EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE
The exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the
territorial sea, subject to the specific legal regime established in this
Part, under which the rights and jurisdiction of the coastal State and the
rights and freedoms of other States are governed by the relevant provisions
of this Convention.
Specific legal regime of the exclusive economic zone
1. In the exclusive economic zone, the coastal State has:
Rights, jurisdiction and duties of the coastal State in the
exclusive economic zone
2. In exercising its rights and performing its duties under this Convention
in the exclusive economic zone, the coastal State shall have due regard to
the rights and duties of other States and shall act in a manner compatible
with the provisions of this Convention.
- sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting,
conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or
non-living, of the waters superjacent to the sea-bed and of the
sea-bed and its subsoil, and with regard to other activities for the
economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the
production of energy from the water, currents and winds;
- jurisdiction as provided for in the relevant provisions of this
Convention with regard to:
- the establishment and use of artificial islands, installations
- marine scientific research;
- the protection and preservation of the marine environment;
- other rights and duties provided for in this Convention.
3. The rights set out in this article with respect to the sea-bed and
subsoil shall be exercised in accordance with Part VI.
The exclusive economic zone shall not extend beyond 200 nautical miles from
the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.
Breadth of the exclusive economic zone
1. In the exclusive economic zone all States, whether coastal or
land-locked, enjoy, subject to the relevant provisions of this Convention,
the freedoms referred to in article 87 of navigation and overflight and of
the laying of submarine cables and pipelines, and other internationally
lawful uses of the sea related to these freedoms, such as those associated
with the operation of ships, aircraft and submarine cables and pipelines,
and compatible with the other provisions of this Convention.
Rights and duties of other States
in the exclusive economic zone
2. Articles 88 to 115 and other pertinent rules of international law apply
to the exclusive economic zone in so far as they are not incompatible with
3. In exercising their rights and performing their duties under this
Convention in the exclusive economic zone, States shall have due regard to
the rights and duties of the coastal State and shall comply with the laws
and regulations adopted by the coastal State in accordance with the
provisions of this Convention and other rules of international law in so
far as they are not incompatible with this Part.
In cases where this Convention does not attribute rights or jurisdiction to
the coastal State or to other States within the exclusive economic zone,
and a conflict arises between the interests of the coastal State and any
other State or States, the conflict should be resolved on the basis of
equity and in the light of all the relevant circumstances, taking into
account the respective importance of the interests involved to the parties
as well as to the international community as a whole.
Basis for the resolution of conflicts regarding the
attribution of rights and jurisdiction in the exclusive
1. In the exclusive economic zone, the coastal State shall have the
exclusive right to construct and to authorize and regulate the
construction, operation and use of:
Artificial islands, installations and structures in the
exclusive economic zone
2. The coastal State shall have exclusive jurisdiction over such artificial
islands installations and structures, including jurisdiction with regard to
customs fiscal health, safety and immigration laws and regulations.
- artificial islands;
- installations and structures for the purposes provided for in article
56 and other economic purposes;
- installations and structures which may interfere with the exercise of
the rights of the coastal State in the zone.
3. Due notice must be given of the construction of such artificial islands,
installations or structures, and permanent means for giving warning of
their presence must be maintained. Any installations or structures which
are abandoned or disused shall be removed to ensure safety of navigation,
taking into account any generally accepted international standards
established in this regard by the competent international organization.
Such removal shall also have due regard to fishing, the protection of the
marine environment and the rights and duties of other States. Appropriate
publicity shall be given to the depth, position and dimensions of any
installations or structures not entirely removed.
4. The coastal State may, where necessary, establish reasonable safety
zones around such artificial islands, installations and structures in which
it may take appropriate measures to ensure the safety both of navigation
and of the artificial islands, installations and structures.
5. The breadth of the safety zones shall be determined by the coastal
State, taking into account applicable international standards. Such zones
shall be designed to ensure that they are reasonably related to the nature
and function of the artificial islands, installations or structures, and
shall not exceed a distance of 500 metres around them, measured from each
point of their outer edge, except as authorized by generally accepted
international standards or as recommended by the competent international
organization. Due notice shall be given of the extent of safety zones.
6. All ships must respect these safety zones and shall comply with
generally accepted international standards regarding navigation in the
vicinity of artificial islands, installations, structures and safety zones.
7. Artificial islands, installations and structures and the safety zones
around them may not be established where interference may be caused to the
use of recognized sea lanes essential to international navigation.
8. Artificial islands, installations and structures do not possess the
status of islands. They have no territorial sea of their own, and their
presence does not affect the delimitation of the territorial sea, the
exclusive economic zone or the continental shelf.
Convention on the Law of the Sea: Index