RIGHT OF ACCESS OF LAND-LOCKED STATES TO
1. For the purposes of this Convention:
AND FROM THE SEA AND FREEDOM OF TRANSIT
2. Land-locked States and transit States may, by agreement between them,
include as means of transport pipelines and gas lines and means of
transport other than those included in paragraph 1.
- "land-locked State" means a State which has no sea-coast;
- "transit State" means a State, with or without a sea-coast, situated
between a land-locked State and the sea, through whose territory
traffic in transit passes;
- "traffic in transit" means transit of persons, baggage, goods and
means of transport across the territory of one or more transit
States, when the passage across such territory, with or without
trans-shipment, warehousing, breaking bulk or change in the mode of
transport, is only a portion of a complete journey which begins or
terminates within the territory of the land-locked State;
- "means of transport" means:
- railway rolling stock, sea, lake and river craft and road
- where local conditions so require, porters and pack animals.
1. Land-locked States shall have the right of access to and from the sea
for the purpose of exercising the rights provided for in this Convention
including those relating to the freedom of the high seas and the common
heritage of mankind. To this end, land-locked States shall enjoy freedom of
transit through the territory of transit States by all means of transport.
Right of access to and from the sea and freedom of transit
2. The terms and modalities for exercising freedom of transit shall be
agreed between the land-locked States and transit States concerned through
bilateral, subregional or regional agreements.
3. Transit States, in the exercise of their full sovereignty over their
territory, shall have the right to take all measures necessary to ensure
that the rights and facilities provided for in this Part for land-locked
States shall in no way infringe their legitimate interests.
The provisions of this Convention, as well as special agreements relating
to the exercise of the right of access to and from the sea, establishing
rights and facilities on account of the special geographical position of
land-locked States are excluded from the application of the most-favoured-
Exclusion of application of the most-favoured-nation clause
1. Traffic in transit shall not be subject to any customs duties, taxes or
other charges except charges levied for specific services rendered in
connection with such traffic.
Customs duties, taxes and other charges
2. Means of transport in transit and other facilities provided for and used
by land-locked States shall not be subject to taxes or charges higher than
those levied for the use of means of transport of the transit State.
For the convenience of traffic in transit, free zones or other customs
facilities may be provided at the ports of entry and exit in the transit
States, by agreement between those States and the land-locked States.
Free zones and other customs facilities
Where there are no means of transport in transit States to give effect to
the freedom of transit or where the existing means, including the port
installations and equipment, are inadequate in any respect, the transit
States and land-locked States concerned may co-operate in constructing or
Co-operation in the construction and
improvement of means of transport
1. Transit States shall take all appropriate measures to avoid delays or
other difficulties of a technical nature in traffic in transit.
Measures to avoid or eliminate delays or other difficulties
of a technical nature in traffic in transit
2. Should such delays or difficulties occur, the competent authorities of
the transit States and land-locked States concerned shall co-operate
towards their expeditious elimination.
Ships flying the flag of land-locked States shall enjoy treatment equal to
that accorded to other foreign ships in maritime ports.
Equal treatment in maritime ports
This Convention does not entail in any way the withdrawal of transit
facilities which are greater than those provided for in this Convention and
which are agreed between States Parties to this Convention or granted by a
State Party. This Convention also does not preclude such grant of greater
facilities in the future.
Grant of greater transit facilities
Convention on the Law of the Sea: Index