSLAVIA.

    [END OPT]

    FROM THE ORIGINAL 51 COUNTRIES, THE U-N HAS GROWN TO 185 MEMBERS, WITH THE REPUBLICS OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION AMONG THE NEWEST ADDITIONS. THE WORLD BODY HAS ADDED 22 MEMBER COUNTRIES TO ITS MEMBERSHIP IN THIS DECADE.

    ARTICLE ONE OF THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER MAKES THE MAINTENANCE OF INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY THE ORGANIZATION'S TOP PRIORITY, FOLLOWED BY WORKING FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF FRIENDLY RELATIONS AMONG NATIONS. THE PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY IS PLACED ON THE SECURITY COUNCIL. ARTICLE 11 OF THE CHARTER, HOWEVER, AUTHORIZES THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY TO "DISCUSS ANY QUESTIONS RELATING TO THE MAINTENANCE OF INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY AND TO MAKE RECOMMENDATIONS IN REGARD TO SUCH QUESTIONS TO THE STATE OR STATES CONCERNED, TO THE SECURITY COUNCIL OR BOTH."

    [OPT] THE UNITED NATIONS HAS SIX PRINCIPAL ORGANS: THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, THE SECURITY COUNCIL, THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL, THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL, THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE AND THE SECRETARIAT. [END OPT]

    THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY IS THE ONLY BODY IN WHICH ALL MEMBER STATES ARE REPRESENTED ON AN EQUAL FOOTING. DECISIONS ARE ADOPTED BY THE MAJORITY VOTE OR BY TWO-THIRDS MAJORITY, DEPENDING ON THE SENSITIVITY OR SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ISSUE OR ISSUES BEING DELIBERATED. DECISIONS IN THE SECURITY COUNCIL ARE ADOPTED BY A MAJORITY OF NINE, WITH VETO POWER RESERVED FOR ANY OF THE FIVE PERMANENT MEMBER STATES: THE UNITED STATES, THE UNITED KINGDOM, FRANCE, THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA, AND THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION, REPLACING THE FORMER SOVIET UNION.

    THE SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE U-N, WHO IS APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY AT THE RECOMMENDATION OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL, HEADS THE U-N SECRETARIAT. BOUTROS-BOUTROS GHALI OF EGYPT IS THE CURRENT SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE WORLD BODY. [OPT] HIS PREDECESSORS WERE: TRYGVE LIE OF NORWAY, ELECTED AT THE BEGINNING OF THE FIRST SESSION OF THE UNITED NATIONS IN 1946, FOLLOWED BY DAG HAMMARSKJOLD OF SWEDEN FROM APRIL, 1953, UNTIL HE DIED IN A PLANE CRASH IN 1961. HE WAS FOLLOWED BY U THANT OF BURMA, 1961 TO 1971; KURT WALDHEIM OF AUSTRIA, 1972 TO 1981, AND JAVIER PEREZ DE CUELLAR OF PERU, FROM 1982 TO 1991. [END OPT]

    THE UNITED NATIONS HAS BEEN BOTH VILIFIED FOR ITS PERCEIVED SHORTCOMINGS AND PRAISED FOR ITS ACCOMPLISHMENTS. BUT THE ORGANIZATION'S POWER, ITS STRENGTHS OR ITS FAILURES, CAN ONLY REFLECT THE WILL OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY AND THE DEGREE TO WHICH THE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD ARE WILLING TO DELEGATE AUTHORITY TO THE WORLD BODY. (SIGNED)

    NEB/AF/PCH
    23-Oct-95 3:47 PM EDT (1947 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [08] THE U.N. AT 50 BY GARY EDQUIST (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/23/95
    TYPE=U.S. OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-09231
    TELEPHONE=619-3940
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    ANNCR: AT UNITED NATIONS HEADQUARTERS IN NEW YORK CITY, LEADERS FROM MORE THAN 140 NATIONS HAVE GATHERED FOR CEREMONIES MARKING THE U-N'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY. ACROSS THE UNITED STATES, EDITORIAL WRITERS ARE TAKING A FRESH LOOK AT THE WORLD BODY, AS WE HEAR IN TODAY'S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP AS REPORTED BY _______. HOST: FIFTY YEARS AFTER ITS FOUNDING, LEADERS FROM AROUND THE WORLD ARE DISCUSSING THE FUTURE OF THE WORLD BODY. FROM THE CITY WHERE THE U-N HAS IS HEADQUARTERS, "THE NEW YORK TIMES" WRITES IN ITS LEAD EDITORIAL THAT THE GATHERING IS "MORE THAN A U-N BIRTHDAY BASH:"

    VOICE: "[OPT] AS THE LEADERS OF NEARLY EVERY NATION ON EARTH MARK THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE UNITED NATIONS THIS WEEK, THEY MUST DO MORE THAN FILL THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY HALL WITH PLATITUDES AND SNARL MANHATTAN TRAFFIC. THEY OWE IT TO THEMSELVES THAT THEIR CITIZENS TO TAKE A HARD LOOK AT THE ORGANIZATION THEY ARE HONORING..... [END OPT] THE UNITED NATIONS HAS DISAPPOINTED SOME OF THE GRANDER HOPES OF IT FOUNDERS. BUT IT REMAINS ONE OF THE WORLD'S ESSENTIAL INSTITUTION. IT PLAYS AN INDISPENSABLE ROLE MANAGING POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS CONFLICTS BETWEEN STATES AND FOCUSING ATTENTION ON GLOBAL PROBLEMS LIKE ENVIRONMENT, POPULATION AND THE STATUS OF WOMEN." HOST: ALSO FROM THE NEW YORK CITY-AREA, NEWSDAY (LONG ISLAND) WRITES THAT IT IS WRONG TO THINK THAT THE U-N HAS OUTLIVED ITS USEFULNESS.

    VOICE: "IT'S SATISFYING TO THINK ABOUT DOING AWAY WITH THE U-N, PARTICULARLY AFTER CONTEMPLATING ITS DEBACLES IN BOSNIA, SOMALIA AND RWANDA. BUT THAT'S THE WRONG SOLUTION. THE U-N NEEDS TO BE FIXED. LET'S BE HONEST: IT'S WORSE THAN THAT. THE U-N NEEDS TO BE OVERHAULED. BUT IT'S WORTH DOING. AND THERE ARE WAYS TO DO IT." HOST: FROM CALIFORNIA, THE "LOS ANGELES TIMES" ALSO CONCLUDES THAT THE U-N IS FLAWED, BUT IS STILL NEEDED:

    VOICE: "THE 50-YEAR RECORD OF THE UNITED NATIONS IS INEVITABLY AN UNEVEN ONE, THOUGH OVERALL THE GOOD IT HAS DONE FAR OUTWEIGHS ITS FAILURES. THE TRUTH THAT REMAINS IN THE END IS THAT IF THE UNITED NATIONS DID NOT EXIST, DIPLOMATS WOULD HAVE TO INVENT IT, FOR THE POLITICAL BUSINESS OF THE WORLD REQUIRES A TRULY GLOBAL ORGANIZATION OPERATING UNDER THE KIND OF PRINCIPLES CONTAINED IN THE U-N CHARTER. FOR ALL ITS EVIDENT ADMINISTRATIVE AND BUREAUCRATIC FLAWS--AND WITH MANAGEMENT, MOST CAN BE CORRECTED--THE UNITED NATIONS REMAINS LITERALLY IRREPLACEABLE." HOST: WRITING IN "THE WALL STREET JOURNAL", EDITORIAL WRITER GEORGE MELLOAN EXPLAINS THAT THE "AREA WHERE THE U-N'S FAILURES ARE MOST EVIDENT IS PEACEKEEPING":

    VOICE: "IT [THE U-N] RUNS SOME 17 OF THESE OPERATIONS AROUND THE WORLD AND CLAIMS SOME ACHIEVEMENTS, ALTHOUGH IT CAN BE ARGUED THAT IN EACH ONE THE U-N INVOLVEMENT HAS BEEN LARGELY IRRELEVANT TO THE FORCES THAT ACTUALLY BROUGHT ABOUT WHAT PEACE EXISTS. EVEN SO, IT IS THE FAILURES THAT GET THE HEADLINES.... INDEED, ONE OF THE U-N'S PROBLEMS IN TRYING TO CARRY OUT THE PEACEKEEPING ROLE THAT WAS AWARDED TO IT IN ITS CHARTER OF A HALF CENTURY AGO IS THAT WORLD LEADERS HAVE FOUND IT POLITICALLY CONVENIENT TO DUMP IMPOSSIBLE TASKS IN ITS LAP." HOST: "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" NOTES IN ITS EDITORIAL THAT THE U-N CELEBRATION "IS TAKING PLACE AGAINST THE BACKDROP OF... DRAMATIC FAILURES IN OVERAMBITIOUS PEACE EFFORTS IN BOSNIA AND SOMALIA." THE NEWSPAPER CONTINUES:

    VOICE: "[OPT] EVEN THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS DROPPED ITS EARLY, MISPLACED FAITH IN 'AGGRESSIVE MULTILATERALISM' TO SOLVE SECURITY PROBLEMS. FURTHERMORE, LONG PROMISED U-N REFORMS TO PARE DOWN THE U-N'S BLOATED BUREAUCRACY ARE SLOW IN GETTING GOING. [END OPT] SO -- ASK REPUBLICAN SKEPTICS IN CONGRESS WHO ARE HOLDING UP THE PAYMENT OF AMERICA'S OVERDUE U-N DUES AND PEACEKEEPING ASSESSMENT -- WHO NEEDS THIS ANACHRONISM ANYWAY? THE ANSWER IS THAT U-S SUPPORT FOR THE UNITED NATIONS REMAINS A WORTHWHILE INVESTMENT. IN AN ERA WHEN IT ISN'T EASY TO FORECAST LONG-TERM GLOBAL THREATS TO AMERICA'S WELL BEING, WE HAVE ENTERED A PERIOD OF LEARNING BY BITTER EXPERIENCE." HOST: AND WITH THAT COMMENT FROM "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER", WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF U-S EDITORIAL COMMENT ABOUT THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE UNITED NATIONS.

    NEB/GE/PCH
    23-Oct-95 1:06 PM EDT (1706 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [09] U-N/50 - MONDAY (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=10/23/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187336
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITISH PRIME MINISTER JOHN MAJOR DEMANDED REFORM OF THE UNITED NATIONS MONDAY, WARNING IT FACES SLOW EXTINCTION IF IT DOES NOT CHANGE. THE BRITISH OFFICIAL JOINED OVER 180 NATIONAL LEADERS AND MINISTERS IN NEW YORK FOR A SPECIAL CELEBRATION OF THE U-N'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS:

    TEXT: THE MAJOR POWERS AGREE ON THE NEED FOR CHANGE. THE BRITISH PRIME MINISTER ECHOED REMARKS BY PRESIDENT CLINTON SUNDAY CALLING FOR DEEP REFORMS AT THE WORLD ORGANIZATION THAT INCLUDE ABOLISHING AGENCIES AND LONG-STANDING PROGRAMS THAT HAVE OUTLIVED THEIR USEFULNESS:

    ///MAJOR ACT///

    SOME REFORMS HAVE BEGUN. MANY ARE NEEDED. WHAT IS CLEAR IS THAT INACTION IS NO LONGER AN OPTION. THE THREAT TO THE FUTURE OF THE UNITED NATIONS WILL NOT COME FROM CHANGE. IT WILL COME FROM INERTIA.

    ///END ACT///

    PRIME MINISTER MAJOR QUESTIONED WHETHER THE U-N'S PRIORITIES ARE RIGHT FOR THE 1990'S. HE SAID HE SERIOUSLY DOUBTS IT.

    THE BRITISH LEADER ALSO CRITICIZED THE UNITED STATES INDIRECTLY FOR NOT PAYING ITS U-N DUES IN A TIMELY FASHION. HE ENDORSED THE U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL'S PROPOSAL FOR A SPECIAL SESSION ON THE FINANCIAL CRISIS IF IT IS NOT RESOLVED BY THE END OF THIS YEAR.

    WASHINGTON -- THE U-N'S LARGEST CONTRIBUTOR -- IS NOW ITS LARGEST DEBTOR, OWING OVER A BILLION DOLLARS FOR BOTH THE REGULAR BUDGET AND PEACEKEEPING. PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS ASSURED THE U-N HE IS WORKING ON A COMPROMISE WITH THE U-S CONGRESS FOR FULL PAYMENT.

    FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC WAS MORE SHARPLY CRITICAL, INSINUATING THAT THE UNITED STATES WAS DISENGAGING FROM THE U-N BY NOT PAYING ITS BILLS.

    THE U-N'S MONEY PROBLEMS HAVE BEEN A CENTRAL THEME DURING THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY. SERIOUS -- THOUGH CONTROVERSIAL -- MOVES ARE AFOOT TO FIND A WAY TO PUT THE ORGANIZATION ON A FIRM FINANCIAL BASE. THE U-N IS NOT ALLOWED TO BORROW MONEY FROM COMMERCIAL INSTITUTIONS, RELYING SOLELY ON THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF ITS MEMBERS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/EJ/MMK
    23-Oct-95 1:09 PM EDT (1709 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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