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Voice of America, 98-07-02

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] E-U / AUSTRIA (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)
  • [02] TURKISH VIEW OF THE KOSOVO CRISIS BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)
  • [03] U-S/KOSOVO (S-ONLY) BY BILL RODGERS (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)
  • [05] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [06] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [07] U-S POLICY TOWARD ISLAM BY AKMAL ALEEMI (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] E-U / AUSTRIA (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=7/2/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-234896
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AUSTRIA'S GOVERNMENT HAS TAKEN OVER THE PRESIDENCY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION FOR THE NEXT SIX MONTHS, SAYING A KEY PRIORITY WILL BE NEGOTIATIONS ON POSSIBLE MEMBERSHIP FOR CYPRUS AND FIVE NATIONS IN CENTRAL EUROPE. BUT JOHN FRASER IN BRUSSELS REPORTS AUSTRIA ALSO WANTS A DELAY IN FULL MEMBERSHIP BENEFITS -- BECAUSE IT FEARS A POSSIBLE INFLUX OF LOW-PAID WORKERS FROM THE NEW MEMBER NATIONS.

    TEXT: AUSTRIA'S SIX MONTHS AS PRESIDENT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION HAS BEEN LAUNCHED WITH A MEETING BETWEEN SENIOR AUSTRIAN CABINET MINISTERS AND THE 20-MEMBER EUROPEAN COMMISSION.

    A MAJOR AUSTRIAN AIM IS TO MOVE FROM PREPARATION TO DETAILED NEGOTIATION WITH THE SIX NATIONS SEEKING EARLY MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. UNTIL NOW, DISCUSSIONS HAVE BEEN MAINLY TECHNICAL, AND HAVE INVOLVED A SCRUTINY OF EXISTING E-U LAWS TO DECIDE WHAT NEW LEGISLATION WILL BE NEEDED IN EACH CANDIDATE COUNTRY TO MAKE IT UNIFORM WITH EXISTING MEMBERS.

    AUSTRIAN CHANCELLOR VIKTOR KLIMA SAID AFTER THE TALKS WITH THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION THAT HIS GOVERNMENT WANTS TO MOVE AHEAD, IN THE HOPE THAT SIGNIFICANT PROGRESS IN NEGOTIATIONS CAN BE MADE BY THE TIME OF AN E-U SUMMIT IN VIENNA IN DECEMBER. E-U OFFICIALS HOPE NEGOTIATIONS CAN BE COMPLETED BY MARCH OF NEXT YEAR.

    THE AUSTRIAN LEADER SAID HIS GOVERNMENT IS COMMITTED TO ENLARGING THE EUROPEAN UNION. BUT, AUSTRIA ALSO IS CALLING FOR A TRANSITION PERIOD AFTER THE ADMISSION OF NEW E-U MEMBERS, DURING WHICH THEY WILL NOT BE ABLE TO ENJOY THE FULL BENEFITS OF MEMBERSHIP.

    THE AUSTRIAN CHANCELLOR HAS WARNED OF A SHOCK TO THE LABOUR MARKET IN HIS COUNTRY IF THERE IS A LARGE INFLUX OF LOWER-PAID JOB SEEKERS FROM EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE, WHO COULD DRIVE DOWN WAGES, AND REDUCE JOB OPPORTUNITIES FOR AUSTRIANS THEMSELVES.

    AUSTRIA'S E-U PRESIDENCY WILL END WITH THE LAUNCH OF THE NEW SINGLE E-U CURRENCY -- THE EURO -- IN 11 COUNTRIES AT MIDNIGHT ON DECEMBER 31ST.

    /// REST OPTIONAL ///

    THERE WILL BE AN INFORMAL MEETING OF E-U LEADERS IN OCTOBER IN VIENNA TO DISCUSS REFORM TO THE E-U'S INSTITUTIONS. BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND GERMANY WANT THE EUROPEAN UNION TO BECOME LESS INVOLVED IN ISSUES WHICH THEY SAY ARE BEST TACKLED BY NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS. HOWEVER, AT THE SAME TIME, E-U COMMISSION PRESIDENT JACQUES SANTER SAYS THERE ARE AREAS WHERE EUROPE SHOULD DO MORE -- FOR EXAMPLE, IN THE FIGHT AGAINST DRUGS AND CRIME AND IN DEVELOPING A MORE UNITED FOREIGN POLICY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JF/JWH
    02-Jul-98 11:16 AM EDT (1516 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] TURKISH VIEW OF THE KOSOVO CRISIS BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=7/2/98
    TYPE=ENGLISH PROGRAMS FEATURE
    NUMBER=7-30064
    TELEPHONE=619-3464
    EDITOR=GARY EDQUIST
    CONTENT= (TAPE CUTS IN AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: ANALYSTS ARE CONCERNED THAT THE ESCALATING VIOLENCE IN KOSOVO MAY SPREAD TO NEIGHBORING ALBANIA AND MACEDONIA

    AND MIGHT ULTIMATELY DRAW IN GREECE AND TURKEY. VOA'S

    JUDITH LATHAM HAS TALKED WITH SPECIALISTS ABOUT THE LIKELIHOOD OF SUCH A SCENARIO. WITH THE SECOND OF TWO REPORTS ON THE IMPACT OF THE KOSOVO CRISIS ON THE FOREIGN POLICY VIEWS OF THE TWO BALKAN MEMBERS OF THE NATO ALLIANCE, GREECE AND TURKEY, HERE'S _____ WITH THE TURKISH PERSPECTIVE.

    TEXT: HASAN UNAL [HAH-SAHN OO-NAHL], PROFESSOR OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AT BILKENT UNIVERSITY IN ANKARA, SPECIALIZES IN TURKO-GREEK RELATIONS. PROFESSOR UNAL SAYS THE OFFICIAL TURKISH POSITION ON KOSOVO PRIOR TO THE BEGINNING OF MARCH THIS YEAR WAS "QUITE PRO-SERBIAN."

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- UNAL (0:30) "FOLLOWING THE SIGNING OF THE DAYTON TREATY, THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT BEGAN TO CULTIVATE SERBIA'S FRIENDSHIP AT AN OFFICIAL LEVEL. ONE OF THE UNDER SECRETARIES IN THE FOREIGN MINISTRY WAS SENT TO BELGRADE WITH AN OFFICIAL LETTER FROM THE TURKISH PRESIDENT THANKING MR. MILOSEVIC FOR HIS EFFORTS TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE DAYTON PEACE [ACCORD] AND TO PEACE IN THE BALKANS IN GENERAL. AND AFTERWARDS, THERE WERE OFFICIAL AND UNOFFICIAL COMPACTS BETWEEN BELGRADE AND ANKARA."

    TEXT: UNDER PRESSURE FROM TURKISH PUBLIC OPINION, TURKEY'S AMBASSADOR TO YUGOSLAVIA HELD ONE BRIEF MEETING WITH THE KOSOVAR ALBANIAN LEADERSHIP IN PRISTINA. BUT LATER, AFTER MEETING WITH SERBIAN AUTHORITIES IN PRISTINA, PROFESSOR UNAL SAYS, THE AMBASSADOR PUBLICLY PRAISED SERBIAN EFFORTS TO PRESERVE MULTICULTURAL LIFE IN KOSOVO. IT WAS, SAYS PROFESSOR UNAL, A "FLAWED POLICY," TURKEY, HE SAYS, MISTAKENLY ASSUMED THAT TENSIONS IN KOSOVO WOULD NOT SOON ERUPT INTO VIOLENCE. AND, IN HIS WORDS, IT WAS HOPED THAT THE "OFFER OF BREAD CRUMBS TO THE KOSOVAR ALBANIANS REGARDING IMPLEMENTATION OF AN EDUCATION AGREEMENT" MIGHT QUIET THEIR LEADERSHIP. ACCORDING TO PROFESSOR UNAL, TURKEY BELIEVED THE WEST, AND PARTICULARLY THE UNITED STATES, WOULD SUPPORT THE STATUS QUO IN SERBIA.

    WITH ESCALATING SERBIAN ATTACKS AGAINST CIVILIANS IN KOSOVO OVER THE PAST FOUR MONTHS, THE PROFESSOR SAYS, TURKISH POLICY BEGAN TO CHANGE. BUT, HE ADDS, "INFIGHTING BETWEEN THE FOREIGN MINISTRY AND THE GOVERNMENT" OBSCURED A CLEAR POLICY POSITION.

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- UNAL (0:50) "AND THIS IS A COUNTRY [TURKEY], DON'T FORGET, WHICH IS HOME TO SOME MILLIONS OF PEOPLE WHO ARE OF KOSOVAR ORIGIN OR ALBANIAN ORIGIN. AND NOW, IN THE LATEST DECLARATION ABOUT KOSOVO, THERE WAS QUITE A CHANGE IN OFFICIAL POLICY. IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE FIGHTING, THE FOREIGN MINISTRY ISSUED A STATEMENT IN WHICH IT SAID THAT KOSOVO WAS AN INTEGRAL PART OF SERBIA, BUT THE GOVERNMENT STATEMENT IGNORED IT. INSTEAD, IT SAID IT WOULD BE DESIRABLE FOR THE WHOLE CRISIS TO BE CONTAINED WITHOUT DAMAGING THE TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY OF YUGOSLAVIA, RATHER THAN SERBIA. BUT THEN, IT WENT ONE STEP FURTHER AND SAID THAT ALL THE OTHER OPTIONS FOR NEGOTIATIONS SHOULD ALSO BE OPEN. I SUPPOSE THIS MEANT THIS INDICATED EVEN INDEPENDENCE."

    TEXT: PROFESSOR UNAL SAYS THERE HAS BEEN NO OFFICAL CONDEMNATION OF PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC, BUT THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT HAS "EXPRESSED ITS CONCERN OVER THE USE OF VIOLENCE" BY SERB FORCES IN KOSOVO. ALTHOUGH THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT HAS NOT TAKEN AN "ACTIVE POSITION ON ITS OWN," PROFESSOR UNAL SAYS, TURKEY IS PREPARED TO SUPPORT "ANY MILITARY ACTION WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF NATO." IN CONTRAST, THE MANY KOSOVAR ASSOCIATIONS IN TURKEY HAVE FORMED A FEDERATION AND THEY'VE BEEN ACTIVELY FUND-RAISING AND PREPARING FOR A POSSIBLE INFLUX OF ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES. TO FURTHER COMPLICATE MATTERS, THERE ARE SIZABLE TURKISH COMMUNITES IN BOTH MACEDONIA AND KOSOVO, [OPT] ESPECIALLY NEAR THE CITY OF PRIZREN. [END OPT] PROFESSOR UNAL DESCRIBES THE SCENARIO FOR THE WAR IN KOSOVO'S SPREADING TO MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA AS "VERY REAL."

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- UNAL (0:49) "WHETHER BULGARIA WOULD BE DRAWN IN OR NOT, I WOULD VERY MUCH DOUBT, AT LEAST INITIALLY. BUT THE SECOND SCENARIO, WHICH INVOLVES GREECE AND TURKEY, WOULD ONLY COME TRUE UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES. AND THE CIRCUMSTANCES HAVE BEEN DEVELOPING FOR SUCH A SCENARIO LATELY. WE HAVE ALREADY AN F-300 MISSILE CRISIS IN CYPRUS. AND TURKEY MIGHT DECIDE TO USE THE KOSOVO ISSUE AS SOMETHING WITH WHICH TO KEEP THE GREEK BUSY IN THE BALKANS. IF THE WAR EXTENDS OVER INTO MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA IS DRAWN IN, ALBANIA WOULD OBVIOUSLY ASK FOR HELP, EITHER OFFICIALLY OR UNOFFICIALLY, FROM COUNTRIES LIKE TURKEY. AFTER ALL, THE DEVELOPMENT OF A GREATER ALBANIA IN THE BALKANS WOULD BE IN THE END IN FAVOR OF TURKEY AND SOMETHING THAT THE GREEKS WOULDN'T LIKE."

    TEXT: [OPT] IF THE WAR IN KOSOVO WERE TO EXPAND AND ENGULF GREECE AND TURKEY, PROFESSOR UNAL SAYS, THE MOST LIKELY CATALYST WOULD BE THE EXISTING CONFLICT OVER THE STATUS OF CYPRUS.

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- UNAL (0:25) "THERE IS ALREADY A SUFFICIENT AMOUNT OF COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL BETWEEN GREEK AND TURKEY OVER THE ORDER BY THE GREEK CYPRIOTS OF THESE F-300 MISSILES. AND, IF THE KOSOVO WAR EXTENDS TO MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA IS DRAWN IN, THEN THIS WOULD CERTAINLY ADD MORE AND MORE COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. AND, THE TENSION BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY WOULD REACH A VERY DANGEROUS POINT." [END OPT]

    TEXT: ACCORDING TO PROFESSOR HASAN UNAL OF BILKENT UNIVERSITY, A CLASH MIGHT ULTIMATELY COME BECAUSE OF GREEK SUPPORT FOR MACEDONIA AND TURKISH SUPPORT FOR ALBANIA. OR, IT MIGHT BE TOUCHED OFF BY THE LONG-STANDING TURKO-GREEK PROBLEM OVER THE ISLAND OF CYPRUS. PROFESSOR UNAL SAYS IT IS A TENSE SITUATION WHOSE OUTCOME IS IMPOSSIBLE TO PREDICT.
    02-Jul-98 12:01 PM EDT (1601 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] U-S/KOSOVO (S-ONLY) BY BILL RODGERS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=7/2/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-234918
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// RE-RUNNING TO CORRECT REDUNDANCY IN LAST GRAF ///

    INTRO: U-S PEACE ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE TRAVELS TO BELGRADE FRIDAY TO MEET WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, AS PART OF U-S EFFORTS TO TRY TO END THE VIOLENCE IN THE SERBIAN REPUBLIC'S KOSOVO PROVINCE. V-O-A'S BILL RODGERS REPORTS.

    TEXT: STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN JAMES RUBIN SAYS MR. HOLBROOKE'S MEETING WITH MR. MILOSEVIC FRIDAY IS PART OF THE U-S EFFORT TO PREVENT THE CONFLICT IN KOSOVO FROM SPREADING. TOP U-S OFFICIALS HAVE BEEN MEETING WITH ALL PARTIES TO THE CONFLICT IN RECENT WEEKS.

    MORE THAN 300 PEOPLE, MOSTLY ETHNIC ALBANIANS, HAVE BEEN KILLED SINCE FEBRUARY WHEN YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES LAUNCHED AN OFFENSIVE AGAINST ALBANIAN SEPARATISTS IN KOSOVO.

    SPOKESMAN RUBIN ACKNOWLEDGED THE DIFFICULTIES OF THIS DIPLOMATIC EFFORT (THURSDAY), BUT URGED ALL SIDES TO BE REALISTIC.

    ///RUBIN ACT///

    THE ART OF DIPLOMACY IS TO CONVINCE THE PARTIES AND THE LEADERS THAT THEY'RE NOT BEING REALISTIC ABOUT THEIR OBJECTIVES, AND THAT THEY NEED TO GET REALISTIC IF THEY WANT TO BENEFIT THEIR COUNTRIES.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. RUBIN REPEATED U-S CALLS FOR A CEASEFIRE AND REITERATED WASHINGTON'S OPPOSITION TO INDEPENDENCE FOR KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WFR/JO
    02-Jul-98 4:34 PM EDT (2034 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

    DATE=7/2/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-234909
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES WERE MIXED IN TRADING THURSDAY IN EUROPE. V-O-A'S JACK HUIZENGA HAS THE CLOSING MARKET REPORT FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: THE EUROPEAN MARKETS ALL ROSE IN EARLY TRADING, BUT THEN GAVE UP THOSE GAINS AMID INVESTOR DISAPPOINTMENT WITH JAPAN'S ECONOMIC REFORM PLANS AND AFTER A SLOW START ON WALL STREET.

    THE LONDON MARKET STILL MANAGED A GAIN. THE FOOTSIE-100 INDEX CLOSED UP 40 POINTS, ABOUT SEVEN-TENTHS PERCENT.

    BUT THE OTHER MAJOR MARKETS, FRANKFURT AND PARIS, BOTH WERE MARGINALLY DOWN. IN PARIS, THE CAC-40 INDEX CLOSED OFF MORE THAN EIGHT POINTS, TWO-TENTHS PERCENT. AND IN FRANKFURT, THE DAX INDEX WAS DOWN FIVE POINTS, ABOUT ONE-TENTH PERCENT.

    AMONG EUROPE'S SMALLER MARKETS, AMSTERDAM AND ZURICH EDGED UP TO RECORD CLOSING HIGHS.

    ON THE LONDON CURRENCY EXCHANGE, THE VALUE OF THE U-S DOLLAR ROSE AGAINST THE GERMAN MARK, THE BRITISH POUND, AND THE JAPANESE YEN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JWH/MMK
    02-Jul-98 1:50 PM EDT (1750 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=7/2/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-234924
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE DOWN TODAY (THURSDAY) AS CONCERN REVIVED ABOUT CORPORATE EARNINGS. VOA CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT NINE THOUSAND 25, DOWN 23 POINTS. FOR THE WEEK, THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE GAINED 82 POINTS, CLOSE TO ONE PERCENT. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED THURSDAY AT 11 HUNDRED 46, DOWN TWO POINTS.

    ANALYSTS SAY TRADING REFLECTED A MIXTURE OF PROFIT-TAKING AND SOME WORRY AFTER SEVERAL COMPANIES ISSUED WARNINGS THAT THEIR SECOND QUARTER EARNINGS WILL FALL SHORT OF EXPECTATIONS.

    ///BEGIN OPT///

    BUT SEVERAL ANALYSTS, SUCH AS MUTUAL FUND MANAGER DAVID KATZ, SAY THURSDAY'S SELL-OFF WAS JUST A TEMPORARY PAUSE IN A RISING MARKET.

    ///KATZ ACT///

    ///OPT///

    THE MARKET IS TAKING A BREATHER AFTER A VERY STRONG CLOSE TO THE SECOND QUARTER. WHAT IT REALLY IS, IS THAT THE MARKET IS JUST SLOWING DOWN.///END OPT///

    ///END ACT///

    ANALYSTS SAY ANOTHER REASON FOR THE LACKLUSTER MARKET IS THAT SOME TRADERS DID NOT WANT TO STAY HEAVILY INVESTED IN ADVANCE OF THE INDEPENDENCE DAY HOLIDAY WEEKEND IN THE UNITED STATES. U-S FINANCIAL MARKETS ARE CLOSED FRIDAY.

    ///REST OPT///

    THE GOVERNMENT REPORTS THE U-S UNEMPLOYMENT RATE ROSE TO A THREE-MONTH HIGH IN JUNE, CAUSED BY LOWER EXPORT DEMAND FROM ASIA AND STRIKES AT GENERAL MOTORS.

    U-S LABOR SECRETARY ALEXIS HERMAN HAS APPEALED TO BOTH UNION AND MANAGEMENT TO SETTLE THOSE G-M STRIKES WHICH HAVE SHUT DOWN THE COMPANY'S NORTH AMERICAN PRODUCTION. MS. HERMAN SAYS SHE FEARS THAT IF THE SHUTDOWNS CONTINUE, THEY COULD SERIOUSLY WEAKEN THE U-S JOB MARKET.

    U-S AIRWAYS HAS DECIDED TO BUY AS MANY AS 30 WIDEBODY JETLINERS FROM AIRBUS INDUSTRIES, THE EUROPEAN CONSORTIUM. THE DEAL UNDERSCORES THE GROWING STRENGTH OF AIRBUS IN RELATION TO BOEING OF THE UNITED STATES, ITS ONLY COMPETITOR. AIRBUS SAYS IT IS NOW HAVING ITS BEST YEAR IN ITS 28 YEAR HISTORY.

    THE CHRYSLER CORPORATION WILL INVEST ONE AND ONE-HALF BILLION DOLLARS IN MEXICO OVER THE NEXT FIVE YEARS. CHRYSLER IS ALREADY MEXICO'S LARGEST EXPORTER OF MOTOR VEHICLES.

    THE CENTENNIAL CELLULAR TELEPHONE COMPANY IS BEING SOLD TO PRIVATE INVESTORS FOR ABOUT TWO BILLION DOLLARS.

    MOST INVESTMENT ADVISORS AGREE THAT OWNING STOCK IN PROFESSIONAL SPORTS TEAMS IS USUALLY A BAD BET, EXCEPT AS A COLLECTORS' ITEM. A CASE IN POINT IS THE BOSTON CELTIC BASKETBALL TEAM. ITS STOCK LOST ALMOST HALF ITS VALUE AFTER THE COMPANY WHICH OWNS THE TEAM DECIDED TO REORGANIZE INTO TWO ENTITIES, ONLY ONE OF WHICH IS OWNED BY THE STOCKHOLDERS.(SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/PLM
    02-Jul-98 5:12 PM EDT (2112 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=07/01/98
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10792
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    ///// EDS: DATED AFTER 10 P-M EDT ! /////

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON'S CHINA VISIT IS BACK IN THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS THIS THURSDAY, WITH SPECIAL ATTENTION TO HIS COMMENTS ON TIBET AND THEIR POTENTIAL EFFECT. OTHER SUBJECTS DRAWING ATTENTION, AS THE NATION'S HEADS INTO ITS INDEPENDENCE DAY HOLIDAY WEEKEND, INCLUDE: THE SIGNS OF PROGRESS IN NORTHERN IRELAND; A LOOK BACK AT THE KHOBAR TOWER EXPLOSION TWO YEARS LATER; AND ASSESSING THE SITUATION IN YUGOSLOVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE. NOW, HERE IS _________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK, INCLUDING SOME QUOTES, IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: PRESIDENT CLINTON'S COMMENTS ON TIBET AND THE CHINESE RESPONSE, ARE DRAWING PRAISE IN THURSDAY'S U-S PRESS, WHILE MR. CLINTON'S REMARKS ABOUT TAIWAN ARE BEING CONDEMNED AS A DISASTROUS BREAK WITH PREVIOUS AMERICAN POLICY. HERE'S PART OF TODAY'S LEAD EDITORIAL IN "THE NEW YORK TIMES."

    VOICE: WHEN PRESIDENT CLINTON DISCUSSED TIBET WITH CHINESE LEADERS IN RECENT DAYS, HE DID SO WITH THE SUPPORT OF AN INVALUABLE ALLY, THE DALAI LAMA, TIBET'S SPIRITUAL LEADER. THAT HAS ENABLED MR. CLINTON TO RAISE THE ISSUE IN WAYS THAT MAY PROVE PRODUCTIVE WITH BEIJING WHILE INSULATING HIMSELF AGAINST CRITICISM IN WASHINGTON THAT HE TREATED TIBET TOO GINGERLY. IT IS TOO SOON TO KNOW IF MR. CLINTON'S APPROACH WILL WORK, BUT HIS ALLIANCE WITH THE DALAI LAMA HAS BEEN ONE OF THE MORE STRIKING ASPECTS OF HIS VISIT TO CHINA. ... /// OPT /// THE DALAI LAMA ADVOCATES AUTONOMY FOR TIBET WITHIN CHINA. HE COMMANDS A WIDE FOLLOWING AMONG TIBETANS, ALTHOUGH SUPPORT IS GROWING FOR RADICAL GROUPS THAT WANT A VIOLENT INDEPENDENCE STRUGGLE. CHINESE TALKS WITH THE DALAI LAMA WOULD BE AN IMPORTANT STEP TOWARD ENDING CHINA'S HARSH REPRESSION OF TIBETAN RELIGION AND CULTURE. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE BOSTON GLOBE," MEANWHILE, IS VIEWING THE COMMENTS OF CHINA'S PRESIDENT, JIANG ZEMIN, ASA POSSIBLE BREAKTHROUGH ON TIBET.

    VOICE: LEADERS ARE NOT EXPECTED TO BREAK NEW GROUND AT SUMMIT PRESS CONFERENCES. A STRIKING EXCEPTION TO THAT DIPLOMATIC RULE WERE THE DRAMATIC UNSOLICITED STATEMENTS THAT CHINA'S PRESIDENT JIANG ZEMIN MADE ABOUT TIBET DURING HIS TELEVISED APPEARANCE WITH PRESIDENT CLINTON LAST WEEK IN BEIJING. WITH MILLIONS OF CHINESE WATCHING AND LISTENING ... [MR.] JIANG EXTENDED TO THE DALAI LAMA AND THE TIBETAN GOVERNMENT-IN-EXILE AN OFFER THEY HAVE BEEN WAITING TO RECEIVE ... [TO] OPEN NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE DALAI LAMA IF HE CAN PUBLICLY MAKE A STATEMENT AND A COMMITMENT THAT TIBET IS AN INALIENABLE PART OF CHINA.'

    /// OPT ///

    ... [MR.] JIANG CONCLUDED THIS SURPRISING DISCLOSURE BY SAYING HE HOPED THE DALAI LAMA WOULD 'MAKE POSITIVE RESPONSE IN THIS REGARD.' TIBETANS ARE AFLUTTER WITH HOPE AND EXPECTATION NOT ONLY BECAUSE OF WHAT [PRESIDENT] JIANG SAID BUT BECAUSE OF WHAT HE DID NOT SAY. ... HE ASKED THE DALAI LAMA TO ACKNOWLEDGE ONLY THAT TIBET IS TODAY PART OF CHINA, NOT, AS IN THE PAST, THAT TIBET HAS ALWAYS BEEN AN INALIENABLE PART OF CHINA.

    /// END OPT ///

    ... THE LONG-AWAITED DIALOGUE MAY HAVE BEGUN, HELPED ON BY [PRESIDENT] CLINTON'S POLICY OF ENGAGEMENT. TEXT; CONTRASTED WITH POSITIVE COMMENTS ABOUT HIS EFFECT ON CHINA'S TIBETAN POLICY, TODAY'S "WALL STREET JOURNAL" IS ONE OF SEVERAL PAPERS CASTIGATING MR. CLINTON FOR HIS REMARKS WHICH APPEAR TO CHANGE U-S POLICY TOWARD TAIWAN.

    VOICE: JUST WHEN WE WERE GIVING PRESIDENT CLINTON CREDIT FOR SOUNDING THE RIGHT NOTES IN CHINA, HE MANAGED TO TURN HIS VISIT INTO A FIASCO AFTER ALL. HIS KOWTOWING [GIVING IN] TO CHINA'S THREE NO'S' OVER TAIWAN IS LIKELY TO SET OFF A CYCLE OF REACTIONS AND COUNTER REACTIONS THAT ULTIMATELY WILL DAMAGE RATHER THAN IMPROVE SINO-AMERICAN RELATIONS. /// OPT /// THE BEDROCK OF U-S POLICY TOWARD TAIWAN HAS ALWAYS BEEN ...THAT IT [THE U-S] 'ACKNOWLEDGES THAT ALL CHINESE ON EITHER SIDE OF THE TAIWAN STRAIT MAINTAIN THERE IS BUT ONE CHINA AND THAT TAIWAN IS PART OF CHINA. THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT DOES NOT CHALLENGE THAT POSITION. IT REAFFIRMS ITS INTEREST IN A PEACEFUL SETTLEMENT OF THE TAIWAN QUESTION BY THE CHINESE THEMSELVES.' /// END OPT

    /// ... CONSIDER THE PRESIDENT'S LANGUAGE: 'WE DON'T SUPPORT INDEPENDENCE FOR TAIWAN; OR TWO CHINAS; OR ONE TAIWAN, ONE CHINA. AND WE DON'T BELIEVE THAT TAIWAN SHOULD BE A MEMBER IN ANY ORGANIZATION FOR WHICH STATEHOOD IS A REQUIREMENT.' ANYONE WHO READS ENGLISH CAN SEE THAT THIS IS MILES BEYOND THE CAREFUL LANGUAGE RICHARD NIXON AND HENRY KISSINGER CRAFTED IN 1972. ... TAIWAN IS NOW PLAINLY A DEMOCRATIC NATION, AND HAS EVERY RIGHT TO DETERMINE ITS OWN FUTURE. IN THE END, THE U-S WILL NOT RESIST THIS PRINCIPLE, WHATEVER MR. CLINTON SAID IN SHANGHAI THIS WEEK.

    TEXT: AND "THE WASHINGTON POST" SAYS:

    VOICE: AS A PRACTICAL MATTER, HE IS ALSO SIGNIFICANTLY WEAKENING TAIWAN'S BARGAINING POWER IF AND WHEN TAIWAN AND CHINA BEGIN NEGOTIATIONS. ... BY EXPLICITLY AND NEEDLESSLY SLAMMING THE DOOR ON ... TAIWAN'S ... SOVEREIGNTY ... CAMPAIGN, MR. CLINTON HAS SIDED WITH THE DICTATORS AGAINST THE DEMOCRATS. TO PRETEND THIS IS NO CHANGE ONLY HEIGHTENS THE OFFENSE.

    TEXT: THERE IS OTHER NEWS, AND COMMENT ON THAT NEWS, SUCH AS THE FIRST DAY, ON WEDNESDAY, OF THE NEW NORTHERN IRELAND ASSEMBLY, AND THIS REACTION FROM "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE, WHICH WORRIES ABOUT THE BADLY DIVIDED PROTESTANT BLOCK IN THE NEW BODY.

    VOICE: DAVID TRIMBLE'S ULSTER UNIONISTS PARTY EKED OUT THE LARGEST NUMBER OF SEATS, MAKING HIM FIRST MINISTER OF THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT. BUT THE PROTESTANT MAJORITY WAS DEEPLY DIVIDED. THE REVEREND IAN PAISLEY'S DEMOCRATIC UNIONISTS ATAVISTICALLY OPPOSED TO COMPROMISE AND RELIGIOUSLY ANTI-CATHOLIC, CAME IN A CLOSE THIRD. WITH COALITION ALLIES, HE HAS 28 ASSEMBLY VOTES TO WRECK THE AGREEMENT. A MEASURE DESIGNED TO PROTECT THE CATHOLIC MINORITY FROM ARBITRARY RULE GIVES FILIBUSTER POWER TO 30 VOTES IN THE 108-MEMBER ASSEMBLY. A DEFECTION OF TWO FROM MR. TRIMBLE'S PARTY TO MR. PAISLEY'S LEADERSHIP MIGHT PARALYZE PROCEEDINGS. ... PEACE ALSO DEPENDS ON MODERATION IN TWO BASTIONS OF EXTREMISM ... THE PROTESTANT SECTARIAN ORANGE ORDER, SCHEDULED FOR THE FIRST OF ITS TRADITIONAL SUMMER MARCHES ON SUNDAY. ... [AND] THE IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY, WHICH HAS SAID IT WON'T HAND IN ITS GUNS.

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE MIDDLE EAST, TODAY'S "WASHINGTON TIMES" LOOKS BACK AT THE DEADLY KHOBAR TOWERS BOMBING, IN SAUDI ARABIA, WHICH KILLED 19 U-S SERVICEMEN AND INJURED MANY, MANY MORE, AND THE APPARENT INTENTION OF THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION TO ALLOW THE PROBE TO DIE.

    VOICE: .... ALTHOUGH PRESIDENT CLINTON VOWED TO THE FAMILIES OF THE VICTIMS THAT THE GUILTY WOULD BE PUNISHED, IT SEEMS AS IF THE ADMINISTRATION WOULD RATHER THE INVESTIGATION DIE A QUIET DEATH. AT PRESENT, A SINGLE F-B-I INVESTIGATOR REMAINS IN SAUDI ARABIA. /// OPT /// ... SADLY, AS TIME PASSES AND THIS CRIME MOVES FARTHER AND FARTHER INTO THE PAST, IT SEEMS LIKELY THAT EVEN THE INTENTION OF FINDING THE KILLERS WILL DISSOLVE. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: ON THE ISSUE OF YUGOSLOVIA'S TROUBLED KOSOVO PROVINCE, POPULATED WITH MOSTLY ALBANIANS, THOUGH CONTROLLED BY THE SERB-DOMINATED BELGRADE GOVERNMENT, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" SUGGESTS:

    VOICE: THE VIOLENCE IN YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE SPRINGS FROM THE ARROGANT RULE OF PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, A BOMBASTIC THUG WHO RUNS HIS COUNTRY AS MAFIA DONS ONCE RAN NEW YORK. THERE IS A CASE TO BE MADE, AND MANY HAVE DONE SO, THAT THE UNITED STATES AND ITS NATO ALLIES OUGHT TO BRING HIM DOWN WITH MILITARY POWER. ... BUT THERE IS A BETTER COURSE. ... INCREASED WESTERN PRESSURE, INCLUDING ADDITIONAL UNITED NATIONS SANCTIONS, COULD ENCOURAGE A SURPRISING AMOUNT OF POPULAR SUPPORT, EVEN ENOUGH TO TOPPLE OR BADLY DAMAGE THE REGIME. THERE MAY COME A TIME FOR DIRECT MILITARY ACTION AGAINST [MR.] MILOSEVIC, BUT FOR NOW WHAT IS REQUIRED IS A RELENTLESS TIGHTENING OF THE SCREW. WASHINGTON AND ITS ALLIES SHOULD MAKE NO DEALS WITH THIS TYRANT EXCEPT ONE ASSURING HIS DEPARTURE. HE IS BEGINNING TO LOOK LIKE HISTORY.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: TODAY'S "NEWSDAY" IS CONCERNED ABOUT THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY AND FEELS THE LATEST MOVE BY THE AGENCY, TO IMPROVE ITS HUMAN SPY FORCE AND DEPEND SLIGHTLY LESS ON SATELLITES AND OTHER TECHNOLOGY, IS A GOOD MOVE.

    VOICE: ON THE WHOLE, THIS IS A GOOD DEVELOPMENT. THE AIM IS TO BOLSTER THE C-I-A'S CLANDESTINE BRANCH ... WHOSE RANKS HAD BECOME SEVERELY DEPLETED, AND TO REOPEN KEY OVERSEAS STATIONS TO HANDLE A RAPIDLY CHANGING GEOPOLITICAL LANDSCAPE. ... THERE IS AMPLE EVIDENCE THAT THE C-I-A HAD NEGLECTED THE RECRUITMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF FLESH-AND-BLOOD SPIES IN FAVOR OF AN INCREASED RELIANCE ON ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE TECHNIQUES THAT ARE RAPIDLY BEING OVERTAKEN BY ENCRYPTION IMPROVEMENTS AND COMPUTER NETWORKS IMPERVIOUS TO OLD SURVEILLANCE TECHNIQUES.

    TEXT: LASTLY, ON AN ECONOMIC NOTE, THE LENGTHENING AND INCREASINGLY BITTER STRIKE AGAINST GENERAL MOTORS BY THE UNITED AUTO WORKERS, WHICH HAS SHUT DOWN THE GIANT AUTO MAKERS NORTH AMERICAN OPERATIONS, AND IS COSTING THE COMPANY HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS OF DOLLARS, DRAWS THE ATTENTION OF TODAY'S "ATLANTA CONSTITUTION" WHICH SUGGESTS:

    VOICE: .... BOTH SIDES OUGHT TO STOP THE ESCALATION OF WORDS AND WALKOUTS AND GET BACK TO BARGAINING. THE UNION SHOULD DROP ITS PEGGED-RATE PAY SYSTEM AND GM SHOULD STICK TO A 'NO SURPRISES' APPROACH TO PLANT CLOSINGS AND INVESTMENTS IN ORDER TO REBUILD TRUST. IN AN INCREASINGLY COMPETITIVE GLOBAL MARKETPLACE, A BLOATED, STRIKE-BOUND GENERAL MOTORS COULD FACE EXTINCTION.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF COMMENT FROM THE EDITORIAL PAGES OF THE NATION'S DAILY PAPERS.
    NEB/ANG/RAE
    02-Jul-98 11:14 AM EDT (1514 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] U-S POLICY TOWARD ISLAM BY AKMAL ALEEMI (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=7/1/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-40833
    CONTENT=
    UN-VOICED:

    INTRO: A SENIOR U-S OFFICIAL REFUTES THE THEORY OF A POSSIBLE CLASH BETWEEN ISLAM AND WESTERN CIVILIZATION, AND DISMISSES THE VIEW THAT ISLAM AND DEMOCRACY ARE INCOMPATIBLE. V-O-A'S AKMAL ALEEMI REPORTS.

    TEXT: DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE FOR NEAR EASTERN AFFAIRS, RONALD NEUMAN, SAYS MUSLIMS HAVE A LARGE PRESENCE IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE, AND THEIR RELIGION SHOULD NOT BE CONSIDERED AS THE ENEMY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION. SPEAKING (TUESDAY) IN WASHINGTON AT A CONFERENCE ON THE FUTURE OF ISLAM-WEST RELATIONS AT THE CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, MR. NEUMAN SAID THE UNITED STATES DOES NOT SEE ISLAM AS INTRINSICALLY FOREIGN.

    /// NEUMAN ACT. 1 ///

    DESPITE CLEAR STATEMENTS SINCE 1992, WE ARE OFTEN ASKED WHAT IS YOUR POLICY ABOUT ISLAM. OUR CLEAR CHOICE IS NOT TO HAVE A SINGLE POLICY TOWARD ISLAM BECAUSE THE PERCEIVED NEED FOR SUCH A POLICY IS WRONG ON FACTS AND CONTRARY TO OUR VALUES. WE REJECT AND HAVE REJECTED THE CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS THEORY AS A BASIS OF POLICY. WE DO HAVE POLICIES TOWARD STATES; AGAINST TERRORISM AND VIOLENCE, AND IN SUPPORT OF DEMOCRACY.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. NEUMANN SAYS THE UNITED STATES HAS NO INTENTION OF IMPOSING A PRECISE MODEL OR A SET OF VALUES ON OTHERS, BUT IT HOLDS VALUES SUCH AS THE RULE OF LAW, POLITICAL PARTICIPATION, AND ADHERENCE TO HUMAN RIGHTS TO BE UNIVERSAL, AND HE SAYS MOST MUSLIMS ACCEPT THOSE VALUES. HE SAYS, LIKE OTHER GREAT RELIGIONS, ISLAM OFFERS A PRESCRIPTION FOR THE INDIVIDUAL'S RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD AND FOR THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG HUMAN BEINGS THEMSELVES. MR. NEUMAN SAYS THE WAY IN WHICH INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS, AND STATES WORK OUT THE PRESCRIPTION LEADS TO A VARIETY OF POLITICAL ACTIONS WHICH ARE THE PROPER FOCUS OF U-S POLICY.

    /// NEUMAN ACT. 2 ///

    WE WILL ALWAYS OPPOSE THOSE WHO PRACTICE TERRORISM, OPPRESS MINORITIES, PREACH INTOLERANCE, VIOLATE INTERNATIONALLY ACCEPTED NORMS OF HUMAN RIGHTS -- INCLUDING THE RIGHTS OF CONSCIENCE AND RELIGION -- OPPOSE THE PEACEFUL RESOLUTION OF DISPUTES -- ESPECIALLY THAT BETWEEN ARABS AND ISRAELIS -- AND USE OPPRESSION, VIOLENCE AND TERRORISM TO PURSUE THEIR OBJECTIVES. IN CONTRAST WE SUPPORT THOSE WHO WORK TOWARD POLITICAL PLURALISM.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. NEUMAN, WHO IS A FORMER AMBASSADOR TO ALGERIA, ALSO DISAGREED WITH THE VIEW ISLAM AND DEMOCRACY ARE INHERENTLY INCOMPATIBLE. HE CITED CHANGES TOWARD DEMOCRACY IN IRAN, WHICH ACCEPTED WOMEN AND MODERATES IN THE POLITICAL PROCESS AND REDUCED ANTI-WEST RHETORIC.

    /// NEUMAN ACT. 3 ///

    THE CHANGE IN VIEWS OF DEMOCRACY IS OCCURRING IN THE MIDDLE EAST; IN ALGERIA, MOROCCO, LEBANON, KUWAIT, YEMEN. THERE IS MOVEMENT TOWARD MORE DEMOCRATIC EXPRESSION, TO MORE INFLUENCE ON POLICY OF ELECTED REPRESENTATIVES. NOWHERE DO THE LINES OF CONTROVERSIES PUT ISLAMISTS ON ONLY ONE SIDE OF DEBATE. YET IF THE RESULTS ARE UNCERTAIN THERE IS FAR TOO MUCH GOING ON TO IGNORE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE FOR NEAR EASTERN AFFAIRS SAID DEMOCRACY IS STRUGGLING, BUT GAINING GROUND THROUGHOUT THE MIDDLE EAST. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RAE
    02-Jul-98 9:22 AM EDT (1322 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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