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Voice of America, 98-05-05

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] CLINTON/ITALY ONITER (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [02] CONFLICT RESOLUTION: IS KOSOVO A CASE OF BOSNIA DEJA BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)
  • [03] EDITORIAL: SENATE APPROVES NATO ENLARGEMENT
  • [04] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [05] KOSOVO UNREST (L) BY ART CHIMES (PRISTINA)
  • [06] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [07] NORTHERN IRELAND PEACE (PART SEVEN) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)
  • [08] THE EUROPEAN UNION MOVES AHEAD ON THE EURO CURRENCY BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [09] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [10] TURKEY KURDS BY LAURIE KASSMAN (ISTANBUL)

  • [01] CLINTON/ITALY ONITER (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=5/5/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-231747
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON AND ITALIAN PRIME MINISTER ROMANO PRODI HOLD TALKS TODAY (WEDNESDAY) AT THE WHITE HOUSE ON THE BALKANS, IRAN AND OTHER ISSUES. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: THE MEETING IS THE FIRST BETWEEN THE TWO LEADERS SINCE THE FEBRUARY INCIDENT IN WHICH A U-S MARINE JET ON A TRAINING MISSION CLIPPED THE WIRES OF A CABLE CAR IN THE ITALIAN ALPS AND SENT 20 SKIERS TO THEIR DEATHS. ITALY ORIGINALLY SOUGHT TO PROSECUTE THE FOUR FLIERS INVOLVED, BUT THE CASE HAS NOW BEEN BEING HANDLED THROUGH THE U-S MILITARY JUSTICE SYSTEM.

    WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN MIKE MCCURRY SAID HE EXPECTED THE CASE TO COME UP -- BUT THAT IT IS NO LONGER A TROUBLE-POINT IN BILATERAL RELATIONS:

    ///MCCURRY ACTUALITY///

    I THINK WE HAVE DEALT WITH THIS IN A SENSITIVE WAY AND A WAY THAT IS DESIGNED TO ASSURE THAT JUSTICE IS DONE.

    ///END ACT///

    THE PRESIDENT AND ITALIAN PRIME MINISTER ARE ALSO EXPECTED TO DISCUSS THE VIOLENCE IN SERBIA'S TROUBLED KOSOVO PROVINCE, THE MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS, AND THE WESTERN APPROCH TO IRAN. THE MEETING IS A PRELUDE TO THE SUMMIT OF THE MAJOR INDUSTRIAL POWERS NEXT WEEK IN ENGLAND THAT BOTH WILL ATTEND. (SIGBNED)
    NEB/DAG/PT
    05-May-98 4:36 PM EDT (2036 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] CONFLICT RESOLUTION: IS KOSOVO A CASE OF BOSNIA DEJA BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=5/5/98
    TYPE=WORLDWIDE ENGLISH FEATURE
    NUMBER=7-18362
    VU? TELEPHONE=619-3464
    EDITOR=GARY EDQUIST
    CONTENT= (TAPE CUTS IN AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: THE CONTACT GROUP OF DIPLOMATS FROM EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES HAS MET THREE TIMES OVER THE PAST TWO MONTHS TO DISCUSS HOW BEST TO PUT AN END TO THE ESCALATING VIOLENCE IN KOSOVO AND DEFUSE THE THREAT OF ANOTHER BALKAN WAR. IN ROME ON APRIL 29, THE DIPLOMATS DECIDED ON AN IMMEDIATE FREEZE ON YUGOSLAVIA'S ASSETS. IT WOULD BE FOLLOWED WITHIN 10 DAYS [MAY 9] BY A BAN ON FOREIGN INVESTMENTS UNLESS YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC WITHDRAWS HIS SECURITY POLICE AND BEGINS UNCONDITIONAL TALKS WITH THE KOSOVAR ALBANIANS ON KOSOVO'S FUTURE. SOME BALKAN ANALYSTS QUESTION WHETHER U-S POLICY IN KOSOVO WILL BE EFFECTIVE IN AVERTING A WAR

    ON THE SCALE OF THE WAR IN BOSNIA. VOA'S JUDITH LATHAM

    HAS TALKED WITH TWO ANALYSTS WITH OPPOSING VIEWS. ONE THINKS THAT U.S. POLICY IS NOT FIRM ENOUGH. THE OTHER THINKS IT IS INAPPROPRIATE FOR THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE TO BE INVOLVED IN YUGOSLAVIA'S INTERNAL AFFAIRS. HERE'S _____ WITH A REPORT.

    TEXT: IVO DAALDER [EE-VOH DAHL-DER], WHO TEACHES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND'S SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS, WORKED ON U-S POLICY IN BOSNIA AT THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL IN 1995 AND 1996. PROFESSOR DAALDER DESCRIBES AMERICAN POLICY IN KOSOVO AS "BOSNIA DEJA VU" -- THAT IS, A SITUATION WE HAVE SEEN BEFORE. HE SAYS THE UNITED STATES HAS MADE FOUR KEY MISTAKES IN ITS CURRENT POLICY IN KOSOVO.

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- DAALDER (0:59) "THE MOST IMPORTANT FALLACY THAT THE ADMINISTRATION MADE IN ITS INITIAL RESPONSE TO KOSOVO WAS TO SUBORDINATE ITS OWN VIEWS TO THAT OF THE CONTACT GROUP -- THE SIX-NATION GROUP THAT INCLUDES NOT ONLY THE UNITED STATES, BUT RUSSIA, GERMANY, FRANCE, BRITAIN, AND ITALY -- JUST AS IT DID IN 1991 WHEN THE UNITED STATES SUBORDINATED ITS VIEW OF WHAT HAPPENED [IN BOSNIA] TO THE E-U [EUROPEAN UNION]. THE SECOND ONE WAS THAT, OTHER THAN RHETORICAL, THE RESPONSE TO THE CRACKDOWN WAS LIMITED TO ECONOMIC SANCTIONS. AND, ECONOMIC SANCTIONS ARE UNLIKELY TO WORK. IN FACT, THEY ARE LIKELY TO BE UNDERMINED. THE THIRD MAJOR FALLACY IN MY VIEW WAS THAT THE U-S AGREED TO DICTATE THE TERMS OF THE FINAL SETTLEMENT. IT RULED OUT THE POSSIBILITY OF KOSOVAR INDEPENDENCE, EVEN THOUGH THAT WAS THE ONE ISSUE ON WHICH THE KOSOVARS AND THE SERBS DISAGREED. I'M NOT ADVOCATING KOSOVO'S INDEPENDENCE, BUT I DON'T BELIEVE IT'S UP TO THE UNITED STATES OR THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO INSIST ON A NEGOTIATION WHERE ONE OF THE OUTCOMES DESIRED BY ONE OF THE PARTIES IS EXCLUDED BY DEFINITION."

    TEXT: THE FOURTH, AND MOST IMPORTANT, MISTAKE, PROFESSOR DAALDER SAYS, IS THAT U.S. STATEMENTS ABOUT THE USE OF FORCE ARE AMBIGOUS.

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- DAALDER (1:08) "THERE ARE VARIOUS UNOFFICIAL AND OFFICIAL STATEMENTS REGARDING THE FACT THAT ALL OPTIONS ARE OPEN WITH REGARD TO KOSOVO, WHICH IS CODE-WORD FOR THE POSSIBILITY OF USING FORCE. ON THE OTHER HAND, IT IS VERY CLEAR THAT THE [CLINTON] ADMINISTRATION IS NOT WILLING TO REPEAT THE KIND OF CLEAR LANGUAGE THAT THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION ISSUED AROUND CHRISTMAS 1992. THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION MADE CLEAR TO SERBIA THAT ANY VIOLENT CRACKDOWN IN KOSOVO WOULD GET A MILITARY RESPONSE, NOT ONLY IN KOSOVO BUT IN SERBIA PROPER. THAT SO-CALLED 'CHRISTMAS WARNING' HAS NOT BEEN REPEATED, AND YET WE HEAR HINTS ABOUT THE POSSIBILITY OF USING MILITARY FORCE. LIKE WE DID IN BOSNIA, THERE IS A LOT OF RHETORIC, BUT NEITHER A PLAN NOR MUCH OF AN INTENTION TO FOLLOW THROUGH. AND THAT IS POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS. IT ENCOURAGES BELGRADE TO CRACK DOWN, KNOWING THAT THERE WON'T BE ANY RESPONSE, AND IT ENCOURAGES, QUITE FRANKLY, THE KOSOVARS TO INCREASE THE VIOLENCE, TOO. (OPT) THEIR LESSON FROM BOSNIA IS THAT IF YOU ARE GOOD PEOPLE, AND YOU BEHAVE AND YOU OPPOSE THE SITUATION THROUGH CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE, YOU GET IGNORED. BUT, IF YOU START SHOOTING AND CREATE MAYHEM, AND VIOLENCE INCREASES, THEN YOU GET HEARD. AND, IN FACT, THAT'S EXACTLY WHAT HAPPENED." (END OPT)

    TEXT: (OPT) PROFESSOR DAALDER SAYS A CREDIBLE THREAT OF FORCE, PLUS ECONOMIC INCENTIVES FOR COMPLIANCE AND A CLEARLY ARTICULATED DIPLOMATIC STRATEGY, ARE NEEDED AT THIS POINT TO AVOID ANOTHER WAR IN THE BALKANS.

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- DAALDER (0:15) "YOU NEED TO BE PREPARED TO INTERVENE MILITARILY AT THE SCALE THAT IS REQUIRED TO STOP IT. I'M CONVINCED FROM OUR EXPERIENCE IN BOSNIA THAT A CREDIBLE THREAT OF THE USE OF FORCE, IN THE FIRST INSTANCE FROM THE AIR, WILL DETER THE KIND OF ACTION THAT WOULD LEAD TO ALL OUT WAR." (END OPT)

    TEXT: DESPITE OBVIOUS SIMILARITIES, PROFESSOR DAALDER SAYS, THERE ARE SEVERAL MAJOR DIFFERNCES BETWEEN TODAY'S SITUATION IN KOSOVO AND THE EARLIER CONFLICT IN BOSNIA.

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- DAALDER (0:34) "ONE IS, I THINK, THERE'S A BIGGER APPRECIATION THAT IF KOSOVO BLOWS, THE DANGER OF THE WAR SPREADING AND THE REGIONAL CONSEQUENCES IS LARGER THAN IT WAS IN BOSNIA. NUMBER TWO, I DO THINK THAT THE LEADERSHIP AT THE HIGHEST REACHES OF THE U-S GOVERNMENT IS MORE SENSITIVE AND IS MORE LIKELY TO ACT THAN IT WAS IN 1992. AND, THIRD, I THINK THIS IS AN EASIER PROBLEM TO HANDLE THAN BOSNIA WAS, WHICH WAS LOCAL COMMUNITIES FIGHTING AGAINST EACH OTHER. THIS IS A DIFFERENT KETTLE OF FISH [SITUATION]. THAT IS A LOCAL COMMUNITY THAT WOULD BE ETHNICALLY CLEANSED BY AN OUTSIDE COMMUNITY. SO, IT IS EASIER TO PLACE BLAME, AND IT IS EASIER TO DEFINE WHAT THE PROBLEM IS, AND IT'S EASIER TO DEFINE WHAT THE SOLUTION IS."

    TEXT: UNLESS PREVENTIVE ACTION IS TAKEN, PROFESSOR DAALDER WARNS, KOSOVO COULD PRODUCE A CONFLICT THAT WOULD BE FAR DEADLIER THAN THE WAR IN NEIGHBORING BOSNIA THAT CLAIMED 200,000 LIVES. HE SAYS THE SITUATION IS POTENTIALLY MUCH MORE DANGEROUS BECAUSE THE CONFLICT COULD SPILL ACROSS INTERNATIONAL BORDERS AND SHATTER THE STABILITY OF THE REGION.

    ALEX DRAGNICH, A RETIRED PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE WHO HAS WRITTEN SEVERAL BOOKS ON YUGOSLAV HISTORY AND POLITICS, THINKS KOSOVO MAY INDEED BE HEADED TOWARD ETHNIC VIOLENCE. BUT, HE BELIEVES MUCH OF THE RESPONSIBILTY FOR THAT VIOLENCE RESTS WITH THE KOSOVAR ALBANIANS.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE -- DRAGNICH (0:26) "IT'S VERY DISTURBING WHEN I READ ABOUT THE ATTEMPT TO SMUGGLE ARMS INTO YUGOSLAVIA FROM ALBANIA AND THE ACTION OF THE YUGOSLAV TROOPS TO STOP IT. I'M CONCERNED BECAUSE, IF THAT KIND OF THING CONTINUES, THEN I THINK THE ONLY SOLUTION FOR KOSOVO WILL BE SOME KIND OF A PARTITION, WHICH IS NOT PROBABLY THE BEST SOLUTION. BUT VIOLENCE IS CERTAINLY NOT GOING TO BREED A PEACEFUL DIALOGUE."

    TEXT: PROFESSOR DRAGNICH SAYS THAT SANCTIONS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA BY THE SIX-NATION CONTACT GROUP HAVE AGGREVATED THE SITUATION IN KOSOVO.

    TAPE: CUT SIX -- DRAGNICH (0:57) "I THINK THE THREATS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA HAVE ENCOURAGED THE ALBANIANS NOT TO NEGOTIATE. I THINK THE CONTACT GROUP IS IN AN EMBARRASSING POSITION. THEY ARE IN EFFECT INTERFERING IN THE INTERNAL AFFAIRS OF A SOVEREIGN COUNTRY. I'M WORRIED ABOUT THIS BECAUSE IT'S UN-AMERICAN TO EXPRESS THIS KIND OF ARROGANCE TOWARD A SOVEREIGN NATION, AND I'M REALLY CONCERNED ABOUT THAT. I THINK THE U-S AND THE CONTACT GROUP SHOULD SAY TO THE YUGOSLAVS, 'YOU HAVE TO SIT DOWN.' AND, WE SHOULD THEN TELL THE KOSOVAR PEOPLE, 'PUT AN END TO THIS ATTEMPT TO SMUGGLE ARMS IN, AND PUT AN END TO YOUR ACTIONS AGAINST SERBIAN OFFICIALS. SIT DOWN AND HAMMER OUT SOME KIND OF DIALOGUE.' I'D LIKE TO SEE AN OUTCOME THAT WOULD BE REACHED WITH A MINIMUM OF BLOODSHED. THE SITUATION DOES NOT LOOK VERY GOOD AT THE MOMENT, BUT I THINK WE SHOULD PERSIST TOWARD SOME KIND OF A PEACEFUL RESOLUTION."

    TEXT: OPINIONS ARE DIVIDED AS TO WHAT THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY -- AND THE UNITED STATES IN PARTICULAR -- SHOULD DO TO MINIMIZE THE THREAT OF WIDESCALE ETHNIC CONFLICT IN KOSOVO. BUT, NEARLY EVERYONE AGREES THAT TIME IS RUNNING OUT AND THAT CONTINUED VIOLENCE IN KOSOVO COULD IGNITE ANOTHER BALKAN WAR.
    05-May-98 1:18 PM EDT (1718 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] EDITORIAL: SENATE APPROVES NATO ENLARGEMENT

    DATE= MAY 6, 1998
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-07774
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    MAY 6, 1998.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    THE UNITED STATES SENATE RECENTLY VOTED TO ENLARGE THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION -- NATO -- TO INCLUDE THE CZECH REPUBLIC, HUNGARY AND POLAND. FOR THE FIRST TIME, NATO WILL INCLUDE COUNTRIES OF THE FORMER WARSAW PACT. PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON HAILED THE VOTE AS A "MILESTONE ON THE ROAD TO AN UNDIVIDED, DEMOCRATIC AND PEACEFUL EUROPE."

    SENATOR JOSEPH BIDEN, RANKING DEMOCRAT ON THE SENATE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE, SAID THE ENLARGEMENT OF NATO HERALDS ANOTHER FIFTY YEARS OF PEACE. "IN A SENSE," HE SAID, "WE'LL BE RIGHTING A HISTORICAL INJUSTICE FORCED UPON THE POLES, CZECHS AND HUNGARIANS BY [SOVIET DICTATOR] JOSEF STALIN."

    NATO HAS BEEN ENLARGED THREE TIMES SINCE IT WAS CREATED IN 1949. THE LAST WAS IN 1982, WHEN SPAIN WAS ADMITTED. FOUR NATO MEMBERS -- CANADA, DENMARK, NORWAY AND GERMANY -- HAVE ALREADY APPROVED THE NEWEST ENLARGEMENT, WHICH REQUIRES THE CONSENT OF ALL SIXTEEN NATO COUNTRIES. POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC ARE EXPECTED TO WIN THE APPROVAL OF THE OTHER NATO MEMBERS THIS YEAR AND JOIN THE ALLIANCE IN 1999. AFTER THAT, THEY WILL ENJOY PROTECTION UNDER NATO'S GUARANTEE OF COLLECTIVE DEFENSE. THAT GUARANTEE STIPULATES THAT AN ATTACK ON ONE MEMBER OF NATO WILL BE TREATED AS AN ATTACK ON ALL MEMBERS.

    AS PRESIDENT CLINTON SAID, "THE ADDITION OF THESE THREE DEMOCRACIES TO. . .[THE] ALLIANCE WILL STRENGTHEN NATO, EXPAND THE ZONE OF STABILITY IN EUROPE AND REDUCE THE CHANCES AMERICAN MEN AND WOMEN WILL EVER AGAIN BE CALLED INTO EUROPE'S FIELDS OF BATTLE. THE MESSAGE OF [THE SENATE VOTE] IS CLEAR: AMERICAN SUPPORT FOR NATO IS FIRM, OUR LEADERSHIP FOR SECURITY ON BOTH SIDES OF THE ATLANTIC IS STRONG, AND THERE IS A SOLID BIPARTISAN FOUNDATION FOR AN ACTIVE U.S. ROLE IN THE WORLD."

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT. IF YOU HAVE A COMMENT, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, V-O-A, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO COMMENT AT WWW-DOT-VOA-DOT-GOV-SLASH-EDITORIALS, OR FAX US AT (202) 619-1043.
    05-May-98 2:02 PM EDT (1802 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=5/5/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-231739
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE THREE BIGGEST STOCK MARKETS OF WESTERN EUROPE ALL EXPERIENCED A SELL-OFF TUESDAY. V-O-A'S PAUL FRANCUCH REPORTS THE CLOSING NUMBERS FROM OUR OFFICES IN LONDON.

    TEXT: WORD OF HIGHER INTEREST RATES IN DENMARK SPAWNED FEAR AMONG SOME INVESTORS THE GERMAN CENTRAL BANK MIGHT SOON RAISE RATES AS WELL. THAT, IN TURN, SET STOCK MARKETS ON A DOWNWARD TREND, WITH THE FRANKFURT DAX TAKING A LOSS OF MORE THAN TWO-PERCENT FOR THE DAY, CLOSING DOWN 111-AND-A-HALF POINTS.

    THE PARIS "CAC 40" STOCK INDEX LOST JUST MORE THAN 29-POINTS, AND IN LONDON THE "FINANCIAL TIMES" 100 INDEX OF STOCK WAS OFF ABOUT 24-POINTS. IN BOTH CASES, THE VALUE DECLINE WAS LESS THAN ONE-PERCENT.

    THE GERMAN MARK SOARED TUESDAY ON CURRENCY MARKETS AGAINST THE U-S DOLLAR AND THE BRITISH POUND. THE DOLLAR ALSO GAINED SLIGHTLY AGAINST THE POUND.

    GOLD PRICES IN LONDON REMAINED STEADY AT AROUND 303-DOLLARS AN OUNCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF/RAE
    05-May-98 1:32 PM EDT (1732 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] KOSOVO UNREST (L) BY ART CHIMES (PRISTINA)

    DATE=5/5/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-23710
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN YUGOSLAVIA'S TROUBLED KOSOVO PROVINCE, SERB FORCES AND PRO-INDEPENDENCE ETHNIC ALBANIAN GUERRILLAS CONTINUE A STANDOFF FOR THE THIRD DAY IN A ROW. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES REPORTS FROM THE PROVINCIAL CAPITAL, PRISTINA, THAT ALBANIANS ARE FEARING THE WORST.

    TEXT: MODERATE ALBANIANS SAY SERB AUTHORITIES ARE TRYING TO CLEAR ALL THE ALBANIAN RESIDENTS FROM THE BORDER AREA. OTHERS WONDER IF THE INCIDENT WILL RESULT IN THE KIND OF CASUALTIES SEEN IN MARCH, WHEN SOME 80 ETHNIC ALBANIANS WERE KILLED IN A SERB CRACKDOWN IN THE DRENICE REGION.

    IN THE LATEST FIGHTING AROUND THE VILLAGE OF PONOSEVAC, SERBS SAY THEIR FORCES ARE SURROUNDING AS MANY AS 200 GUERRILLAS. BOTH SIDES SAY THEIR OPPONENTS ARE USING HEAVY WEAPONS.

    A POLICE SOURCE SAYS THEY HAVE BEEN UNABLE TO REACH CASUALTIES BECAUSE THE TERRORISTS, AS HE CALLED THEM, HAVE BEEN SHOOTING AT EVERYTHING AND EVERYBODY.

    THERE WERE CASUALTY REPORTS SUNDAY AND MONDAY, BUT SERB AUTHORITIES HAVE SEALED-OFF THE AREA, MAKING IT DIFFICULT TO VERIFY THE INFORMATION.

    THE INCIDENT IS TAKING PLACE ABOUT 10 KILOMETERS FROM THE ALBANIAN BORDER. ALBANIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER (PASKAL MILO) SAYS TENSIONS HAVEN'T BEEN THIS HIGH ALONG THE BORDER IN 50 YEARS.

    IN A SEPARATE INCIDENT, SERB SOURCES SAY A POSTAL WORKER HAS BEEN KILLED (IN MALISEVO), SOUTHWEST OF PRISTINA. POSTAL WORKERS, LIKE OTHER STATE EMPLOYEES, ARE ALL SERBS.

    KOSOVO'S POPULATION IS 90-PERCENT ETHNIC ALBANIAN. GUERRILLAS OF THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY HAVE BEEN FIGHTING FOR INDEPENDENCE FROM SERBIA. THE BIG POWERS HAVE BEEN TRYING TO MEDIATE A NEGOTIATED SOLUTION TO THE ESCALATING CONFLICT, AND HAVE GIVEN BELGRADE UNTIL SATURDAY TO BEGIN MEANINGFUL TALKS ON AUTONOMY FOR KOSOVO. THERE ARE THREATS OF SANCTIONS, BUT FEW ON EITHER SIDE OF THE CONFLICT SERIOUSLY EXPECT YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO BOW TO THE INTERNATIONAL PRESSURE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/PCF
    05-May-98 6:36 AM EDT (1036 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=5/5/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-231749
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE DOWN TODAY (TUESDAY) AS PROFIT-TAKING TOOK HOLD. VOA CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 91 HUNDRED 47, DOWN 45 POINTS, ABOURT HALF OF ONE PERCENT. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 11 HUNDRED 15, DOWN SIX POINTS.

    ANALYSTS SAY MANY TRADERS DECIDED IT WAS TIME TO TAKE PROFITS AFTER THE STRONG GAINS OF FRIDAY AND MONDAY.

    THE LATEST MONTHLY INDEX OF LEADING INDICATORS IS UP MODESTLY SHOWING CONTINUED U-S ECONOMIC GROWTH. THE INDEX IS DESIGNED TO FORECAST ECONOMIC ACTIVITY SIX TO NINE MONTHS IN THE FUTURE.

    ///OPT///

    FORD AND GENERAL MOTORS BOTH REPORTED STRONGER-THAN-EXPECTED U-S VEHICLE SALES LAST MONTH. HOWEVER, ANALYSTS SAY MUCH OF THE INCREASE WAS THE RESULT OF GENEROUS PRICE REBATES WHICH COULD HURT THE COMPANIES' PROFIT MARGINS.///END OPT///

    MICROSOFT CHAIRMAN BILL GATES HAS STRUCK BACK AT LEGAL EFFORTS TO DELAY INTRODUCTION OF HIS "WINDOWS 98" COMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEM. A GROUP OF STATE ATTORNEYS GENERAL ARE TRYING TO BLOCK SALE OF "WINDOWS 98" ON THE GROUNDS THAT MICROSOFT IS USING ITS NEAR MONOPOLY IN PERSONAL COMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS TO CONTROL THE MARKET FOR INTERNET SOFTWARE. MR. GATES TOLD REPORTERS A DELAY IN "WINDOWS 98" COULD HAVE DIRE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES FOR THE UNITED STATES.

    ///REST OPT///

    ///GATES ACT///

    ANY GOVERNMENT ACTION THAT WOULD DERAIL OR DELAY "WINDOWS 98" WOULD HURT THE AMERICAN ECONOMY AND WOULD COST AMERICAN JOBS. IT WOULD ALSO CREATE AN OPENING FOR FOREIGN COMPANIES TO MOVE INTO A POSITION OF LEADERSHIP IN AN INDUSTRY THAT HAS BEEN A STRONG EXPORTER FOR AMERICA.

    ///END ACT///

    HOWEVER SOME COMPUTER INDUSTRY ANALYSTS SAY A DELAY IN "WINDOWS 98" WOULD HAVE A MINIMAL IMPACT ON THE U-S COMPUTER INDUSTRY AND NO EFFECT ON THE OVERALL ECONOMY.

    THE DELL COMPUTER COMPANY, ONE OF THE LEADING DIRECT SALES COMPUTER FIRMS IN THE UNITED STATES, WILL ATTEMPT TO BOOST ITS IMAGE IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS. DELL WILL SPEND 70 MILLION DOLLARS IN A WORLDWIDE ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN LATER THIS YEAR.

    ALFRED KAHN, THE ECONOMIST WHO LED THE DRIVE FOR DEREGULATION OF U-S AIRLINE FARES, SAYS THE CARRIERS ARE IN DANGER OF BEING RE-REGULATED. MR. KAHN SAYS SOME AIRLINES ARE USING NEAR MONOPOLY POWER IN CERTAIN MARKETS TO RAISE TICKET PRICES TO UNREASONABLE LEVELS, ESPECIALLY FOR LAST MINUTE BUSINESS TRAVELERS.(SIGNED)
    NEB/NY/BA/LSF
    05-May-98 4:53 PM EDT (2053 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] NORTHERN IRELAND PEACE (PART SEVEN) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

    DATE=5/5/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-40268
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    // EDS : THIS IS THE SEVENTH IN A MULTI-PART SERIES OF BACKGROUNDERS LEADING UP TO THE MAY 22ND IRISH REFERENDUMS ON THE POLITICAL CHANGES IN NORTHERN IRELAND. //

    INTRO: ONE OF THE MOST CONTENTIOUS ISSUES IN NORTHERN IRELAND IS THE ISSUE OF DECOMMISSIONING WEAPONS -- NAMELY, HOW TO GET ILLEGAL PARAMILITARY GROUPS TO SURRENDER THEIR GUNS AND BOMBS. IN THIS REPORT FROM LONDON, V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA LOOKS AT THE ISSUE WHICH STILL REMAINS UNRESOLVED, DESPITE AN AGREEMENT ON NORTHERN IRELAND'S POLITICAL FUTURE.

    TEXT: THE ISSUE OF GETTING PARAMILITARY GROUPS IN NORTHERN IRELAND TO SURRENDER THEIR WEAPONS HAS ALWAYS BEEN THE MOST DIFFICULT TASK FACING NEGOTIATORS. AFTER 22 MONTHS OF TALKS, THE LEADERS OF THE VARIOUS PARTIES IN THE BRITISH PROVINCE AGREED ON A POLITICAL FRAMEWORK -- BUT, IN ESSENCE, LEFT THE ISSUE OF DISARMING PARAMILITARY GROUPS FOR THE FUTURE.

    IN ITS SECTION ON "DECOMMISSIONING WEAPONS," THE AGREEMENT SAYS PARTICIPANTS REAFFIRM THEIR COMMITMENT TO THE TOTAL DISARMAMENT OF ALL PARAMILITARY ORGANIZATIONS. POLITICAL LEADERS WILL USE -- IN THE WORDS OF THE ACCORD -- "ANY INFLUENCE THEY MAY HAVE TO ACHIEVE THE DECOMMISSIONING OF ALL PARAMILITARY ARMS WITHIN TWO YEARS," FOLLOWING THE ENDORSEMENT OF THE ACCORD IN REFERENDUMS.

    // OPT //

    IN ADDITION, AN INDEPENDENT COMMISSION WILL MONITOR, REVIEW AND VERIFY PROGRESS ON DECOMMISSIONING OF ILLEGAL ARMS. // END OPT //

    MANY POLITICIANS IN NORTHERN IRELAND ARE DISTINCTLY UNEASY WITH THE ACCORD'S PROVISIONS DEALING WITH DECOMMISSIONING. WILLIAM ROSS IS A SENIOR MEMBER OF THE PRO-BRITISH "ULSTER UNIONIST PARTY." ALTHOUGH HIS PARTY ENDORSES THE AGREEMENT, HE IS URGING VOTERS TO REJECT THE ACCORD DURING THE MAY 22ND REFERENDUM. HE SAYS THE ACCORD DOES NOTHING TO FORCE PARAMILITARY GROUPS TO SURRENDER THEIR ARSENALS.

    // ROSS ACT //

    THEY DID NOT GIVE UP THE WEAPONS BEFORE THE TALKS BEGAN -- WHICH WAS THE ORIGINAL IDEA. THEY DID NOT GIVE UP THEIR WEAPONS DURING THE PERIOD OF THE TALKS, AND NOW THEY ARE BEING GIVEN TWO FURTHER YEARS TO SURRENDER THEIR WEAPONS. THE I-R-A (IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY) ARE SAYING QUITE BLUNTLY WE WILL NOT GIVE UP A SINGLE BULLET, A SINGLE OUNCE OF 'SEMTEX' (PLASTIC EXPLOSIVE), A SINGLE WEAPON -- AND THE PROTESTANT PARAMILITARY ORGANIZATIONS HAVEN'T SAID ANYTHING, BUT THEY ARE JUST NOT GIVING UP THEIR GUNS.

    // END ACT //

    MANY PEOPLE IN NORTHERN IRELAND BELIEVE GETTING THE GUNS OUT OF IRISH POLITICS MAY BE ONLY A DREAM -- AND THAT GIVEN THE LACK OF TRUST IN A DIVIDED SOCIETY, PARAMILITARY GROUPS WILL NEVER SURRENDER THEIR WEAPONS.

    JOHN ALDERDICE IS LEADER OF THE NON-SECTARIAN "ALLIANCE" PARTY. HE SAYS THE ISSUE IS SO DAUNTING, THAT IT CANNOT BE SOLVED BY THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT ALONE. HE BELIEVES INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, INCLUDING THAT OF PRESIDENT CLINTON.

    // ALDERDICE ACT //

    HE WOULD HAVE EVERY RIGHT NOW TO CALL IN HIS CHITS, TO SPEAK TO (SINN FEIN PRESIDENT) GERRY ADAMS AND TO TALK TO THE LOYALISTS AND SAY: "NOW LOOK, I TOOK MAJOR RISKS FOR YOU IN ORDER THAT YOU COULD BE PART OF THIS PROCESS. I EXPECT YOU NOW TO DELIVER ON YOUR PROMISE TO DISMANTLE THE TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS -- NOT JUST A MATTER OF SHEDDING SOME GUNS AND THINGS LIKE THAT. //OPT// I WANT TO KNOW THAT YOU ARE NEVER GOING BACK TO THE VIOLENCE AGAIN AND THEREFORE YOU ARE GOING TO DISMANTLE THESE TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS." AND I THINK TO DO THAT -- THE PRESSURE TO DO THAT -- IS INTERNATIONAL PRESSURE RATHER THAN DOMESTIC PRESSURE. //END OPT//

    // END ACT //

    THE DECOMMISSIONING ISSUE IS EVEN MORE DIFFICULT TO RESOLVE, GIVEN THAT THERE ARE FRINGE EXTREMIST GROUPS NOT ABIDING BY CEASEFIRES AND WHO ARE CONTINUING THEIR CAMPAIGNS OF VIOLENCE.

    FOR THOSE OUTLAWED ORGANIZATIONS, THE LEADER OF THE PRO-NATIONALIST "SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC AND LABOR PARTY," JOHN HUME, HAS A SIMPLE QUESTION.

    // HUME ACT //

    WHAT ARE YOU FIGHTING FOR? DO YOU RESPECT THE WILL OF THE IRISH PEOPLE? THE IRISH PEOPLE ARE GOING TO SPEAK ON THE 22ND OF MAY AND I EXPECT THEM TO SPEAK WITH A VERY STRONG 'YES' NORTH AND SOUTH. AND GIVEN THAT, HOW THEN CAN THESE ORGANIZATIONS JUSTIFY USING VIOLENCE AT ALL?

    //OPT//

    BECAUSE IF THEY ARE GOING TO USE VIOLENCE AFTER THE IRISH PEOPLE HAVE SPOKEN AS A WHOLE IN FAVOR OF THE SETTLEMENT, THEN QUITE CLEARLY THEY ARE DECLARING THEMSELVES TO BE TOTAL FASCISTS, SEEKING TO IMPOSE THEIR WILL WITH GUNS AND BOMBS ON THE PEOPLE OF IRELAND. //END OPT//

    // END ACT //

    JOHN HUME BELIEVES FOLLOWING THE MAY 22ND REFERENDUMS, FRINGE EXTREMIST GROUPS THAT RESORT TO VIOLENCE WILL HAVE EVEN LESS SUPPORT THAN THEY DO NOW. BUT EVEN MR. HUME ADMITS IT WILL TAKE SOME TIME TO GET ALL OF THE GUNS OUT OF IRISH POLITICS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/PCF/PLM
    05-May-98 12:08 PM EDT (1608 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] THE EUROPEAN UNION MOVES AHEAD ON THE EURO CURRENCY BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=05/05/98
    TYPE=U-S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-10697
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: THE EUROPEAN UNION, MEETING IN BRUSSELS LAST WEEK, HAS AGREED 11 OF ITS 15 MEMBERS WILL PUT INTO PLACE BY NEXT YEAR A COMMON CURRENCY KNOWN AS THE EURO. IT HAS TAKEN YEARS OF DIFFICULT NEGOTIATIONS TO GET THESE COUNTRIES, INCLUDING GERMANY AND FRANCE, TO GIVE UP THEIR OWN CURRENCY, THE DEUTSCHMARK AND THE FRANC, RESPECTIVELY.

    AND A LAST MINUTE DISAGREEMENT OVER WHICH CENTRAL BANK CHIEF WOULD HEAD THE NEW UNIFIED CURRENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY THREATENED TO DERAIL THE DEAL, BUT SATISFACTORY COMPROMISE WAS WORKED OUT.

    THE NEW BANK NOTES AND COINS WILL BEGIN TO BE PHASED INTO USE NEXT JANUARY FIRST, WITH THE FULL CIRCULATION SCHEDULED BY TWO-THOUSAND-TWO.

    THE U-S PAPERS ARE NOTING THIS HISTORIC MONETARY UNION WITH COMMENT, AND ______________________ JOINS US NOW WITH A SAMPLE IN TODAY'S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: AS "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" REMARKS, THIS IS AN "ENORMOUSLY COMPLICATED ENDEAVOR" THAT EVENTUALLY MEANS THE END OF SUCH FAMILIAR EUROPEAN CURRENCIES AS THE ITALIAN LIRA AND THE FRENCH FRANC. HOWEVER THE DEAL WILL MAKE BUSINESS IN MOST OF EUROPE MUCH EASIER, WITHOUT THE ADDED INCONVENIENCE OF CONSTANTLY CONVERTING ONE CURRENCY FROM A SMALL NATION, INTO ANOTHER.

    ALREADY SEVERAL PAN-EUROPEAN BUSINESS MERGERS ARE BEING REPORTED AS THE CONTINENT'S INDUSTRIES ANTICIPATE THE ADVANTAGES OF BUYING AND SELLING WITHIN A MONETARILY UNIFIED SET OF NATIONS. EVENTUALLY THE PLAN IS FOR THE REMAINING FOUR NATIONS, BRITAIN, DENMARK, AND SWEDEN TO JOIN, AS WELL AS GREECE, WHICH DID NOT MEET THE FINANCIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ENTRY BY THE DEADLINE.

    ONE OF THE THEMES BEING EXPRESSED IN THE U-S PRESS IS A CONCERN OVER THE LACK OF INTEREST TOWARD THIS IMPORTANT EVENT BEING SHOWN BY THE AMERICAN PUBLIC AND THE GOVERNMENT. BOTH "NEW YORK TIMES" COLUMNIST WILLIAM SAFIRE AND "THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION" WARN THAT WE IGNORE THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS MOVE AND ITS POTENTIAL IMPACT, AT OUR PERIL.

    WE BEGIN OUR SAMPLING IN CALIFORNIA, WHERE "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" SAYS THIS IS USHERING IN AN ENTIRELY NEW ECONOMIC ERA IN EUROPE.

    VOICE: THE GLOBAL ECONOMY IS IN FOR A CHANGE UNLIKE ANY EXPERIENCED IN THE MODERN TIMES. THE NATIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION ARE POISED TO YIELD SOVEREIGNTY OVER THEIR INDIVIDUAL CURRENCIES AND MONETARY DECISIONS AND CREATE A SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY. THE GOAL IS A MARKET-DRIVEN COMPETITIVE ECONOMY THAT WILL RANK SECOND ONLY TO THE UNITED STATES. THIS WILL BE AN ENORMOUSLY COMPLICATED ENDEAVOR BUT IF IT GOES AS PLANNED -- AND THAT'S A BIG 'IF' -- THE FRENCH FRANC, GERMAN MARK, ITALIAN LIRA AND OTHER FAMILIAR EUROPEAN CURRENCIES WILL BE HISTORY. ...THERE WILL BE PLENTY OF RISKS IN THIS ENDEAVOR FOR EUROPEAN UNITY -- NOT ONLY ECONOMIC BUT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND CULTURAL.

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" SAYS THAT WHILE THE MERGER MAY PROVE TO BE VERY BENEFICIAL, THERE IS A DEFINITE DOWNSIDE.

    VOICE: ...THE EURO COULD BACKFIRE, TRAPPING UNLUCKY REGIONS IN RECESSION AND TRIGGERING POLITICAL RESENTMENT WHEN NO AUTHORITY COMES TO THE RESCUE. AMERICANS CAN HOPE THAT THE BRASH POLICY WORKS BECAUSE PROSPERITY IN EUROPE HELPS THE UNITED STATES GROW, EVEN IF THE RISE OF THE EURO DIMINISHES THE INTERNATIONAL CLOUT OF THE DOLLAR. BY ADOPTING THE EURO, EVERY COUNTRY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION EXCEPT BRITAIN, SWEDEN, DENMARK AND GREECE WOULD CREATE THE KIND OF COMMON CURRENCY IN EUROPE THAT AMERICANS TAKE FOR GRANTED WITH THE DOLLAR. THE EURO IS LIKELY TO BOOST ECONOMIC ACTIVITY BY CUTTING THE COST OF BUYING AND SELLING. RATHER THAN JUGGLING ELEVEN DIFFERENT YARDSTICKS, CONSUMERS CAN INSTANTLY COMPARE THE PRICE OF GOODS IN FINLAND, ITALY AND OTHER COUNTRIES IN BETWEEN. THE EURO ALSO ELIMINATES THE RISK FOR INVESTORS THAT EXCHANGE RATES WILL FLUCTUATE AND SABOTAGE LONG-TERM CONTRACTS. ... IF THE EURO BOOSTS THE EUROPEAN ECONOMY, IT WILL ALSO BOOST AMERICA'S. BUT TO THE EXTENT THAT IT REPLACES THE DOLLAR AS THE CURRENCY OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE, IT WILL ALSO TRIM SOME REAL FINANCIAL BENEFITS THAT COME FROM AMERICA'S CURRENT ROLE AS THE WORLD'S BANKER.

    TEXT: "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" WONDERS ALOUD WHETHER THE SQUABBLE AT THE VERY LAST MINUTE BETWEEN GERMANY AND FRANCE OVER WHICH OF THEIR CENTRAL BANK MANAGERS WOULD BE IN CONTROL OF THE NEW, UNIFIED EURO CENTRAL BANK, PRESAGES TROUBLE AHEAD FOR THE MERGER.

    VOICE: EUROPE'S NEW CENTRAL BAN (AND MONEY) ARE ABOUT TO BE BORN. AND ALREADY THE BANK AND EURO HAVE SUFFERED AN UNSETTLING POLITICAL INTRUSION. FRANCE HAS FORCED A SPLITTING OF THE FIRST EIGHT-YEAR TERM OF THE BANK'S SUPPOSEDLY INDEPENDENT PRESIDENCY. THE TWO MEN WHO WILL SPLIT THE TERM ARE BOTH RIGOROUS ADVOCATES OF A STRONG CURRENCY. FINE. BUT THE POLITICAL MEDDLING SETS A BAD PRECEDENT. FRANCE'S PRESIDENT CHIRAC AND PRIME MINISTER JOSPIN ESSENTIALLY BLACKMAILED [EXTORTED] THE TEN OTHER 'EURO' NATIONS INTO ACCEPTING THE FORCED RETIREMENT OF THE MAJORITY'S CANDIDATE MIDWAY THROUGH HIS TERM. THE NEW CURRENCY BLOC WILL, WE TRUST, SURVIVE THIS POLITICAL FIDDLING. FRENCH CITIZENS, LIKE THEIR COUNTERPARTS THROUGHOUT EUROPE, NEED TO TRUST THE SOLIDITY OF THEIR NEW BANK AND ITS COINAGE. THAT MEANS INSULATION FROM MEMBER STATES' SHORT-TERM POLITICAL DEMANDS.

    TEXT: IN MAINE, "PORTLAND'S PRESS HERALD" TALKS ABOUT THE WRENCHING DISCUSSIONS THAT LED TO THE AGREEMENT, AND SOME OF THE BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES THAT LIE AHEAD.

    VOICE: TO GET TO THIS POINT, THESE ELEVEN NATIONS HAD TO MEET DIFFICULT ECONOMIC STANDARDS WITH REGARD TO THEIR NATIONAL DEBTS AND DEFICITS. IN SOME COUNTRIES THAT MEANT CUTS IN GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS OR TAX INCREASES. SUCH PAINFUL MEASURES DO NOT COME EASY IN DEMOCRACIES, BUT THE GOVERNMENTS INVOLVED DETERMINED EARLY ON THAT THE ADVANTAGES OF SWITCHING TO THE EURO OUTWEIGHED THE COSTS. INDEED, THE COUNTRIES ARE LIKELY TO SEE AN EXPLOSION OF TRADE ACROSS THEIR BORDERS. EXCHANGE RATES NO LONGER WILL BE A FACTOR, MAKING THE MOVEMENT OF GOODS AND SERVICES EASIER AND LESS RISKY. ...A SINGLE CURRENCY ALSO MEANS A SINGLE CENTRAL BANK, SETTING POLICY ON INTEREST RATES AND OTHER MATTERS. THAT BANK WILL HAVE THE DIFFICULT TASK OF BALANCING THE CONCERNS OF ITS MEMBERS WHILE ASSERTING ITS AUTHORITY OVER THE CURRENCY. MONETARY UNION IN EUROPE ALSO POSES CHALLENGES FOR THE UNITED STATES. THE AMERICAN DOLLAR -- AND BY EXTENSION AMERICAN PEOPLE AND COMPANIES -- HAS ALWAYS BEEN A HAVEN IN THE WORLD OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCE. WHILE THE EURO MIGHT AT FIRST SEEM RISKY, IT IS LIKELY TO BECOME AS POWERFUL AS THE DOLLAR.

    TEXT: FINALLY, "NEWSDAY," LOOKING BACK AT SOME OF THE SQUABBLES BETWEEN NATIONS WITHIN NATO, WONDERS JUST HOW WELL THIS NEW INTER-EUROPEAN "MACHINE" CAN WORK.

    VOICE: ...UNLESS EVERYTHING WORKS ACCORDING TO THE ROSIEST OF SCENARIOS, THE ADOPTION OF THE EURO - LIKE THE EXPANSION OF THE NATO ALLIANCE THAT'S ALSO ABOUT TO TAKE PLACE -- COULD PROVE TO BE A BAD IDEA WHOSE TIME HAS COME. IT IS AN ECONOMIC SOLUTION MOTIVATED BY A POLITICAL IMPULSE. IT WAS LARGELY DRIVEN BY FRENCH AMBITIONS TO REGAIN LEADERSHIP IN EUROPEAN AFFAIRS AND COUNTERBALANCE GERMANY'S DOMINANCE. FRANCE DREAMS OF CONSOLIDATION OF EUROPE UNDER A SINGLE ENTITY IN WHICH THE FRENCH WOULD HAVE A SIGNIFICANT VOICE. BUT BY ADOPTING A COMMON CURRENCY, EUROPE PUTS THE ECONOMIC CART BEFORE THE POLITICAL HORSE.

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF COMMENT FROM THE U-S PRESS REGARDING THE BIRTH OF THE EURO -- THE NEW EUROPEAN COMMON CURRENCY -- LAST WEEK.
    NEB/ANG/RAE
    05-May-98 1:10 PM EDT (1710 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=05/05/98
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10696
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// EDS: PERISHABLE MATERIAL, DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-T ! ! ////

    INTRO: IN THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS OF AMERICA'S NEWSPAPERS THIS 5TH OF MAY, THE LEADING TOPICS INCLUDE A NEW SKIRMISH BETWEEN THE WHITE HOUSE AND INDIANA CONGRESSMAN DAN BURTON REGARDING LONG-TIME CLINTON FRIEND AND WHITEWATER INVESTIGATION TARGET, WEBSTER HUBBELL. IN A RELATED ISSUE, THERE ARE EDITORIALS ON A KEY JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL, WHO HAS ALSO BEEN INVESTIGATING ASPECTS OF PRESIDENT CLINTON'S CONDUCT, BUT WHO IS NOW LEAVING THE POST AFTER LESS THAN A YEAR ON THE JOB. OTHER TOPICS INVOLVE A NEW TREATMENT FOR CANCER THAT SHOWS EXTRAORDINARY PROMISE; THE NEW, COMMON EUROPEAN CURRENCY, THE EURO; AND EXPECTATIONS FOR THE LATEST MIDDLE EAST PEACE TALKS IN LONDON.

    TEXT: THE LATEST DEVELOPMENT IN THE ON-GOING WHITEWATER INVESTIGATION OF PRESIDENT AND MRS. CLINTON IS THE INDICTMENT ON TAX EVASION CHARGES OF WEBSTER HUBBELL, A FORMER LAW PARTNER OF HILLARY CLINTON, AND MORE RECENTLY, AN ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR OF THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT. MR. HUBBELL HAS ALREADY SPENT TIME IN PRISON ON CHARGES RELATED TO HIS OVERBILLING CLIENTS AT THE ARKANSAS LAW FIRM WHERE HE AND THE FIRST LADY USED TO WORK. NOW, WHITEWATER SPECIAL PROSECUTOR KENNETH STARR HAS INDICTED MR. HUBBELL, HIS WIFE, AND HIS ACCOUNTANT FOR ALLEGEDLY FAILING TO PAY FEDERAL INCOME TAX ON THAT MONEY. IN A RELATED DEVELOPMENT, THE CONGRESSMAN IN CHARGE OF A SEPARATE INVESTIGATION OF THE PRESIDENT, DAN BURTON, HAS RELEASED TAPE RECORDINGS OF TELEPHONE CONVERSATIONS MR. HUBBELL HAD WITH HIS WIFE WHILE IN PRISON. THAT HAS CAUSED A NEW ROUND OF CONTROVERSY. TODAY'S "ATLANTA CONSTITUTION" FEELS THE RELEASE OF THE TAPES BY CONGRESSMAN DAN BURTON MAY HAVE HAD AN UNINTENDED RESULT.

    VOICE: BILL CLINTON MAY TURN OUT TO BE A CROOK AND A LIAR. BUT IF SO, HE'S A VERY LUCKY CROOK AND LIAR BECAUSE HE'S ENJOYED THE GOOD FORTUNE OF BEING CHASED BY THE GANG THAT COULDN'T THINK STRAIGHT . . . AND THE MOST INEPT MEMBER OF THE GANG IS EASILY U-S REPRESENTATIVE DAN BURTON (REPUBLICAN OF INDIANA). .... THROUGH HIS COMMITTEE, [MR.] BURTON RELEASED TRANSCRIPTS OF TAPED TELEPHONE CONVERSATIONS BETWEEN FORMER CLINTON ASSOCIATE WEBSTER HUBBELL AND OTHERS ... SUGGESTING, AMONG OTHER THINGS, THAT [MR.] HUBBELL WAS WITHHOLDING DAMAGING INFORMATION ABOUT FIRST LADY HILLARY RODHAM CLINTON..... FURTHERMORE, THE TRANSCRIPTS ... INCLUDE PRIVATE PHONE CONVERSATIONS BETWEEN [MR.] HUBBELL AND HIS LAWYER. SOMEONE WHO WOULD VIOLATE ATTORNEY-CLIENT PRIVILEGE FOR POLITICAL GAIN CAN HARDLY CLAIM TO BE CONCERNED ABOUT PROTECTING PRIVACY.

    TEXT: TODAY'S "NEW YORK POST" TAKES THE CONGRESSMAN'S SIDE IN THE DISPUTE, NOTING:

    VOICE: IN LISTENING TO THE WHITE HOUSE SPINMEISTERS [STAFF APOLOGISTS] BLAST AWAY AT REPRESENTATIVE DAN BURTON'S SUPPOSED MISCONDUCT IN LEADING HIS INVESTIGATION OF THE FIRST COUPLE, KEEP IN MIND THE FOUR 'DS' THAT ARE THEIR WATCHWORDS: DENY, DELAY, DENIGRATE AND DISTRACT. THE SOUND AND FURY LAST WEEKEND CONCERNED [MR.] BURTON'S ALLEGED 'ALTERING' AND 'DOCTORING' OF [PRESIDENT] CLINTON CRONY AND CONVICTED FELON WEBSTER HUBBELL'S JAILHOUSE CONVERSATIONS WITH HIS WIFE. .... THIS FLAP [CONTROVERSY] FALLS INTO THE 'DISTRACT' CATEGORY .....[DISTRACTING] ... FROM CONGRESSIONAL DEMOCRATS' CONTINUED STONEWALLING OF LEGAL AND PROPER INVESTIGATIONS.

    TEXT: IN A RELATED DEVELOPMENT, A HIGHLY REGARDED FEDERAL PROSECUTOR, BROUGHT IN ONLY MONTHS AGO TO HELP THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT INVESTIGATION OF ALLEGED CAMPAIGN FINANCE VIOLATIONS, IS LEAVING HIS POST. "THE NEW YORK TIMES" IS UNUSUALLY FRANK IN ITS COMMENT ON HOW THE DEPARTMENT IS HANDLING -- OR AS "THE TIMES" SUGGESTS -- MISHANDLING -- THE INVESTIGATION.

    VOICE: UNSOLVED MYSTERIES REFUSE TO GO AWAY. THAT IS WHY NEW WRINKLES IN THE STORY OF HOW PRESIDENT CLINTON AND THE DEMOCRATS FINANCED THE 1996 ELECTION KEEP POPPING UP. THE LATEST NEWS IS THAT CHARLES LABELLA, DIRECTOR OF THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT'S CAMPAIGN-MONEY TASK FORCE, URGED ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO SEVERAL MONTHS AGO TO APPOINT AN INDEPENDENT COUNSEL. HE THEREBY JOINED LOUIS FREEH, DIRECTOR OF THE FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, IN TRYING TO INSTRUCT MS. RENO IN THE REQUIREMENTS OF THIS VALUABLE LAW. ... MS. RENO'S HANDLING OF THE CAMPAIGN INVESTIGATION AND HER DEPARTMENT ARE A MESS. SHE IS UNDER THE SWAY OF POLITICAL APPOINTEES AND CAREER BUREAUCRATS. .... NOW SHE PROPOSES TO INSTALL THE THIRD LEADER OF THE CAMPAIGN FINANCE INQUIRY IN LESS THAN A YEAR. THIS IS A DEPARTMENT WITH NO SAIL, NO RUDDER AND NO BALLAST. ITS GO-SLOW LEADERSHIP IS COUNTING ON MR. FREEH LEAVING THE F-B-I FOR MORE MONEY AND ON LURING MR. LABELLA OUT OF THIS INQUIRY WITH A PROMOTION TO U-S ATTORNEY IN SAN DIEGO.

    TEXT: AS REGARDS BOTH CONGRESSMAN BURTON'S INVESTIGATION AND KENNETH STARR'S, "NEWSDAY" IS LOSING PATIENCE WITH BOTH MEN.

    VOICE: IT WOULD BE WRONG TO SAY THAT [MR.] STARR AND [CONGRESSMAN] BURTON ARE THEIR OWN WORST ENEMIES HERE; THAT DISTINCTION UNDOUBTEDLY BELONGS TO THE WHITE HOUSE. BUT IT'S A CLOSE CALL.

    TEXT: MOVING ON TO SOME HOPEFUL MEDICAL NEWS, "THE NEW YORK TIMES" TALKS OF A POSSIBLE CANCER TREATMENT BREAKTHROUGH, AFTER SUCCESSFUL TUMOR REDUCTIONS IN MICE.

    VOICE: IT SOUNDS TOO GOOD TO BE TRUE, AND IT MAY WELL BE. BUT THE DATA ON MICE LOOK PROMISING. TWO DRUGS USED IN COMBINATION SHRANK HUGE TUMORS TO THE VANISHING POINT, WITHOUT CAUSING SIDE EFFECTS OR CAUSING MICE TO DEVELOP RESISTANCE TO THE TREATMENT. NO WONDER INVESTORS YESTERDAY BID UP THE PRICE OF A SMALL COMPANY THAT IS DEVELOPING THE DRUGS, AND CANCER DOCTORS WERE BESIEGED WITH INQUIRIES FROM PATIENTS WHO HOPED TO BENEFIT. THE ONLY HITCH [POSSIBLE COMPLICATION], AND IT IS A GIGANTIC HITCH, IS THAT THE DRUGS HAVE YET TO BE TESTED IN HUMANS.

    TEXT: IN OVERSEAS ISSUES, TODAY'S "ATLANTA CONSTITUTION" SAYS THE AGREEMENT TO OFFICIALLY LAUNCH THE COMMON EUROPEAN CURRENCY, THE EURO, IS NOT GETTING THE ATTENTION IN THE UNITED STATES JUSTIFIED BY SUCH A MOMENTOUS ECONOMIC MOVE.

    VOICE: ..... MANY ECONOMISTS BELIEVE THE INTRODUCTION OF THE EURO ON JANUARY FIRST, 1999 WILL HAVE AN ENORMOUS IMPACT ON THE GLOBAL ECONOMY AND COULD TRIGGER MANY CHANGES, GOOD AND BAD, FOR THE UNITED STATES. ON THE GOOD SIDE, THE SWITCH TO A SINGLE CURRENCY WILL MAKE IT EASIER FOR U-S COMPANIES TO SELL GOOD AND SERVICES IN EUROPE. ....... BUT THE EURO COULD CAUSE PROBLEMS FOR THE UNITED STATES AS WELL. IF IT'S A SUCCESS, THE NEW CURRENCY COULD BECOME A POWERFUL RIVAL TO THE U-S DOLLAR IN GLOBAL FINANCIAL MARKETS. AMERICANS, WHO HAVE GROWN ACCUSTOMED TO HAVING THE DOLLAR SERVE AS THE UNDISPUTED ANCHOR OF THE WORLD'S FINANCIAL MARKETS, MAY HAVE TO GET USED TO SHARING THE PRESTIGE WITH EUROPEANS.

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE TALKS IN LONDON AIMED AT RE-STARTING THE MIDEAST PEACE PROCESS BETWEEN ISRAEL AND THE PALESTINIANS, "THE MIAMI HERALD" SAYS IF BOTH SIDES WANT PEACE, PROGRESS CAN BE MADE.

    VOICE: AS HE LEFT THE FIRST ROUND OF THE LONDON TALKS WITH U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT YESTERDAY, ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER BENJAMIN NETANYAHU OFFERED A BUBBLE OF HOPE SUGGESTING, 'IT IS POSSIBLE TO ACHIEVE PROGRESS .... I HOPE THE PROCESS WILL MOVE FORWARD.' BUT AFTER 14 MONTHS OF STALEMATE, IT TAKES MORE THAN HOPE TO MOVE PEACE FORWARD. ... NOTWITHSTANDING THE ENTREATIES OF SECRETARY ALBRIGHT AND BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR, ONLY MR. NETANYAHU AND MR. ARAFAT CAN MAKE A PEACE. YET THE THIRST FOR LAND ON BOTH SIDES STILL EXCEEDS THE THIRST FOR PEACE. UNTIL THAT CHANGES, THE THIRD FOR BLOOD WILL THREATEN ALL.

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF TOPICS FROM SOME OF TODAY'S U-S PRESS EDITORIALS.
    NEB/ANG/MMK
    05-May-98 11:15 AM EDT (1515 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] TURKEY KURDS BY LAURIE KASSMAN (ISTANBUL)

    DATE=5/5/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-40265
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKEY'S MILITARY HAS BEEN CARRYING OUT ONE OF ITS LARGEST CAMPAIGNS AGAINST KURDISH SEPARATIST REBELS BASED IN THE SOUTHEASTERN PART OF THE COUNTRY. FOR THE PAST SEVERAL YEARS, THE MILITARY OPERATIONS HAVE CAUSED AN EXODUS OF KURDISH FAMILIES FROM THE AREA. IT HAS ALSO PUT MORE PRESSURE ON MODERATE KURDS WHO ARE TRYING TO PRESERVE AND PROMOTE THE KURDISH CULTURE AND HERITAGE. CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN HAS THIS REPORT FROM ISTANBUL.

    TEXT: // SOUNDS OF KURDISH SPEAKING -- ESTABLISH AND FADE // AYSA (EYE-EE-SHA) LEFT HER VILLAGE IN THE MOUNTAINS OF SOUTHEAST TURKEY ABOUT NINE-MONTHS AGO. SPEAKING THROUGH A TURKISH INTERPRETER, SHE SAYS THE MILITARY MARCHED INTO THE VILLAGE, BURNED THE HOUSES, AND TOLD THEM TO LEAVE AS THEY HUNTED THE AREA FOR THE SEPARATIST GUERRILLAS OF THE OUTLAWED -- KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY -- KNOWN AS THE P-K-K. NOW, SHE LIVES WITH HER FAMILY OF SIX IN A 15-SQUARE-METER ROOM IN A SLUM AREA OF CENTRAL ISTANBUL. ACROSS THE HALL, PART OF THE WALL HAS CAVED IN. THE COMMUNAL PLUMBING IS ROTTING. SHE DREAMS ABOUT HER FARM AND ANIMALS AND EVERYTHING SHE HAD TO LEAVE BEHIND. SHE HAS NO IDEA WHEN OR IF SHE WILL RETURN.

    THE MILITARY SAYS IT HAS WON THE BATTLE AGAINST THE INSURGENTS. ANALYSTS SAY THEY HAVE MANAGED TO SEVER THE GUERRILLA NETWORK. THE RECENT CAPTURE OF ONE OF THE TOP P-K-K LEADERS WAS ANOTHER PRIZE FOR THE ANTI-GUERRILLA CAMPAIGN.

    BUT MODERATE KURDISH INTELLECTUALS, LIKE YILMAZ CAMLIBEL (CHAM-LEE-BLELL) OF THE KURDISH CULTURAL AND RESEARCH FOUNDATION, SAY THEY ARE OFTEN PERCEIVED AS A GREATER THREAT BECAUSE OF THEIR PERSISTENT CRUSADE FOR MORE CULTURAL FREEDOM FOR TURKEY'S 12-MILLION KURDS.

    MR. CAMLIBEL'S FOUNDATION WAS CHARGED WITH ILLEGAL OPERATIONS A YEAR AGO BECAUSE IT STARTED UP A KURDISH LANGUAGE CLASS. HE FACED UP TO TWO-YEARS IN PRISON. SO FAR, KURDS ARE FORBIDDEN TO USE THEIR LANGUAGE IN EDUCATION OR BROADCASTING. TUESDAY, THE COURT ACQUITTED MR CAMLIBEL, BUT RULED HIS FOUNDATION CANNOT TEACH THE KURDISH LANGUAGE. HE SAYS HE IS SUING THE EDUCATION MINISTRY TO ALLOW THE LANGUAGE CLASSES TO REOPEN.

    // CAMLIBEL TURKISH -- ESTABLISH AND FADE //

    HE SAYS -- LANGUAGE IS A CULTURAL STORAGE SPACE OF IDEAS THAT MAKE UP YOUR NATIONAL IDENTITY. HE CONCLUDES -- THEY ARE AFRAID OF US BECAUSE THE BRAIN IS MORE DANGEROUS A WEAPON THAN THE GUN.

    POLITICAL COMMENTATOR FEHMY KORU SAYS THE STATE'S NATIONALIST IDEOLOGY DOES NOT LEAVE ROOM FOR SEPARATE ETHNIC MINORITIES.

    // KORU ACT //

    THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS THE ETHNIC IDENTITY FOR OTHER ETHNICITIES BUT THE TURKS. EVERYBODY HAS TO BE HAPPY WITH TURKISH IDENTITY.

    // END ACT //

    UNTIL ABOUT SEVEN-YEARS AGO, SPEAKING KURDISH WAS OUTLAWED. TURKEY'S KURDS WERE USUALLY REFERRED TO AS "MOUNTAIN TURKS" BECAUSE OF THEIR PREDOMINANCE IN THE MOUNTAINOUS SOUTHEAST.

    BUT WHEN YOU ASK MR. CAMLIBEL WHAT HE IS, HE DOES NOT HESITATE:

    // SECOND CAMLIBEL TURKISH ACT -- ESTABLISH AND FADE//

    HE SAYS -- I AM A KURD AND NOBODY CAN TAKE THAT AWAY FROM ME.

    HUMAN RIGHTS GROUPS SHARPLY CRITICIZE TURKEY FOR JAILING HUNDREDS OF WRITERS, JOURNALISTS, AND POLITICIANS WHO HAVE PROMOTED KURDISH CULTURAL RIGHTS.

    SOME ANALYSTS POINT TO QUEBEC PROVINCE IN CANADA -- WHERE TWO LANGUAGES AND CULTURES LEGALLY CO-EXIST. THEY SAY THE POWERFUL SEPARATIST MOVEMENT IN QUEBEC SENDS ALARM BELLS THROUGH TURKEY'S MILITARY ELITE, WHO FEAR SIMILAR INTERNAL DIVISIONS THAT COULD BE EXPLOITED FROM OUTSIDE. IN A REGION PLAGUED BY INSTABILITY, TURKEY SEES A UNIFIED NATION AS ITS BEST DEFENSE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LK/PCF/RAE
    05-May-98 10:58 AM EDT (1458 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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